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Vectors

3.1 Coordinate Systems

3.2 Vector and Scalar Q3.1 No. The sum of two vectors can only be zero if they are in

Quantities

opposite directions and have the same magnitude. If you walk

3.3 Some Properties of Vectors

3.4 Components of a Vector 10 meters north and then 6 meters south, you won’t end up

and Unit Vectors where you started.

equal to the distance traveled. If two displacements in the same

direction are added, then the magnitude of their sum will be

equal to the distance traveled. Two vectors in any other

orientation will give a displacement less than the distance

traveled. If you first walk 3 meters east, and then 4 meters

south, you will have walked a total distance of 7 meters, but

you will only be 5 meters from your starting point.

Q3.3 The largest possible magnitude of R = A + B is 7 units, found when A and B point in the same

direction. The smallest magnitude of R = A + B is 3 units, found when A and B have opposite

directions.

Q3.4 Only force and velocity are vectors. None of the other quantities requires a direction to be described.

Q3.5 If the direction-angle of A is between 180 degrees and 270 degrees, its components are both

negative. If a vector is in the second quadrant or the fourth quadrant, its components have opposite

signs.

Q3.6 The book’s displacement is zero, as it ends up at the point from which it started. The distance

traveled is 6.0 meters.

Q3.7 85 miles. The magnitude of the displacement is the distance from the starting point, the 260-mile

mark, to the ending point, the 175-mile mark.

Q3.9 No, the magnitude of a vector is always positive. A minus sign in a vector only indicates direction,

not magnitude.

55

56 Vectors

Q3.10 Any vector that points along a line at 45° to the x and y axes has components equal in magnitude.

Q3.11 A x = B x and A y = B y .

Q3.12 Addition of a vector to a scalar is not defined. Think of apples and oranges.

Q3.13 One difficulty arises in determining the individual components. The relationships between a vector

and its components such as A x = A cos θ , are based on right-triangle trigonometry. Another problem

would be in determining the magnitude or the direction of a vector from its components. Again,

A = A x2 + A y2 only holds true if the two component vectors, A x and A y , are perpendicular.

Q3.14 If the direction of a vector is specified by giving the angle of the vector measured clockwise from the

positive y-axis, then the x-component of the vector is equal to the sine of the angle multiplied by the

magnitude of the vector.

SOLUTIONS TO PROBLEMS

P3.1 a f a fa f

x = r cos θ = 5.50 m cos 240° = 5.50 m −0.5 = −2.75 m

y = r sin θ = a5.50 mf sin 240° = a5.50 mfa −0.866f = −4.76 m

a f a f

x1 = 2.50 m cos 30.0° , y1 = 2.50 m sin 30.0° , and

bx , y g = a2.17 , 1.25f m

1 1

2 2

bx , y g = a−1.90, 3.29f m .

2 2

P3.3 The x distance out to the fly is 2.00 m and the y distance up to the fly is 1.00 m.

(a) We can use the Pythagorean theorem to find the distance from the origin to the fly.

2 2

= 5.00 m 2 = 2.24 m

θ = tan −1

FG 1 IJ = 26.6° ; r =

(b)

H 2K 2.24 m, 26.6°

Chapter 3 57

P3.4 (a) d= bx 2 − x1 g + by

2

2 − y1 g 2

= c2.00 − −3.00 h + a−4.00 − 3.00f

2 2

2 2

4.47 m

θ1

F 4.00 IJ = −63.4°

= tan G − −1

H 2.00 K

r2 = a−3.00f + a3.00f 2 2

= 18.0 = 4.24 m

2.00

r= = 2.31

cos 30.0°

FG y IJ .

P3.6

H xK

(a) The radius for this new point is

a− x f 2

+ y2 = x2 + y2 = r

tan −1

FG y IJ = 180°− θ .

H −x K

(b) ( −2 x) 2 + ( −2 y) 2 = 2r . This point is in the third quadrant if x , y is in the first quadrant b g

b g

or in the fourth quadrant if x , y is in the second quadrant. It is at an angle of 180°+ θ .

b g

or in the third quadrant if x , y is in the second quadrant. It is at an angle of − θ .

