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Fabric&Fibers:Weaving

Weavingismakingfabricbybringingone

setofthreadscalledthewe)through

anothersetcalledthewarp.

Warp

We<

Warp

WeavingisdoneonaLoom

ThisisasimpleRigidHeddleLoom

Wheredoyouthinktheheddleis?

Weavingthetwosetsofthreadsclosetogether
makesstrongfabricthatisgoodforblankets,
coatsorbags.

Weavingthetwosetsofthreadsfurtherapart
makesso<erfabricwhichcandrapeandis
goodforscarvesorcurtains.

ThisisabasketmadebyJoeHoganinGalway.
Basketmakersalsoweaveexcepttheyusewillow.

Basket

Wearegoingtolearnfournewthings
tohelpusweaveaminield

howtomaketheloom

howtostarttoweave

howtochangecoloursoraddmorewool

howtoadddecoraIon

Thinkaboutelds!

Thinkaboutelds

Whatdoweusuallyseeinand
Whatdoweusuallyseeinandaroundelds?
aroundelds?
Animals

Flowers

Crops

Hedges

Houses

Rivers

Whatwillyourminieldlooklike?

RecordyourideasthroughdrawingandwriIng

Whatcolourswillyouuse?

Willyouusewoolorfabricstripsorsomethingelse?

WhatdecoraIonscanyoundathometoinclude?

CollectMaterials

Crochetthread
Embroiderythread
Feathers
Sequins
Beads
Sparklystring
Cutupfabric
Piecesoffelt
Woolbers(uy)
Paper
Foundobjects

Materials
wool(tomakethewarp)

strongcardboard

ruler

pencilorpen

scissors
forkorwidecomb
largetapestryneedle

MakeyourownLoom

Howtomaketheloom
Step1

Step2

Step3

Step4

Howtostarttoweave

Step1

Step2

Remember

TakeyourIme,
cra<speoplespendyears
learningtheircra<.

ThisisyourrstIme!

ThemoreyoupracIcethe
easierinbecomes.

Couldyoushowsomeone
athomehowtoweave?

Step3

Howtochangecolours
Howtochangecolours
Step1

Step2

Step3

Step4

HowtoadddecoraIon

Feathers

PomPoms

Sequins

Fabricorribbon

Finishinganddisplayingyourweaving

Takingtheweavingotheloom

Finishinglooseends

Whatcanyouseeinmyminield?


Thisloomcanbeusedagain.

Istheresomethingelseyou
couldweave?

Howwouldyoumakeabigger
project?

Whatwillyoumakenext?

Dontforgettokeeparecord
ofyourideas!

Reect&Respond

WorkshopDesign:DorindaMcCormack
Editedby:CarrieLynam

ProgrammeofCCoIEducaIonDept.2012/13

www.learncra<design.ie

Slide1

Overview
Thistutorialwillprovideyourclasswiththebasicsinweavingusingacardboardloom.
Notonlywilltheylearnhowtomakealoombuttheskillslearnedcanbebuiltuponinfutureprojects.
Theywilllearnhowtosettheloom,howtodosimpleweaving,howtochangecolourandhowtoadddecoraIon
withintheweaving.
Thelessonisveryusefulfordevelopingnemotorskillswithoutbeingtoodelicateorneandtheloomcanbeadapted
tohavemorespacebetweenthethreadsforyoungerchildrenorthosewhoyouknowmayencounterdiculIes.

Dura?on

Thislessonshouldtaketwohoursbutthereisexibilitywithinthat.
ThestudentswillhavetousetheweavingskillstheylearntocreateaminieldsothisprovidesyouwithtwoopIons.
a) talkaboutthethemeofdesigningaminieldbeforelearningtheskillsandthengoingthrougheachstepwiththem(youdoinga
demonstraIonandthepupilsfollowingbuttotheirowndesign)
b) splitthelessonintotwoparts,lessononebeingtheskillsandlessontwomakingyourowndesigni.e.minield.
HealthandSafety

Thestudentswillbeusingscissors,tapestryneedles(whicharequiteblunt)andafork.Thestandardhealthandsafetyprocedures
thatyouusewithanyartlessonwillbesucientbutaswithanygroupofchildrentherewillalwaysbesomewhoneedalialeextra
supervision.

