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Shanghai, China

(English Edition, Vol. 18, No. 10, Oct. 1997)

MODIFICATION

IN THE THEORY

BUCKLING

ON FLEXURAL-TORSIONAL

OF STRUCTURES

E Guokang (3P!Zi&)

(Received Aug. 1, 1995; Communicated by Dai Shiqiang)

Abstract

In this paper,

the problems

buckling

of structures

restricted

to certain

existing

in the present

development

order of displacements

Abstract

theory

on flexural-torsional

procedure

and rotations

the mathematical

is found

to be

by the present

description

of actual

buckling of

procedure

of structures.

New geometric

Theflexural-torsional

one-dimensional problem

the motion

of a rigid flying

plate underequations

explosiveareattack has

formulated

set of the

new polytropic

potential variational

equation andproducts

neutral equals

equilibriumto three. In

an analytic

solution and

onlya when

index of detonation

general, a equations

numericalareanalysis

In this buckling

paper, however,

by structures.

utilizing the

"weak" shock

got for istherequired.

flexural-torsional

analysis of

Examples

behavior of

the

reflection

shock

in

the

explosive

products,

and

applying

the

small

parameter

purare given

to detect the numerical difference between the modtfied theory and the

terbation method, an analytic, first-order approximate solution is obtained for the problem of flying

present accepted theory.

plate driven by various high explosives with polytropic indices other than but nearly equal to three.

Final velocities of flying plate obtained agree very well with numerical results by computers. Thus

Key words

flexural-torsional

geometric

an analytic formula

with two

parameters of buckling,

high explosive

(i.e. equation,

detonationrotations,

velocityorder

and polytropic

index) for estimation of the velocity of flying plate is established.

I. Introduction

It was until 1899 that the first treatment

was published of flexural-torsional

buckling by

1. Introduction

MicheW who considered the lateral buckling of beams of narrow rectangular cross-section and

flying-plate

ffmds its toimportant

use effects

in the study

of behavior

whose Explosive

work wasdriven

extended

in 1905 technique

by Timoshenkot]

include the

of warping

torsion ofin

materials

under

intense

impulsive

loading,

shock

synthesis

of

diamonds,

and

explosive

welding

I-section beams. Subsequent work in 1929 by Wagnerc41 and later work by others led toand

the

cladding of metals. The method of estimation of flyor velocity and the way of raising it are questions

development of a general theory of fiexural-torsional

buckling, as stated by Timoshenko and

of common interest.

incorporated

in

the

textbooks

of

Timoshenkot31

and

Bleicht].

then,

all plate,

the works

about

Under the assumptions of one-dimensional plane detonation Since

and rigid

flying

the normal

flexural-torsional

buckling

analysis

of structures

have.

based

this system

generaloftheoryt631.

approach of solving

the problem

of motion

of flyor

is been

to solve

the upon

following

equations

The displacements

the flexural-torsional

structures

are(Fig.

shown

governing

the flow field ofofdetonation

products behind

the flyor

I): in Fig. 1.

--ff

ap +u_~_xp+

au

au

aS

as

au

y1

=o,

=0,

(i.0

a--T

=o,

p =p(p, s),

where p, p, S, u are pressure, density, specific entropy and particle velocity of detonation products

respectively, with the trajectory R of reflected shock of detonation wave D as a boundary and the

trajectory F of flyor as another

Both are

the position of R and the state paraFig. 1 boundary.

Displacements

andunknown;

rotations

meters on it are governed by the flow field I of central rarefaction wave behind the detonation wave

D and

by initial

stageof,ofMacau.

motionP.of0. flyor

position of F and the state parameters of products

FST,

University

Box also;

3001, the

Macau

975

293

E Guokang

976

The centroidal axis is denoted as 2 axis. The X and Y axes represent the two principal

axes of the cross-section of the flexural-torsional

member, respectively. The origin is at the

centroid of the cross-section. The shear center of cross-section is S(3c,,, yO). The rotation of

the cross-section of the flexural-torsional member around the shear center axis perpendicular

to the cross-section is denoted as $. The shear center displacements u, ZT,zea are along the

directions of Xa, Ya and Zs axes, respectively. For the present adcepted theory, the

displacements of an arbitrary point P(x, y) on the cross-section of the flexural-torsional

member are as foIlows1131

up=u-O(Y-YJ,

vJp=w&-u~x-x~

~P=~+$b-Kl)