58 Vectors

x

P3.7 tan 35.0° =

100 m

a f

x = 100 m tan 35.0° = 70.0 m

FIG. P3.7

P3.8 R = 14 km

θ = 65° N of E

R 13 km

θ

1 km 6 km

FIG. P3.8

(Scale: 1 unit = 20 km )

FIG. P3.9

vector B at the head of vector A. The new B —B

vector A + B has a magnitude of

6.1 at 112° from the x-axis. A

A+B

A—B

(b) The vector difference A − B is found by

placing the negative of vector B at the x

O

head of vector A. The resultant vector

A − B has magnitude 14.8 units at an

FIG. P3.10

angle of 22° from the + x-axis.

Chapter 3 59

straight line from point A to point B. 5.00 m

B d A

(b) The actual distance skated is not equal to the straight-line

displacement. The distance follows the curved path of the

semi-circle (ACB). FIG. P3.11

s=

1

2

b g

2π r = 5π = 15.7 m

P3.12 Find the resultant F1 + F2 graphically by placing the tail of F2 at the head of F1 . The resultant force

vector F1 + F2 is of magnitude 9.5 N and at an angle of 57° above the x -axis .

F1 + F2

F2

F1

x

0 1 2 3 N

FIG. P3.12

P3.13 (a) The large majority of people are standing or sitting at this hour. Their instantaneous foot-to-

head vectors have upward vertical components on the order of 1 m and randomly oriented

horizontal components. The citywide sum will be ~ 10 5 m upward .

(b) Most people are lying in bed early Saturday morning. We suppose their beds are oriented

north, south, east, west quite at random. Then the horizontal component of their total vector

height is very nearly zero. If their compressed pillows give their height vectors vertical

components averaging 3 cm, and if one-tenth of one percent of the population are on-duty

a f

nurses or police officers, we estimate the total vector height as ~ 10 5 0.03 m + 10 2 1 m a f

3

~ 10 m upward .

60 Vectors

should look somewhat like that pictured to 1m

the right. The angle from the westward

direction, θ, can be measured to be 15.0 meters

W R E

4° N of W , and the distance R from the θ 3.50 8.20

meters meters

sketch can be converted according to the 30.0°

scale to be 7.9 m .

S

FIG. P3.14

draw each set of vectors. Measurements of the

results are taken using a ruler and protractor.

(Scale: 1 unit = 0.5 m )

FIG. P3.15

*P3.16 The three diagrams shown below represent the graphical solutions for the three vector sums:

R 1 = A + B + C , R 2 = B + C + A , and R 3 = C + B + A . You should observe that R 1 = R 2 = R 3 ,

illustrating that the sum of a set of vectors is not affected by the order in which the vectors are

added.

100 m

B

C A C

A

B

R1 R2 R3

A

C

FIG. P3.16

Chapter 3 61

P3.17 The scale drawing for the graphical solution

should be similar to the figure to the right. The

magnitude and direction of the final displacement

from the starting point are obtained by measuring

d and θ on the drawing and applying the scale

factor used in making the drawing. The results

should be (Scale: 1 unit = 20 ft )

a f a f

x = 100 m cos −30.0° = 86.6 m

FIG. P3.18

P3.19 A x = −25.0

A y = 40.0

A = A x2 + A y2 = a−25.0f + a40.0f

2 2

= 47.2 units

We observe that

Ay

tan φ = .

Ax

FIG. P3.19

So

φ = tan −1 GH A JK 25.0

y

x

−1

The diagram shows that the angle from the +x axis can be found by subtracting from 180°:

P3.20 a

The person would have to walk 3.10 sin 25.0° = 1.31 km north , and f

a f

3.10 cos 25.0° = 2.81 km east .

62 Vectors

(a) b g e

x = 12.8 cos 150° , y = 12.8 sin 150° , and x , y = −11.1i + 6.40 j m j

(b) b g e

x = 3.30 cos 60.0° , y = 3.30 sin 60.0° , and x , y = 1.65 i + 2.86 j cm j

(c) b g e

x = 22.0 cos 215° , y = 22.0 sin 215° , and x , y = −18.0 i − 12.6 j in j

P3.22 a f a f

x = d cos θ = 50.0 m cos 120 = −25.0 m

a f a f

y = d sin θ = 50.0 m sin 120 = 43.3 m

*P3.23 (a) Her net x (east-west) displacement is −3.00 + 0 + 6.00 = +3.00 blocks, while her net y (north-

south) displacement is 0 + 4.00 + 0 = +4.00 blocks. The magnitude of the resultant

displacement is

R= b x g + by g

net

2

net

2

= a3.00f + a4.00f

2 2

= 5.00 blocks

and the angle the resultant makes with the x-axis (eastward direction) is

θ = tan −1

FG 4.00 IJ = tan a1.33f = 53.1° .

