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UPDATE/REVIEW

Combined phacoemulsification and viscogoniosynechialysis


in primary angle-closure glaucoma
M. Reza Razeghinejad, MD 1
ABSTRACT: The treatment of primary angle-closure glaucoma (PACG) at an early stage
prevents a proportion of PACG-related blindness. Several techniques are available with
different degrees of success. Trabeculectomy augmented by antifibrotic agents represents the
mainstay of glaucoma surgery, but safety and efficacy are suboptimal; phacotrabeculectomy is
associated with more postoperative complications; and cataract surgery alone has been shown
to reduce IOP, but does nothing with peripheral anterior synechia (PAS). Goniosynechialysis is
a procedure designed to break PAS and restore trabecular filtration, but several complications
have been reported. In viscogoniosynechialysis (VGS), a viscoelastic agent is used to break
the synechia. VGS, when compared to surgical goniosynechialysis is relatively atraumatic
procedure that does not require specific surgical instruments, and can be performed at the
time of routine phacoemulsification. Combined phacoemulsification and VGS opens the
angle and breaks the synechia, leading to IOP reduction. We review the procedure, indications
and considerations of VGS and phaco-VGS in the treatment of PACG.
J Emmetropia. 2013; 4: 217-223

Primary angle-closure glaucoma (PACG) may


account for half of the subjects with primary glaucoma
worldwide. PACG has a high population-attributable
risk percentage, which means that if treated at an
early stage a significant proportion of PACG-related
blindness is preventable1. The risk of visual impairment
and blindness is higher in PACG than in primary openangle glaucoma. It is estimated that PACG blinds five
times more people than primary open-angle glaucoma
in absolute terms1. The need for innovative advances in
the treatment of a particular disease correlates with the
prevalence and morbidity of the disease, its economic
and social impact, and the efficacy and safety of its
current treatments. Accordingly, there is a significant
need for newer surgical approaches in the management
of PACG.
PACG is mainly attributed to anatomic factors,
which finally result in blockage of the trabecular
meshwork by the peripheral iris. The anterior chamber

Poostchi Ophthalmology Research Center, Shiraz University of


Medical Sciences, Shiraz, Iran.
1

Financial disclosure: The authors have no commercial or proprietary


interest in the products mentioned herein.
Corresponding Author: M Reza Razeghinejad
Dept. of Ophthalmology. Khalili Hospital. Shiraz, Iran
E-mail: razeghinejad@yahoo.com
2013 SECOIR
Sociedad Espaola de Ciruga Ocular Implanto-Refractiva

is shallower and of smaller volume and the lens is usually


thicker than normal and is located in a more anterior
position2. A large lens may hinder the access of aqueous
humor to the drainage angle and may play a more
predominant role in causing elevation of intraocular
pressure (IOP) in eyes with a shallow anterior chamber.
The continuous increase in the anterior-posterior
diameter of the crystalline lens throughout life results
in a gradual decrease in anterior chamber depth and
volume.
The predisposed patients may present with acute
angle-closure (AAC) and chronic angle-closure glaucoma
(CACG). In both conditions, conventional management
usually starts with a laser iridotomy (LI) and medical
therapy. Incisional surgery may be needed if medical or
laser treatments do not work. The concurrent existence of
cataract and glaucoma is a common finding in the aging
population and this trend is likely to increase worldwide
as the population ages. Surgical management of patients
with coexisting cataract and glaucoma is difficult. The
surgeon has three options: performing glaucoma surgery
alone followed by later cataract surgery, combined
cataract and glaucoma surgery, or cataract surgery alone.
Trabeculectomy augmented by antifibrotic agents
represents the mainstay of glaucoma surgery. However,
the high complication rate (in particular flat anterior
chamber in PACG) and the unpredictable postoperative
course and magnitude of IOP reduction led many to
consider other treatment strategies3. In addition to
ISSN: 2171-4703

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COMBINED PHACO AND VGS IN PACG

unpredictability, safety and efficacy are suboptimal.