-~(Y--Y,~l--u'~Y-Y,+~(~-~,)l+~~'

>

(1.1)

from which the normal strain at the point P with the assumption of inextensional neutral axis

Abstract

can be derived as

&pEone-dimensional

( - x11 -yv+w~)+[u2+v2+(X2+y2)~2]/2-Xovcp+yOU~

The

problem of the motion of a rigid flying plate under explosive attack has

an analytic -x(x,cb'"+~~")~y(-yy,gi'2+~u")

solution only when the polytropic index

of detonation products equals to three. In

-t-(x2SyZ)~'~/2

(1.W

general, a numerical analysis is required. In this paper, however, by utilizing the "weak" shock

behavior

in which of the reflection shock in the explosive products, and applying the small parameter purterbation method, an analytic, first-order approximate solution is obtained for the problem of flying

plate driven by various high explosives with polytropic indices other than but nearly equal to (1

three.

.zb)

Final velocities of flying plate obtained agree very well with numerical results by computers. Thus

an analytic

formula

parameters ofPO

high

explosive

(i.e. detonation

andshear

polytropic

where

A is the

area with

of thetwo

cross-section,

is the

perpendicular

distance velocity

from the

center

index)

for

estimation

of

the

velocity

of

flying

plate

is

established.

to the mid-thickness tangent of cross-section, s is the distance along the mid-thickness line, w

is the warping displacement and ( ) represents the derivative of ( ) with respect to z.

1. Introduction

Based on equation (1.2a), the following

flexural-torsional buckling equation for structures

with monosymmetric cross-section subjected to bending moment M, and axial force N is

driven flying-plate

ffmds its

important use in the study of behavior of

derivedExplosive

with variational

principle oftechnique

total potential

energy[:

materials under intense impulsive loading, shock synthesis of diamonds, and explosive welding and

cladding of metals. The method of estimation of flyor velocity and the way of raising it are questions

of common interest.

Under the assumptions of one-dimensional plane detonation and rigid flying plate, the normal

approach +~SLM,(2~+P,9")d~+~~

of solving the problem of motion of

is to solve the following

system of equations

% flyor

(YP -Yo)9zdr++C

Qg(Y*-YoM2=0

governing the flow field of detonation products behind the flyor (Fig. I):

0.3)

--ff

=o, load on the beam-column in the

in which gr, 4~ are the concentrated

and+ distributed

ap load

+u_~_xp

au

direction of y axis respectively; UQ and Y B are the distances of the points of application of the

au

au

1

=0, G is shear modulus; I,, I,, J

loads aI and 4r to centroidai axis; E is ffexuraiy modulus:

(i.0

and I, are moments of inertia, polar aSmomenta s of inertia and warping constant of cross-section;

=o, of the beam-column;

rC = (1,+1,)/A

; A is the area of a--T

the cross-section

p

=p(p, s),

where p, p, S, u are pressure, density, specific entropy and particle velocity of detonation products

respectively,

the trajectory

R of reflected

shock of detonation

D as a boundary

the

With thewith

calculus

of variations,

the differential

equilibrium wave

equations

for the and

buckled

trajectorycan

F of

as another

boundary.

Both

position

be flyor

derived

from equation

(1.3)

to are

be unknown; the position of R and the state parameters on it are governed by the flow field I of central rarefaction wave behind the detonation wave

i*Nof(u+yoqs)

-Gf,&>

(1.4a)

D and (EIrUfl)

by initialfl=stage

motion of Iflyor

also; the position of F and the state parameters of products

(El&)

v - (GJ&) =[N(r~+21;;)g,1+(NUou)M2.u -I-(M,jJ,#)

(1,4b),

293

977

Buckling of Structures

The buckling load, as it is well- known, can be calculated with assumed mode of

displacement u and rotation

$. The present accepted theory of flexural-torsional buckling of

structures is just based upon equations (1.3) and (1.4).

II.