−1

H 3.00 K

The resultant displacement is then 5.00 blocks at 53.1° N of E .

(b) The total distance traveled is 3.00 + 4.00 + 6.00 = 13.0 blocks .

*P3.24 Let i = east and j = north. The unicyclist’s displacement is, in meters N

R

R = −110 i + 550 j

= a110 mf + a550 mf

2 2

at tan −1

110 m

550 m

west of north E

= 561 m at 11.3° west of north .

FIG. P3.24

The crow’s velocity is

∆ x 561 m at 11.3° W of N

v= =

∆t 40 s

= 14.0 m s at 11.3° west of north .

Chapter 3 63

P3.25 +x East, +y North

∑ y = 75 +125 sin 30°−150 = −12.5 m

d= c∑ xh + c∑ yh = a358f + a−12.5f

2 2 2 2

= 358 m

tan θ =

c∑ yh = − 12.5 = −0.0349

c∑ xh 358

θ = −2.00°

d = 358 m at 2.00° S of E

P3.26 The east and north components of the displacement from Dallas (D) to Chicago (C) are the sums of

the east and north components of the displacements from Dallas to Atlanta (A) and from Atlanta to

Chicago. In equation form:

d DC east = d DA east + d AC east = 730 cos 5.00°−560 sin 21.0° = 527 miles.

d DC north = d DA north + d AC north = 730 sin 5.00°+560 cos 21.0° = 586 miles.

d DC north

Then tan θ = = 1.11 and θ = 48.0° .

d DC east

FG 4 IJ =

H 5K 6.40 at 38.7°

2 2 −1

FIG. P3.27

D = 8.06 at b180° − 82.9°g = 8.06 at 97.2°

P3.28 d= bx + x + x g + by + y + y g

1 2 3

2

1 2 3

2

2 2

= 52.0 = 7.21 m

θ = tan G

−1F 6.00 IJ = 56.3°

H 4.00 K

64 Vectors

P3.29 We have B = R − A :

A y = 150 sin 120° = 130 cm

R x = 140 cos 35.0° = 115 cm

R y = 140 sin 35.0° = 80.3 cm

FIG. P3.29

Therefore,

a f e j

B = 115 − −75 i + 80.3 − 130 j = 190 i − 49.7 j cm

θ = tan −1 −

FG 49.7 IJ

H 190 K

= −14.7° .

A − B + 3C = 0 :

3C = B − A = 21.9 i − 21.6 j

C = 7.30 i − 7.20 j

or

C x = 7.30 cm ; C y = −7.20 cm

(c) A + B = 2 2 + 6 2 = 6.32

(d) A − B = 4 2 + 2 2 = 4.47

(e)

H 2K 288°

H 4K

P3.32 (a) D = A + B + C = 2 i + 4j

D = 2 2 + 4 2 = 4. 47 m at θ = 63.4°

(b) E = − A − B + C = −6 i + 6 j

E = 6 2 + 6 2 = 8.49 m at θ = 135°

Chapter 3 65

P3.33 e

d1 = −3.50 j m j

e

d 2 = 8.20 cos 45.0° i + 8.20 sin 45.0° j = 5.80 i + 5.80 j m j

e

d 3 = −15.0 i m j

a f a

R = d1 + d 2 + d 3 = −15.0 + 5.80 i + 5.80 − 3.50 j = f e−9.20i + 2.30jj m

(or 9.20 m west and 2.30 m north)

R = R x2 + R y2 = a−9.20f + a2.30f

2 2

= 9.48 m .

FG 2.30 IJ =

H −9.20 K 166° .