Identically performed glaucoma filtering procedures in
three different eyes may result in three vastly different
outcomes. Moreover, trabeculectomy may accelerate the
development and progression of cataract. The Advanced
Glaucoma Intervention Study has shown that the risk
of developing cataract increased by 78% five years after
trabeculectomy4. Combined cataract and glaucoma
surgery (phacotrabeculectomy) may achieve greater IOP
reduction, but is associated with more postoperative
complications than phacoemulsification alone and
visual rehabilitation may take longer. Although a
combined procedure might be less successful in terms
of IOP reduction than trabeculectomy alone, the risk of
postoperative hypotony after phacotrabeculectomy may
be high for PACG eyes that only need lens extraction
but not a glaucoma procedure5. The last option, cataract
surgery alone, has been shown to reduce IOP in PACG
better than other types of glaucoma. Accumulating
evidence indicates that a large and anteriorly positioned
lens is responsible for residual angle closure and elevated
IOP in post iridotomy eyes. Considering the role the
lens plays in angle closure and the fact that cataract
extraction yields IOP reduction in PACG, it is likely
that widening of the drainage angle contributes to the
reduction in postoperative IOP.
Cataract extraction opens the angle, but does
nothing with peripheral anterior synechia (PAS).
Goniosynechialysis is a procedure designed to break PAS
and restore trabecular filtration. Conventionally this has
been described using surgical instruments under direct
gonioscopic visualization or by Nd:YAG laser6,7. However,
complications reported with goniosynechialysis include
mild-to-severe hyphema, fibrin exudation, choroidal
hemorrhage, choroidal detachment, shallow anterior
chamber, and transient elevation of IOP in the immediate
postoperative period8. In viscogoniosynechialysis (VGS)
an ophthalmic viscoelastic agent is used as a substitute
for a surgical instrument to break the synechia9,10. VGS
when compared to surgical goniosynechialysis is a quick,
relatively atraumatic procedure that does not require
specific surgical instruments and can be performed at
the time of routine phacoemulsification. Combined
phacoemulsification and VGS not only opens the angle
but also breaks the synechia and leads to IOP reduction.
Finally, preserving the conjunctiva, by using a clearcorneal approach, facilitates any subsequent filtration
procedures that may be required.

Pre-operative considerations
In order to reduce intraoperative complications
like choroidal hemorrhage, the IOP should be reduced
preoperatively using osmotic agents. This also shrinks
the vitreous and may help having a slightly deeper
anterior chamber intraoperatively. Placing the patient
in a slight reverse-Trendelenburg position on the
operating table and using the minimal amount of
tension on the lid speculum will also help to reduce
posterior positive pressure.
Intraoperative considerations
Angle closure glaucoma has some difficult ocular
situations for surgery, such as a shallow anterior
chamber, the lens often bulky, and the pupil is frequently
small from miotic treatment or ischemic iris atrophy.
The presence of posterior synechiae, sometimes over
the whole 360 degree of the pupillary margin, and a
relatively small pupil, which are not unusual findings in
patients with CACG, pose daunting difficulties. When
necessary, the pupil is dilated with sphincterotomies,
stretching the iris with Sinski hooks bimanually, or iris
retraction hooks (Figure 1, panels A and B). These may
result in an atonic and atrophied iris, which not only
has a tendency to plug any surgical wounds and increase
the possibility of postoperative uveitis, but also is more
prone to further PAS formation. The iris must be dealt
with gently to avoid excessive postoperative uveitis.
In those patients that phacoemulsification is not
possible because of reduced working space due to
crowded anterior chamber, a vitreous tap (a limited pars
plana dry vitrectomy) can deepen anterior chamber. In
clear cornea temporal phacoemulsification, the entrance
into the vitreous cavity can be 3.5 mm posterior to
limbus at supero- or inferotemporal quadrants. After
performing a dry vitrectomy by vitrectomy machine the
anterior chamber is filled with a viscoelastic agent and
phacoemulsification is performed. Using a 25-gauge
vitrector have the following benefits, easy to perform
during anterior segment surgery, the sclerotomy wound
requires no sutures, and the minimal conjunctival
damage does not hamper future filtration surgery.
However, potential complications associated with
vitrectomy including retinal detachment and vitreous
hemorrhage, should be addressed.

Viscogoniosynechialysis

SURGICAL TECHNIQUE
Performing phacoemulsification in the context of
PACG warrants a number of considerations to minimize
the risk of complications and adverse events.