Problems

in the Present

In the following

Accepted

Theory

If the original shear center axis is defined as the rotational axis around which the crosssection rotates by 4, the displacements u and Z( are defined as the shear center displacements

of the cross section in the directions of the Xs and Ys axes, respectively, the displacements

of point P(x, y) on the cross-section can be got in two ways according to rotational orders.

In one way, the cross-section rotates around original shear center axis by 4 before it rotates

around theXsandY8

axes by V and u, respectively, which means that the rotational order

other way, the cross-section rotates around Xs and

of the crosssection is 4, u 3 II. In the Abstract

--Y

and

u.

respectively

before

it rotates around the original shear center axis by

axes

by

ys

The one-dimensional

motion

of cross-section

a rigid flying plate

has

$, which

means that theproblem

rotationalof the

order

of the

is u,under

v, explosive

4. It is attack

interesting

an

analytic

solution

only

when

the

polytropic

index

of

detonation

products

equals

to

three.

to note that different displacements of point p(x, y) will be resulted from different orders Inof

general, a numerical analysis is required. In this paper, however, by utilizing the "weak" shock

rotational development.

behavior of the reflection shock in the explosive products, and applying the small parameter pur1. If method,

rotations an develop

the order

of 4, utsolution

V , the

coordinates

displaced

point

terbation

analytic, in

first-order

approximate

is obtained

for theofproblem

of flying

P(X,y)

is

plate driven by various high explosives with polytropic indices other than but nearly equal to three.

Final velocities of flying plate obtained agree very well with numerical results by computers. Thus

Xp=U+ToT.T,(X

-X0)(i.e.+X0

(2. la>

an analytic formula with two parameters

of high explosive

detonation velocity and polytropic

index) for

of the velocity

of flying

plate Pis established.

where

Xp estimation

is the coordinate

vector

of point

after the development of displacements and

rotations; and X, is the coordinate vector of shear center in the centroid-original coordinate

Introduction

system OXYZ

U is the displacement1. vector

of shear center;

T,, To-, and T, are the

coordinate-transformational

matrices corresponding to rotational angles I(, -v and

4,

Explosive

driven

in the

of behavior

of

respectively,

which

are flying-plate

expressed, iftechnique

only the ffmds

terms itsupimportant

to seconduse

order

are study

retained,

as follows:

materials under intense impulsive loading, shock synthesis of diamonds, and explosive welding and

cladding of metals. The method of estimationx0 of flyor velocity and the way of raising it are questions

of common interest.

U=

Yo

9

Under the assumptions of one-dimensional plane detonation and rigid flying plate, the normal

approach of solving the problem of motion 0of flyor is to solve the following system of equations

1--u2/2field of 0detonation

u

~

1 flyor (Fig.

0

0

governing thec flow

products

behind the

I):

xp={

;;},x$ }Jo=

i I

T, = I

-u

1

0

I -cj5/2

T,=

r$

0

In the following

,

0

I

T,== I o

l--uf2/2 --ff

0

ap +u_~_xp+ au

-f$

0au

1 -p/2

0

analysis.

01

1 aS

au

y1

I--v~/~

=o, -u

1 -v

2/z

(2. lb)

=0,

(i.0

as

a--T

=o,

. , p(~~1

U s),

, v, 4)

=p(p,

where

p, p, S, u are

pressure,

and particle expressions

velocity of detonation

gquations

(2. la)

and density,

(2. lb) specific

lead toentropy

the following

for the products

displaced

respectively, with the trajectory R of reflected shock of detonation wave D as a boundary and the

coordinates:

trajectory F of flyor as another boundary. Both are unknown; the position of R and the state parameters on it are governed by the flow field I of central rarefaction wave behind the detonation wave

D and by initial stage of motion of flyor also; the position of F and the state parameters of products

293

978

E Guokang

where Z=O. Equations (2.1~) with z=O would be the basis for the present accepted theory if

far, faz, fas and fah wereignored.

2. If the rotations develop in the order of u/; v, I$, the coordinates of displaced point

P(x, y) can be expressed as

&=tJ+T~T,L(X-X,)

+X,

(2.2a)

Equations (2:lb) and (2.2a) lead to the following expressions for the displaced coordinates:

xp=x+u-qqy-y,)

&=y+V++(x-x0)

zp=z+w~-u(x-xJ

+Uz+fal(4

+vZ+fWb;

--u b--L4

u, v, (t) b-x,) +fbr(&j u, v, #) (y-y,)

I

+a#)

(224

Equations (2.2b) are different from equations (2. Ic) and f a. is generally different from f b . .