B = 15.0

= 40.0 i − 15.0 j

a f + a−15.0f

R = 40.0

2 2 12

= 42.7 yards C = 50.0

FIG. P3.34

P3.35 (a) F = F1 + F2

a f a f a f

F = 120 cos 60.0° i + 120 sin 60.0° j − 80.0 cos 75.0° i + 80.0 sin 75.0° j a f

F = 60.0 i + 104j − 20.7 i + 77.3 j = e39.3 i + 181 jj N

θ = tan −1

FG 181 IJ =

H 39.3 K 77.8°

P3.36 East West

x y

0m 4.00 m

1.41 1.41

–0.500 –0.866

+0.914 4.55

2 2

R= x + y = 4.64 m at 78.6° N of E

66 Vectors

A x = A cos θ A = 3.00 cos 30.0° = 2.60 m A y = A sin θ A = 3.00 sin 30.0°= 1.50 m

e j

A = A x i + A y j = 2.60 i + 1.50 j m

Bx = 0 , By = 3.00 m so B = 3.00 j m

e j

A + B = 2.60 i + 1.50 j + 3.00 j = e2.60i + 4.50jj m

P3.38 Let the positive x-direction be eastward, the positive y-direction be vertically upward, and the

positive z-direction be southward. The total displacement is then

e j e j e

d = 4.80 i + 4.80 j cm + 3.70 j − 3.70k cm = 4.80 i + 8.50 j − 3.70k cm . j

2 2 2

(a) The magnitude is d = ( 4.80) +(8.50) + (−3.70) cm = 10.4 cm .

8.50

(b) Its angle with the y-axis follows from cos θ = , giving θ = 35.5° .

10. 4

α = cos −1

FG 4.00 IJ =

H 7.81 K 59.2°

β = cos −1

FG 6.00 IJ =

H 7.81 K 39.8°

γ = cos −1

FG 3.00 IJ =

H 7.81 K 67.4°

P3.40 The y coordinate of the airplane is constant and equal to 7.60 ×10 3 m whereas the x coordinate is

given by x = vi t where vi is the constant speed in the horizontal direction.

At t = 30.0 s we have x = 8.04×10 3 , so vi = 268 m s. The position vector as a function of time

is

b g e

P = 268 m s t i + 7.60 × 10 3 m j . j

At t = 45.0 s , P = 1. 21 × 10 4 i + 7.60 × 10 3 j m. The magnitude is

P= c1.21×10 h + c7.60×10 h

4 2 3 2

m = 1.43 ×10 4 m

F 7.60×10 I = 3

θ = arctan GH 1.21×10 JK 4

32.2° above the horizontal .

Chapter 3 67

A

(b) B= = 2.00 i + 3.00 j − 1.00k

4

P3.42 R = 75.0 cos 240° i + 75.0 sin 240° j + 125 cos 135° i + 125 sin 135° j + 100 cos 160° i + 100 sin 160° j

R = −220 i + 57.6 j

2

R = (−220 ) + 57.6 2 at arctan

FG 57.6 IJ above the –x-axis

H 220 K

R = 227 paces at 165°

2 2 2

C = (5.00) +(1.00) +(3.00) m = 5.92 m

2 2 2

D = ( 4.00) +(11.0) +(15.0) m = 19.0 m

e j e

S = 17.3 sin 136° i + 17.3 cos 136° j km = 12.0 i − 12.4 j km. j

From station to plane, the position vector is

e

P = 19.6 sin 153° i + 19.6 cos 153° j + 2.20k km, j

or

e j

P = 8.90 i − 17.5 j + 2.20k km.

(b) The distance the plane must travel is

2 2 2

D = D = (3.12) +(5.02) +( 2.20) km = 6.31 km .

68 Vectors

P3.45 The hurricane’s first displacement is

H h K

FG 25.0 km IJ(1.50 h) due North. With i representing east and j representing north, its total

is

H h K

displacement is:

FG 41.0 km cos 60.0°IJ a3.00 hfe− ij + FG 41.0 km sin 60.0°IJ a3.00 hfj + FG 25.0 km IJ a1.50 hfj = 61.5 kme− ij

H h K H h K H hK

+144 km j

2 2

with magnitude (61.5 km) +(144 km) = 157 km .