OVDs have been developed and used primarily for


cataract surgery, simply because so many more cataract
operations are done, when compared to anything
else. Before discussing the use of OVDs for glaucoma

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COMBINED PHACO AND VGS IN PACG

219

Figure 1. Performing combined phacoemulsification and viscogoniosynechialysis in a patient with angle-closure glaucoma and a miotic
pupil. A) fashioning a path for iris retraction hooks using a 27-gauge needle, B) inserting the iris retraction hooks, C) accomplishing anterior
capsulorhexis, D) performing phacoemulsification, E) placing the intraocular lens in the bag, F and G) perfoming viscogoniosynechalysis,
H)removing the viscoelastic material, I) stomal hydration.

surgery, it is instructive to look at how OVD use has


been adapted for other complicated anterior segment
procedures, involving cataracts, to establish some
general principles.
Mechanisms of IOP reduction
The aqueous egresses through those parts of trabecular
meshwork that were covered by iris tissue before
phaco-VGS. Studies have shown a negative correlation
between preoperative anterior chamber depth (ACD)
and postoperative widening of the drainage angle.
This indicates that the lens in eyes with a shallower
preoperative anterior chamber play a more predominant
role in causing angle closure, thus lens removal in such
eyes will end up with lower postoperative IOP.
Another possible mechanism is the effect of
ultrasound waves on the trabecular cells. Cultured
trabecular meshwork cells release interleukin 1-alpha

in response to phacoemulsification ultrasound11. The


released interleukin increases the synthesis of matrix
metalloproteinases and facilitates trabecular outflow
facility12. Irrigation of the anterior chamber during
phacoemulsification is thought to flush out debris from
the trabecular meshwork, thus reducing resistance to
outflow.
The change in the force directed on the ciliary
body because of capsular bag contraction after
phacoemulsification may result in reduced aqueous
production. Pressure from the haptics on the ciliary
body is suggested to have a number of IOP-lowering
effects; decrease in aqueous production, stretching of
trabecular meshwork, traction on the zonules preventing
collapse of Schlemms canal as well as biochemical
changes leading to alterations in the blood-aqueous
barrier. All in all, a decrease in aqueous production and
improvement in aqueous exit result in IOP reduction
after phaco-VGS.

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COMBINED PHACO AND VGS IN PACG

Phaco or Phacoviscogoniosynechailysis

Indications

Lens extraction alone and its replacement by


a much thinner artificial intraocular lens will
increase the ACD, but this increase of the ACD is
by no means the same as reopening of the closed
anterior angle as the angle may remain closed by
the PAS. Although cataract extraction in PACG has
been shown to be relatively effective in lowering
pressure it has also been shown that in glaucoma
associated with extensive PAS, removal of lens alone
may be insufficient. Lai et al. reported the result
of phacoemulsification with posterior chamber
intraocular lens implantation and goniosynechialysis
followed by diode laser peripheral iridoplasty to
the inferior half of the angle in seven patients with
CACG and concurrent total synechial angle closure.
Postoperative ultrasound biomicroscopy showed
that the superior angle, where no goniosynechialysis
performed, remained closed. In contrast, the
inferior angle in all patients, however, was opened
up by the goniosynechialysis13. This confirms
the necessity of goniosynechialysis in patients
with PACG during cataract surgery. Synechialysis
at the end of phacoemulsification compared to
phacoemulsification alone in a randomized study
revealed greater IOP reduction with less antiglaucoma medications in the synechialysis group14.

Acute angle-closure

Preoperative evaluation and contraindications


All ocular examinations including visual acuity,
IOP, indentation gonioscopy, fundoscopy for
evaluating optic nerve and macula, and paraclinical
tests such as visual field and optic nerve head
imaging are performed to determine the severity of
glaucoma. Gonioscopic examination is still the sole
means of detecting PAS in the anterior chamber
angle. Indentation gonioscopy using lenses with
a diameter less than the corneal diameter (i.e.
Sussman, Zeiss, Posner) differentiate appositional
iridotrabecular contact from PAS. Generally, it is
suggested to do phaco-VGS in patients with PAS
up to 270 degree9, 10, 14. In other words, at least
90 degree of the angle should be free of PAS and
have appositional angle closure. Goniosynechialysis
has been described to be effective in patients with
PAS that has been present for fewer than 6 to 12
months. However, it is difficult to estimate the
duration of PAS, especially in patients with CACG
without a history of glaucoma attack. VGS has been
reported to be effective in releasing the synechia and
reducing IOP disregarding the duration of PAS10,
14, 15
. PAS secondary to neovascular glaucoma is a
contraindication for phaco-VGS, because of bleeding
risk and lack of its effect on releasing the PAS.