Curriculum/Integra?on

ThislessonwillIeinnicelywithhistory(howclothwasmadeinthepast,theindustrialrevoluIon),geography(theshapeofelds
andecology)andmaths(calculaIngthesizeoftheloomandmeasuringthespacesbetweenthethreads).
Orallanguageskillscanbedevelopedbyaskingthechildrentodescribetheirnishedpieces,theirinspiraIonandhowthey
thinktheirworkshouldbedisplayedorused.

AgeRange

Thelessonshouldbesuitableforchildrenfromthirdclassandolder.Agoodsecondclassmaybeabletomanageitiftheloomis
adaptedtohavewiderspacesbetweenthethreads.Theweavingcanbemademorecomplicatedforacompetentgroupofolder
childrenanditisanexcellentacIvitytohaveonstandbya<erwardsforearlynishers.

MaterialsNeeded

Thematerialsneededmaybeinyourartboxalready.Ifnottheyareeasilysourcedandthechildrenmayhavesomeofthemat
home.
Strongcardboard(Iusedthecardenvelopesforphotos.Theycanbeusedagainiftheweavingisremovedcarefullyattheend
oftheproject)
Wool
Tapestryneedle(thesecanbemetalorplasIc)
Ruler,pen/pencilandscissors
Fork(topackdowntheweaving)
Extramaterialstodecoratetheweaving:embroiderythread,sequins,feathers,pompoms,fabricstripsorribbon,woolbre,
wrappingstringetc

Slide2

Fabricthiscanalsobecalledmaterialorcloth
We<thesearethethreadsthatgofromsidetoside
Warpthesethreadsgofromtoptoboaomandareusuallyalialestrongerthanthewe<threads.
Loomthisisthemachine/toolusedtoweave.Theycanvaryinsizefromsmallenoughtoholdinyourhandtobigenoughtoll
aroom.Mostnonindustrial/largescalehandweaverswillhaveeitherarigidheddleloomoraloomwith4to8sha<s.These
aresmallenoughtouseathomewithoutneedingaroomoftheirown!
PegloomsandweavingsIcksareotheropIonsforweavinglessonswithchildren.

Asimpleweaveiscalledatabbyweaveanditmeansthatthethreadsgounder,over,under,overfromonesidetothenext
andthendotheoppositeonthewayback.
Becauseitissosimple,varietycanbeaddedbychangingcoloursorusingdierenttexturesofwoole.g.Achunky/bobblywoolandasmooth,
newool

Slide3
Warp,We<

Slide4

Loomthisisthemachine/toolusedtoweave.Theycanvaryinsizefromsmallenoughtoholdinyourhandtobigenoughtoll
aroom.Mostnonindustrial/largescalehandweaverswillhaveeitherarigidheddleloomoraloomwith4to8sha<s.These
aresmallenoughtouseathomewithoutneedingaroomoftheirown!

Theheddleisthepieceatthebackofthepicturewiththethreadsgoingthroughit.
ItisdividedbyplasIcstripswithgapsbetweenthestripsandholesinthestrips.Whenyouli<theheddlethethreadsintheholesare
raisedupandwhenyoulowertheheddlethesethreadsgodown.Thiscreatesspace(calledashed)fortheshualetopassthrough.The
shualeisthepieceofwoodinthecentreofthepicturewiththewoolwoundaroundit.A<ereachrowisdone,theheddleisusedtopush
thewoolintoplace(justasyouwillusetheforklaterinthelesson).

Slide5

Whenthewarpthreadsareclosetogetherandthewe<threadsarecloselypackedin.Therearenogapsandthefabricisstronger.
Inthisexamplethewarpthreadsarenavyandthewe<threadisvariegated,causingastripeeect.