P3.46 (a) a f a

E = 17.0 cm cos 27.0° i + 17.0 cm sin 27.0° j f y

27.0° 27.0°

(b) a f a

F = − 17.0 cm sin 27.0° i + 17.0 cm cos 27.0° j f F G

F= e−7.72i + 15.1jj cm E

27.0°

x

(c) a f a

G = + 17.0 cm sin 27.0° i + 17.0 cm cos 27.0° j f

FIG. P3.46

G= e+7.72 i + 15.1jj cm

P3.47 A x = −3.00 , A y = 2.00

2 2

(b) A = A x2 + A y2 = (−3.00) +( 2.00) = 3.61

Ay 2.00

tan θ = = = −0.667 , tan−1 (−0.667)= −33.7°

Ax (−3.00)

(c) R x = 0 , R y = −4.00 , R = A + B thus B = R − A and

Chapter 3 69

P3.48 Let +x = East, +y = North,

x y

300 0

–175 303

0 150

125 453

y

(a) θ = tan−1 = 74.6° N of E

x

(b) R = x 2 + y 2 = 470 km

R y = 40.0 sin 45.0°−30.0 sin 45.0°+20.0 = 27.1

A B

R = 49.5 i + 27.1j

2 2

O 45°

x

θ = tan G

−1F 27.1 IJ = 28.7° 45°

H 49.5 K C

FIG. P3.49

and

Solving simultaneously,

a = 5.00 , b = 7.00 .

Therefore,

5.00A + 7.00B + C = 0 .

70 Vectors

Additional Problems

P3.51 Let θ represent the angle between the directions of A and B. Since R B

A and B have the same magnitudes, A, B, and R = A + B form an

θ /2

θ

θ θ

isosceles triangle in which the angles are 180°−θ , , and . The A

2 2

FG θ IJ . [Hint: apply the law of A θ

magnitude of R is then R = 2 A cos

H 2K D

cosines to the isosceles triangle and use the fact that B = A .] –B

Again, A, –B, and D = A − B form an isosceles triangle with apex FIG. P3.51

angle θ. Applying the law of cosines and the identity

2

FG θ IJ .

gives the magnitude of D as D = 2 A sin

H 2K

The problem requires that R = 100D .

Thus, 2 A cos

H 2K H 2K H 2K

θ = 1.15° .

P3.52 Let θ represent the angle between the directions of A and B. Since

A and B have the same magnitudes, A, B, and R = A + B form an

θ θ

isosceles triangle in which the angles are 180°−θ , , and . The

2 2

FG θ IJ . [Hint: apply the law of

magnitude of R is then R = 2 A cos

H 2K

cosines to the isosceles triangle and use the fact that B = A . ]

angle θ. Applying the law of cosines and the identity FIG. P3.52

2

FG θ IJ .

H 2K

gives the magnitude of D as D = 2 A sin

Fθ I Fθ I

The problem requires that R = nD or cosG J = n sinG J giving

H 2K H 2K

F 1I

θ = 2 tan G J .

−1

H nK

Chapter 3 71

P3.53 (a) R x = 2.00 , R y = 1.00 , R z = 3.00

Rx R F I

(c) cos θ x =

R R GH JK

⇒ θ x = cos−1 x = 57.7° from + x

Ry F R I = 74.5° from + y

cos θ y =

R

⇒ θ y = cos−1 GH R JK

y

Rz F R I = 36.7° from + z

cos θ z =

R

⇒ θ z = cos−1 GH R JK

z

*P3.54 Take the x-axis along the tail section of the snake. The displacement from tail to head is

a f a f

240 m i + 420 − 240 m cos 180°−105° i − 180 m sin 75° j = 287 m i − 174 mj .

2 2 distance

Its magnitude is (287) +(174) m = 335 m . From v = , the time for each child’s run is

∆t

Inge: ∆t =

a fa

distance 335 m h 1 km 3 600 s

=

fb

= 101 s

g

v a fb

12 km 1 000 m 1 h ga f

420 m ⋅ s

Olaf: ∆t = = 126 s .

3.33 m

*P3.55 The position vector from the ground under the controller of the first airplane is

a fa f a fa

r1 = 19.2 km cos 25° i + 19.2 km sin 25° j + 0.8 km k f a f

= e17.4i + 8.11j + 0.8k j km .