Acute angle-closure is a potentially blinding ocular


condition and is regarded as an ocular emergency. As
soon as IOP is controlled and sufficient corneal clarity is
reestablished, laser iridotomy has been the next step in
treatment, with the aim of preventing recurrence of the
acute attack, and to prevent progression to CACG. Then, if
medical therapy is not effective, laser iridoplasty (Argon or
Diode laser; power 200 mw, spot size 500 m, and duration
0.5 seconds) can be used. Laser iridoplasty mechanically
open up the angle in medically resistant AAC. Treatment of
only 180 degree of the peripheral iris with iridoplasty may
be sufficient to reduce IOP in the majority of AAC cases.
In some cases, permanent PAS develop and, when greater
than 180 degree of the angle is closed, the IOP rises despite
medical therapy or a patent iridotomy. Despite initial
medical and laser treatment successes, 38% to 58% of
patients may have persistently raised IOP subsequently16,17.
A treatment dilemma that occurs in patients with AAC
is how to treat persistent elevation of IOP despite maximal
medical therapy after iridotomy and iridoplasty. Further
therapeutic options for these patients include anterior
chamber paracentesis, filtering surgery, and/or cataract
removal. The presence of two risk factors for cataractogenesis
(the acute attack and subsequent trabeculectomy)
would suggest that a good proportion of these eyes will
eventually require cataract surgery, perhaps placing further
trabeculectomy at risk of failure. Phacoemulsification
has been shown as an effective and the first procedure
in AAC and in patients unresponsive to medical and
laser therapies9, 18. Because these patients develop PAS,
performing VGS at the end of phacoemulsification will
release the synechia. The optimal timing for performing
phaco-VGS in AAC is yet unclear. Conceptually, it would
be optimal to have the phaco-VGS done after the eye has
become quiet. Approximately 1 month after the abortion
of the AAC may be a good time.
Chronic angle-closure glaucoma
Chronic angle-closure glaucoma is characterized
by increased IOP, PAS, and glaucomatous optic
neuropathy. In a patient with CACG and cataract
the surgical options include phacotrabeculectomy,
phacoemulsification alone, trabeculectomy followed
by phacoemulsification, and phaco-VGS. Comparing
phacoemulsification alone with phacotrabeculectomy
in patients with medically controlled CACG revealed
no statistically significant differences between the two
treatment groups in terms of visual acuity, progression
of glaucomatous optic neuropathy, or visual field loss.
Additionally, in the phacotrabeculectomy group more
postoperative complications were observed. Although

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COMBINED PHACO AND VGS IN PACG

the complications were mostly not serious and did not


lead to worse clinical outcomes, these complications
resulted in more surgical interventions postoperatively,
more clinic visits, and delayed rehabilitation5. In
another study comparing phacoemulsification alone
with phacotrabeculectomy in patients with medically
uncontrolled CACG, IOP and number of medications
were lower in the phacotrabeculectomy group.
However, phacotrabeculectomy was associated with
more postoperative complications and more progression
of optic neuropathy19. Phacoemulsification has been
shown to result in greater opening of drainage angle and
deepening of anterior chamber than combined phacotrabeculectomy20. A possible explanation may be the
shallow anterior chamber after phacotrabeculectomy,
due to the drainage of aqueous from anterior chamber
by trabeculectomy. The shallow anterior chamber may
also aggravate the extent of PAS. Gunning and Greve
advocated cataract extraction with IOL implantation
alone for subacute or CACG, because cataract extraction
reduced IOP to the same extent as filtering surgery, but
with fewer complications21.
Postoperative care
Postoperatively, a topical antibiotic and steroid are
started and based on the amount of ocular inflammation
the steroid dosage is titrated. All anti-glaucoma
medications can be discontinued and resumed at the
follow-up as necessary to control the IOP according to
its level. The other option is starting acetazolamide tablet
for the first two postoperative days to combat the IOP
spike secondary to the remaining viscoelastic agent. The
second option seems to be a safe modality, especially in
patients with severe glaucomatous optic neuropathy. The
IOP should be checked regularly because the studies
reveled that there is not a clear correlation of the IOP
with the extent of angle closure. Some eyes with only 90
degree angle closure after cataract extraction may require
anti-glaucoma medications to control the IOP but some
eyes with more than 270 degree angle closure may not22.
Uncontrolled IOP after phaco-VGS
The
maximum
IOP
reduction
after
phacoemulsification in a group of patients with
occludable angle was detected at week 12 after
operation23. Gonioscopic findings may not truly
reflect the extent of damage in the trabecular outflow
pathway as there is loss of trabecular cells and irregular
architecture of the trabeculum in areas away from visible
PAS. Not all patients with PACG respond to phacoVGS. If the IOP is not controlled even after addition
of medical therapy, trabeculectomy may be performed
as a second-stage procedure. Subsequent glaucoma
surgery can be achieved safely because of the deepened