AskingQues?ons
Asktheclasswhyitisimportanttohavestrongfabricforcoatsandbagsandblankets?

Slide6

Herethewarpandwe<threadsarelotsofdierentcolours.Therearelargespacesbetweenthem.
DrapemeansthatthefabricisnotsI,itwillhanginnicefolds(likeascarfwould)andcanbeabitoaty.

AskingQues?ons
Askthechildrentoimagingascarfmadefromdenimandwhetherithasgooddrape.

Slide7

BasketMaking
AskingQues?ons
Doyouhavebasketsathome?
Whataretheymadefrom?
AretheyfuncIonalordecoraIve?

Slide8

Thechildrenwillneedtoknowthesebasicsofweavingbeforetheymaketheirowneld.
Youmaywanttotreatthislessonasawaytolearnthebasicsbeforelejngthemoontheirowndesigns.

Ifnot,theeasiestthingtodoislookoverthebasicsrstyourselfbeforepresenIngthelessonandthenhelp/advisethechildrenonhow
tousethetechniquestocreateaneecte.g.Changingcolourcanbeusedtomakeastreamintheeld,toshowthestripedeectofa
ploughedeldetc
AddingdecoraIoncanalsobeusedthiswaye.g.addingablueribboncouldbeariver,addingafeathercouldshowchickens,addingwool
brecouldmeansheep.

Slide9

GivethechildrenImetothinkabouttheeldstheyknowortheirideaofwhataeldmight/shouldhave.
Theycanjotitdown,dothink,pair,shareorageneralbrainstormwithyou.

Slide10

TheseareonlysuggesIons.Lettheclasscomeupwithideasrst.ThenrevealthedierentsuggesIonshereonebyone.

Showvisuals
Haveatablewithwools,threads,etcatthetopoftheclasssostudentscanstarttovisualizethematerialtheywillbeusing.
(SeeSlide13)
Exampleofabrainstormsession.
Astudentsuggeststheyseeanimalsinaeld,askthemwhatkind,iftheysaysheepforexapmle,askthemwhatkindofmaterial,
colour,texturewouldtheyusetorepresentsheep.

Slide11

Encouragethestudentstodesign.Itisimportanttopromotethatchildrenkeeparecordoftheirideasandtheprocess.Thismeansthat
theycanreferbackandseehowtheymadetheirdecisionsandthinkaboutwaystochangeorimprovetheirdesigninthefuture.The
planningstagealsohelpsthemtothinkaboutthematerialstheywillneedandhowtheywanttousetheminadvance.

Slide12

Materials
crochetthread
embroiderythread
Feathers
pompoms
sequins
Christmassparklystring
cutupfabric(youcoulduseribbonorrecycleclothesespeciallytshirts)
oldfeltshapesand
woolbre
Youcouldalsousebeadsorfoundobjectse.g.acorncups(punch/drillaholeinthem),Issuepaperetc.
Letthechildrenexploredierentmaterialsthatmaybeintheartboxanddiscussiftheythinkitcouldbeused.Theymayalsosuggestthing
theyhaveathomeforfurtherprojects.

Slide13

Iusedasmallcardboardenvelopandthencutitdownfurthertosize.
Haveanideaaboutthenishedsizeofyourpiece.Minewas7cmby12cmwhennished(otheloom).
Theworkingareaontheloomwas8cmx13cmsoyoucanseetherewillbealialebitofshrinkagewhen
theworkcomesotheloom.

Slide14

Loomthisisthemachine/toolusedtoweave.Theycanvaryinsizefromsmallenoughtoholdinyourhandtobigenoughtoll
aroom.Mostnonindustrial/largescalehandweaverswillhaveeitherarigidheddleloomoraloomwith4to8sha<s.These
aresmallenoughtouseathomewithoutneedingaroomoftheirown!

Slide15

Step1:Measurein1cmfromtheedgeatthetopandboTomofthecardboardanddrawaline.