The second is at

a fa f a fa

r2 = 17.6 km cos 20° i + 17.6 km sin 20° j + 1.1 km k f a f

= e16.5 i + 6.02 j + 1.1k j km .

e

r2 − r1 = −0.863 i − 2.09 j + 0.3k km j

with magnitude

2 2 2

(0.863 ) +( 2.09) +(0.3) = 2.29 km .

72 Vectors

displacement is A = A at 159° . Represent the displacement from 3 A

to 1 as B = B at 298° . We have 4.76 km at 37° +A + B = 0 . 69°

28° B 2

For x-components C

N

37°

a4.76 kmf cos 37°+ A cos 159°+B cos 298° = 0 1 E

3.80 km − 0.934 A + 0.469B = 0

B = −8.10 km + 1.99 A FIG. P3.56

For y-components,

2.86 km + 0.358 A − 0.883B = 0

a f

2.86 km + 0.358 A − 0.883 −8.10 km + 1.99 A = 0

2.86 km + 0.358 A + 7.15 km − 1.76 A = 0

10.0 km = 1.40 A

A = 7.17 km

*P3.57 (a) We first express the corner’s position vectors as sets of components

a f a f

A = 10 m cos 50° i + 10 m sin 50° j = 6.43 m i +7.66 mj

a f a f

B = 12 m cos 30° i + 12 m sin 30° j = 10.4 m i +6.00 mj .

Its perimeter is

(b) The position vector of the distant corner is Bx i + A y j = 10.4 mi +7.66 mj = 10.4 2 + 7.66 2 m at

7.66 m

tan−1 = 12.9 m at 36.4° .

10.4 m

Chapter 3 73

P3.58 Choose the +x-axis in the direction of the first force. The total force, y

in newtons, is then

31 N x

12 N

12.0 i + 31.0 j − 8.40 i − 24.0 j = e3.60 ij + e7.00jj N .

R

35.0°

8.4 N horizontal

The magnitude of the total force is

24 N

2 2

(3.60) +(7.00) N = 7.87 N

FIG. P3.58

(7.00)

and the angle it makes with our +x-axis is given by tan θ = ,

(3.60)

θ = 62.8° . Thus, its angle counterclockwise from the horizontal is

35.0°+62.8° = 97.8° .

P3.59 d 1 = 100 i

d 2 = −300 j

a f a f

d 3 = −150 cos 30.0° i − 150 sin 30.0° j = −130 i − 75.0 j

a f a f

d = −200 cos 60.0° i + 200 sin 60.0° j = −100 i + 173 j

4

R= a−130f + a−202f =

2 2

240 m

φ = tan G

F 202 IJ = 57.2°

−1

FIG. P3.59

H 130 K

θ = 180 + φ = 237°

P3.60 =

e

dr d 4 i + 3 j − 2 t j j

= 0 + 0 − 2 j = − 2.00 m s jb g

dt dt

The position vector at t = 0 is 4i + 3 j . At t = 1 s , the position is 4i + 1j , and so on. The object is

moving straight downward at 2 m/s, so

dr

represents its velocity vector .

dt

P3.61 a f a

v = v x i + v y j = 300 + 100 cos 30.0° i + 100 sin 30.0° j f

e

v = 387 i + 50.0 j mi h j

v = 390 mi h at 7.37° N of E

74 Vectors

The displacement to B is

e j

You cover half of this, 15.0 i + 50.0 j to move to r2 = 30.0 i − 20.0 j + 15.0 i + 50.0 j = 45.0 i + 30.0 j .

Now the displacement from your current position to C is

1

e j

r3 = r2 + ∆r23 = 45.0 i + 30.0 j + −55.0 i − 40.0 j = 26.7 i + 16.7 j .

3

r4 = r3 +

1

4

b g 1

4

e j

rD − r3 = 26.7 i + 16.7 j + 13.3 i − 46.7 j = 30.0 i + 5.00 j .

of which you cover one-fifth the distance, −20.0 i + 11.0 j, moving to

(b) Following the directions brings you to the average position of the trees. The steps we took

numerically in part (a) bring you to

rA +

1

2

a f FGH

r + rB

rB − rA = A

2

IJ

K

ar + rB f+r −

ar A +rB f rA + rB + rC

A C 2

then to =

2 3 3

ar + rB + rC f+r −

ar A + rB + rC

r + rB + rC + rD

f

A D 3

then to = A

3 4 4

a

rA + rB + rC + rD r −

a rA + rB +rC + rD f

f r + rB + rC + rD + rE

and last to + E 4

= A .