Abstract

The above strange paradoxical phenomena is actually from the misunderstanding and

false The

description

on the problem

flexural-torsional

buckling

procedure

of under

structures

in the

present

one-dimensional

of the motion

of a rigid

flying plate

explosive

attack

has

accepted

theory.

an analytic solution only when the polytropic index of detonation products equals to three. In

general,

analysis

is required.axes

In are

this given,

paper, the

however,

utilizing theorder

"weak"

shockto

Aftera numerical

the definitions

of rotational

differentby rotational

leading

behavior

of

the

reflection

shock

in

the

explosive

products,

and

applying

the

small

parameter

purdifferent coordinates of displaced point P(x, y) and subsequently leading to different results

terbation

method,

an

analytic,

first-order

approximate

solution

is

obtained

for

the

problem

of

flying

of the flexural-torsional buckling analysis shows that the buckling of structure is relevant to

plate driven by various high explosives with polytropic indices other than but nearly equal to three.

the

rotations

of agree

the cross-section.

other words,

present accepted

Finaldevelopment

velocities oforder

flyingofplate

obtained

very well withInnumerical

results the

by computers.

Thus

theory

is

just

valid

for

some

development

orders

of

rotations

of

the

cross-section,

does

an analytic formula with two parameters of high explosive (i.e. detonation velocity and which

polytropic

not

coincide

with theof-physical

behavior

flexural-torsional

index)

for estimation

the velocity

of flyingof plate

is established. buckling of structures. Actually,

the procedure of buckling is free of the development order of the rotations, whic?r means that

the rotations develop simultaneously and

with ea&h other during the buckling. Because

1. interact

Introduction

an order for the development of rotations was implicitly given to the buckling procedure in the

ffmds its important

of

presentExplosive

accepteddriven

theory,flying-plate

it made technique

the deformations

4, a, vuseorin the

4, study

u, v ofofbehavior

the crossmaterialsofunder

intense impulsive

loading,develop

shock synthesis

diamonds,andandthe

explosive

welding

and

section

flexural-torsional

structure

one afterof another

interaction

among

cladding of metals. The method of estimation of flyor velocity and the way of raising it are questions

them not be correctly taken into account.

of common interest.

Under

the assumptions

of one-dimensional

III.

Modification

in Geometric

Equations plane detonation and rigid flying plate, the normal

approach of solving the problem of motion of flyor is to solve the following system of equations

As discussed

above,

the problem

is resulted

the false description

and

governing

the flow field

of detonation

products behind

the flyorfrom

(Fig. I):

misunderstanding on the flexural-torsional

buckling procedure of structures. In order to solve

the problem, the fact that the displacements

u, v and rotation

6 develop simultaneously,must

--ff

=o,

ap

+u_~_xp

+

au

be reflected in the mathematical description of the coordinates of displaced point P(x, y).

au above

au would

Otherwise, the contradictions mentioned

always

y1

=0, exist no matter how u, v, $

are defined.

(i.0

as

In the following analyses, the aS

above mentioned

assumption that the deformations U, v

a--T

=o,

and 4 are small will not be used any more. The small deformation will just be considered as a

p =p(p, s),

special case.

Before solving the problem, the definitions of u, v and 4 must be given first. Then, the

where p, p, S, u are pressure, density, specific entropy and particle velocity of detonation products

development

of u, VI and $ will be mathematically described in a way that will makeu, n

respectively, with the trajectory R of reflected shock of detonation wave D as a boundary and the

and

4 develop

simultaneously

so that the

subsequent

results

be free

thethe

development

trajectory

F of flyor

as another boundary.