Step2:Decideonthewidthofyourpieceandcentreitonthecard.(Ichoose8cm).MarkothelineatthetopandboTomin0.5cm
intervals.Cutstraightlinesdowntothesemarks.

Slide16

Step3:Chooseyourwool(donotcutityet)andwinditoncearoundtherstlargetab.Thenbringthewooldownfromthetop(atfrontof
loom)andwrapitaroundtherstsmallboaomtab(goingfromthefronttotheback,aroundthetabandthenouttothefrontagain).
Bringthewooluptothetopandwrapitaroundtherstsmalltabinthesameway.ConInueinthiswayunIlyougettothelastlargetab
attheboaom.Wrapthewoolaroundthisonceandnowyoucancutthewool.
Becarefulnottopullthewooltoo?ghtandtomakesureitgoesrightdownintothelinesyouhavecut

Step4:Tocheckifyourwooliswrappedtherightway,lookattheback.Itshouldlooklikethis.

Slide16

Step1:Cutapieceofwoolaslongasyourarmspan.(Forbeginnersifyouuseapiecelongerthanthisitsinclinedtogetknoaed).
Threadthewoolthroughtheneedleandbegintoweaveitthroughtheloomgoingunder,over,under,over,pulltheneedle,under,over,
under,over,pulltheneedlerighttotheend.Ifyoudontpulltheneedlethrougheverynowandthenitwontbelongenoughtogofrom
onesidetotheother.

Step2:Onceyouhavegonetotheotherside,pullthewoolgentlyunIlthereisanendofapprox5cmle<andthenstop.Usetheprongs
oftheforktogentlypushthewooldowntotheline.

Slide17

Step3:Youcanuseyourngerstoweaveinthe5cmlooseendmakingsurethisImetogoover,under.Thiswillmakeyourworksecure.
ItsoktogoonethreadataIme
ConInueweavingeachlinemakingsuretousetheoppositepaaernforeachline.Whenyougettotheendofaline.Pullthewool
throughunIlitlookslikethepicturethenusetheforktopushitdown.

Usingtheoppositepaaernmeansthatifyouwentoverathreadoneline,yougounderitinthenextline.Itsreallyimportanttodothis.

Notes
BecarefulnottopullthewooltooIghtlyorworkwillgetskinnier!
Alsoifyouleaveittoolooseitwonthaveaniceshapeattheedgeswhenyourenished.
Itsoktounpickalineanddoitagainifyoumakeamistake.

Encourageandreasurestudentsiftheyarendingithardtomasteritatrst.RecallaImewhentherewassomethingtheycould
notdothattheynowndsimple.

Slide16

Note
Whenyouneedtochangeacolourorwhenyourunoutofwoolandneedtoaddmorethesameprocedureapplies.

Step1:Itseasiertochangeoraddattheendofaline.InthispictureIhadjustenoughtonishthepreviouslinebutnotenoughto
doanother.

Step2:Takethewooloutoftheneedleanduseyourngerstoweavetheendthrough.ItsoktogoonethreadataIme(but
remembertoweaveintheoppositewayagain!)

Slide17

Step3:Cutanewpieceofwoolandthreadyourneedle.Begintoweaveatthestartofthelinefollowingthesamepaaernasthe
lialeendandpullthewoolthroughunIlitoverlapsyourlastpiecebyatleast3to4cm.

Step4:ConInueweavingasnormal,pushingthewoolintoplacewiththeforka<ereachrow/line.Youcanseehowtheendsofthe
oldandnewcolourwillblendinnicely.

Slide18

Feathers:Thesearegreatforweavinginusethequillendasifitwereyourneedle,weavingfromonesidetothenext.Whenyou
gettotheend,conInuethenextlinewithyourwoolandneedlemakingsuretofollowtheoppositepaaern.

PomPoms:Whenyougettotheplaceyouwanttoputyourpompomstop,threadthewoolthroughit,pullthewoolrightthrough
thepompomandthenconInuetheweaving.