221

anterior chamber and intact conjunctiva. Furthermore,


the fibrosed pseuophakos-capsular membrane would
add stability to the anterior segment (compared with
a large crystalline lens suspended from the zonule)
and trabeculectomy would in theory carry a lower risk
of encountering a shallow anterior chamber in the
postoperative period.
Complications
Corneal endothelial cell loss seems to be more in
PACG patients who undergo phacoemulsification.
These eyes have characteristically shallow anterior
chambers, which may render anterior chamber surgical
maneuvers more difficult and risky. This provides less
room for maneuvering the nucleus, and forces the phaco
surgeon to apply ultrasonic power closer to the corneal
endothelium. This may aggravate corneal endothelial
cell loss. This is expected to be a more significant
problem in eyes with previous AAC attack because
endothelial cell count in these eyes may have already
been reduced as a result of previous episodes of acutely
raised IOP. Endothelial cell damage after AAC is well
documented, with average decreases in cell density of up
to 33%24. The amount of endothelial cell loss correlates
closely with the duration of IOP elevation. Eyes with
CACG, especially those with previous episodes of
AAC, often have lower corneal endothelial cell density
and are therefore more prone to intraoperative and
postoperative corneal edema. The expertise of surgeon
in performing a fast and precise operation is important
in saving the corneal endothelial cells. To minimize
corneal endothelial cell damage, it is critical to avoid
an IOP spike in the early postoperative period as well25.
Anterior capsular tear secondary to posterior positive
pressure intraoperatively and anterior vaulting of the
lens is another potential complication. As stated in the
surgical technique section, performing a dry vitrectomy
to reduce IOP and deep the anterior chamber, and
fashioning a smaller capsulorhexis can prevent this
complication.
Transient IOP elevation after phaco-VGS is mainly
due to remained viscoelastic agents. Removing the
viscoelastic agent at the end of surgery can prevent this
event largely.
Fibrin formation in the anterior chamber is another
reported complication. In a series of patients, all
patients with postoperative fibrin and reaction in the
anterior chamber had been on Latanoprost eye drop
preoperatively10. Viscoelastic material, intraocular lens,
and disruption of blood-aqueous barrier are other
suggested mechanisms. Treatments include topical
steroid, intracameral streptokinase (500 - 1000 IU),
recombinant tissue plasminogen activator (20 g),
subtenon steroid, and disruption of the fibrin membrane
with Nd:YAG laser10, 26, 27.

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Cystoid macular edema may occur after cataract


surgery, but seems to be more common in PACG
patients who undergo phaco-VGS. The disruption of
blood-aqueous barrier secondary to IOP rise and antiglaucoma medications (mainly their preservatives)
seems to be inciting factors. Latanoprost therapy
enhances disruption of the blood-aqueous barrier and
increases the incidence of angiographic cystoids macular
edema28. The usual presentation is a drop in visual acuity
after a period of having a good vision postoperatively.
Optical coherent tomography of macular area is a noninvasive and sensitive tool for assessing macular edema.
The suggested therapies are topical non-steroidal
anti-inflammatory drugs, corticosteroid intravitreal
injections and implants, and intravitreal anti-vascular
endothelial growth factor29.

angle-closure glaucoma remains a subject of debate.


The benefits of primary clear lens surgery in eyes with
uncontrolled AAC and CACG should be weighed
against accommodation loss, technical difficulties, and
potential intra- and postoperative complications.

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2.
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CONCLUSION

5.

Cataract extraction itself can reduce the IOP and


open the angle in many patients with narrow/ closed
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drop. Combined phaco-VGS is a safe and an easy to
do procedure. Phaco-VGS has the following advantages
over phacotrabeculectomy: avoidance of trabeculectomy
complications, substantial saving in operation time,
reduction in the number of postoperative visits, and
restoration of normal outflow by VGS. After phacoVGS, not only is the IOP reduced, the requirement
for the number of anti-glaucoma medications decreases
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economic burden of these medications can be avoided.
Contrary to trabeculectomy that induces trabecular
meshwork hypoperfusion and possibly worsen its
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When filtering surgery alone is performed, functioning
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Considering the number of people affected by
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JOURNAL OF EMMETROPIA - VOL 4, OCTOBER-DECEMBER

First author:
M. Reza Razeghinejad, MD
Poostchi Ophthalmology Research Center,
Shiraz University of Medical Sciences,
Shiraz, Iran.