4 5 5

This center of mass of the tree distribution is the same location whatever order we take the

trees in.

Chapter 3 75

*P3.63 (a) Let T represent the force exerted by each child. The x-

component of the resultant force is

af a f a f

T cos 0 + T cos 120°+T cos 240° = T 1 + T −0.5 + T −0.5 = 0 .

The y-component is

FIG. P3.63

Thus,

∑ F = 0.

(b) If the total force is not zero, it must point in some direction. When each child moves one

360°

space clockwise, the total must turn clockwise by that angle, . Since each child exerts

N

the same force, the new situation is identical to the old and the net force on the tire must still

point in the original direction. The contradiction indicates that we were wrong in supposing

that the total force is not zero. The total force must be zero.

2

R1 + c 2 = a 2 + b 2 + c 2 .

FIG. P3.64

76 Vectors

P3.65 Since

A + B = 6.00 j ,

we have

bA x g e j

+ Bx i + A y + B y j = 0 i + 6.00 j

FIG. P3.65

giving

A x + B x = 0 or A x = −Bx [1]

and

A y + B y = 6.00 . [2]

A x2 = Bx2 .

A y2 = By2 .

A y = By = 3.00 .

Defining θ as the angle between either A or B and the y axis, it is seen that

Ay By 3.00

cos θ = = = = 0.600 and θ = 53.1° .

A B 5.00

Chapter 3 77

*P3.66 Let θ represent the angle the x-axis makes with the horizontal. Since x

angles are equal if their sides are perpendicular right side to right y 0.127 N

side and left side to left side, θ is also the angle between the weight

Ty

and our y axis. The x-components of the forces must add to zero: θ

θ

−0.150 N sin θ + 0.127 N = 0 .

0.150 N

(b) θ = 57.9°

FIG. P3.66

a f

+Ty − 0.150 N cos 57.9° = 0 , Ty = 0.079 8 N .

(c) The angle between the y axis and the horizontal is 90.0°−57.9°= 32.1° .

2

the coordinates. Therefore, r = r ′ and r 2 = r ′ or, bg y′ P

x 2 + y2 = x′

2 2

r x′

F y′ I

∴tan G J = tan G J − α

−1 F yI

−1

β

α

H x′ K H xK α

θ

β

y ′ e j − tan α

y t x

x O

=

x ′ 1 + e j tan α

y

x

FIG. P3.67

P3.2 a fa

(a) 2.17 m, 1.25 m ; −1.90 m, 3.29 m ; f P3.16 see the solution

(b) 4.55 m

P3.18 86.6 m and –50.0 m

P3.4 (a) 8.60 m;

(b) 4.47 m at −63.4° ; 4.24 m at 135° P3.20 1.31 km north; 2.81 km east

P3.10 (a) 6.1 at 112°; (b) 14.8 at 22° P3.26 788 mi at 48.0° north of east

78 Vectors

P3.32 (a) 4.47 m at 63.4°; (b) 8.49 m at 135° P3.50 a = 5.00 , b = 7.00

2 tan −1

FG 1 IJ

P3.52

H nK

P3.36 4.64 m at 78.6°

P3.54 25.4 s

P3.38 (a) 10.4 cm; (b) 35.5°

P3.56 (a) 7.17 km; (b) 6.15 km

P3.40 1.43 × 10 4 m at 32.2° above the horizontal

P3.58 7.87 N at 97.8° counterclockwise from a

P3.42 −220 i + 57.6 j = 227 paces at 165° horizontal line to the right

P3.44 e j

(a) 3.12 i + 5.02 j − 2.20k km; (b) 6.31 km P3.60 b−2.00 m sgj ; its velocity vector

P3.62 (a) a10.0 m, 16.0 mf ; (b) see the solution

P3.46 e j

(a) 15.1i + 7.72 j cm;

P3.48 (a) 74.6° north of east; (b) 470 km P3.66 (a) 0.079 8N; (b) 57.9°; (c) 32.1°

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