Slide19

Sequins:Theseareputinthesamewayasthepompoms.Whenyougettotheplaceyouwanttoputyoursequinstop,threadthewool
throughit,pullthewoolrightthroughthesequinandthenconInuetheweaving.

Ribbon/Fabricstrips:Inditeasiesttotakethewooloutoftheneedle,threadtheribbon/fabricthroughitandthenweavetheline.
ThenrethreadyourneedleandconInueweavingwiththewool,rememberingtofollowtheoppositepaaern.

Slide20

Finishingotheweavingisjustasimportantastheweavingitselfanditneedstobedonecarefullysothatallyourhardworkwilllastand
looklovely!

Slide21

Onceyouhavewoveninasmuchwoolasyoucan,itisImetotaketheworkotheloom.Tidyoyournalendaswedidwhenwewere
changingcolours.
Itwillbeeasiertotaketheworkoifyouputaveryslightcurve/bendinthecard.Youngerchildrenmayneedassistance.
Gentlyli<thewoolloopsothecardboardtabs.Dothisslowlyandcarefullyandyoullbeabletousetheloomagain.
Whentheworkisotheloomcompletely,therewillbelialewoolloopsle<atthetopandboaombutifyousmooththeweavingout
gently,theseloopswillbelled.

Slide22

Nowyouwillhavetheendsatthestartandnishoftheloomle<andtheseneedtobetakencareofcarefullysothatourworkdoesnt
unravel.
Note
Takeyour?mewiththisnextstep.
Threadtheendthroughtheneedleandworkingfromoneendtothenext,bringtheneedlethrougheachloopfromtoptoboaom.
Whenyougettotheendtherewillbesomewool.

Slide23

LookingAc?vity
Ihaveariverwithaswaninit,aploughedpartwithsomeseedsandsomeivyinthehedgeattheend.
ThechildrenmayseeotherthingstheyrefreetoputanyinterpretaIononititsintheeyeofthebeholderastheysay!

Slide24

DisplayIdeas
IthoughtthatmyweavinglookednicestonitssideandIcouldputitinapictureframeinthisposiIon.
AnotheropIonistomakealialewallhangingoutofitbyaaachingittoalollipopsIckoratwig.
Ifyourchildrenmakelotsofdierenteldsyoucouldarrangethem/pinthemonthenoIceboardtolooklikeahugelandscapeor
likethecloakfromthestoryofSt.Brigid

Slide25

Someideasforthefuture:
Remembertogetthechildrentothinkthroughthedesignprocess,tokeeprecordsandtouseathemeorsomethingforinspiraIon.
SomeImes(forahardchallengeonceinawhile)itsinteresIngtoseewhattheycancomeupwithwhentheyarelimitede.g.Whats
themostinteresIng/adventurousyoucanbewhenyoucanonlyusetwocoloursandtwotypesofdecoraIon?

Bookmarkers
Coasters
MiniWallhangingsorlargewallhangings(usealargerpieceofcard)
Sewpiecestogethertomakeacushion

Slide26

ItisimportanttoallocateImeattheendofthemakingprocesstoreectonwhathasbeenaccomplished.

Createatemporaryclassroomgallerybylayingalltheworkoutonatableandgatheringtheclassaround.
AskthemquesIonsabouttheprocess.Suchas..

Ifyouhadtodescribetosomeonewhowasabsenttodayhowyoumadethiscouldyou?Askthemtodemonstrate.
Wasthereapartoftheprocessyoufoundmoredicult?
Didanyonendithardatrstthengetthehangofit?Howdidyougureitout?
Whatelsecouldyoumakefromwire?

Thechildrenwilldirectthediscussionwiththeirresponses.

Discusshowcra<makersspendyearspracIcingtobecomehighlyskilled.Explaintothemthattheyaretryingcra<swithnewmaterials
fortherstImeandtobeproudoftheiraccomplishments!