Both

are unknown;

the will

position

of Rofand

state paraorder

of

u

,

v/and

9.

meters on it are governed by the flow field I of central rarefaction wave behind the detonation wave

D and

initial stageangle

of motion

flyor also;

position

F andthe

thecross-section

state parameters

of products

Thebyrotational

4 is of

defined

as thetheangle

by of

which

rotates

around

original shear center axis. The displacements u and ZI are defined as the shear center

293

Buckling of Structures

979

displacements of the cross-section along the directions of Xs and Ys axes, respectively. The

shear center moves during deformations, so does the shear center axis. The shear center axis is

defined as the axis that passes the shear center and is always parallel to the original shear

center axis, and is denoted as zs. The axes with origin at shear center and always

perpendicular to Xs and Y, during deformations are denoted as x8 and YS, respectively.

The axes with origin always at centroid and perpendicular to X, Y and 2 axes during

defomafions are denoted as x, y and z axes, respectively. It is obvious. that X,Syszs and

XYZ

are two orthogonal coordinate systems and U and -V are the tangent values of the

angles by which the cross -section rotates around 3cB and .Y,s axes, respectively. The

developments of P;, --u 1 and u are from 0 to 4, 0 to --it f and 0 to U , respectively. Each

and [ 0, ZI1 is separated into n sub-intervals, with the

interval of [0, 61, [0, --VI]

length of each sub-interval of LO, 41 being 4/n, that of [ 0, -u ] being --rl/n and that

of [O, u] being u//n. It is assumed thatAbstract

the shear center displacements U, u and rotation

4

of the cross-section develop from zero to final values in n steps with the increases of

The one-dimensional problem of the motion of a rigid flying plate under explosive attack has

-u f /n and Q/n. in each step. Not losing general sense, arbitrary order of 4/n, -d/n,

O/n,analytic

an

solution only when the polytropic index of detonation products equals to three. In

a//n

considered analysis

here foris the

first step

rotations

around

all the the

axes"weak"

are fromshock

zero

general,

ais numerical

required.

In that

this the

paper,

however,

by utilizing

-v/n

and

u/

n,

respectively.

After

the

first

step,

the

coordinates

of

point

P(x,

behavior

to rbln, of the reflection shock in the explosive products, and applying the small parameter pur-y)

terbation

method,

analytic,tofirst-order

is obtainedwarping

for the problem

of flyingas

can be got,

with an

reference

equations approximate

(2.1~) and solution

(2.2b) excluding

displacement,

plate

by various

high explosives

indices

nearly

equal to

three.

followsdriven

because

the rotational

angles with

4/n, polytropic

--u /n and

uJnother

are than

very but

small

for large

value

n:

Final velocities of flying plate obtained agree very well with numerical results by computers. Thus

an analytic formula with two parameters of high explosive (i.e. detonation velocity and polytropic

index) for estimation of the velocity of flying plate is established.

1.

Introduction

Explosive driven flying-plate technique ffmds its important use in the study of behavior of

materials under intense impulsive loading, shock synthesis of diamonds, and explosive welding and

cladding of metals. The method of estimation of flyor velocity and the way of raising it are questions

(3.1)

of common interest.

Under the assumptions of one-dimensional plane detonation and rigid flying plate, the normal

where cr:is a parameter which reflects the difference between equations (2.1~) and (2.2b);fi,f&

approach of solving the problem of motion of flyor is to solve the following system of equations

f3 and .f4the

areflow

algebraic

of the products

u, (Fig.

u and

governing

field ofexpressions

detonation products

behind theofflyor

I): 4 and / or their higher

order terms. The application of parameter CIand terms jr; jz, fs and -64 to equations (3.1)

means that equations (2.1~). (2.2b) or any other equations resulting from certain deformation

--ff

=o,

ap +u_~_xp

+ au

orders may be used here For the following

derivation.

Equation (3.1) can be expressed in the

following form:

au

au

1

X*1==; u+T,(x--X,!

=0,

(i.0

sx,aS = 4+(1~~T,+~T,)(X-xa)+X,

(3.2)

as

a--T

=o,

Tn=T(uIi

n, u//n,

p =p(p,

s), $/n); Tz is also a square matrix, the

components of which are algebraic expressions of the products of u, u and $J and / or their

where

p, S, terms;

u are pressure,

density, specific entropy and particle velocity of detonation products

higher p,order

and

respectively, with the trajectory R of reflected shock of detonation wave D as a boundary and the

trajectory F of flyor as another boundary. Both are unknown; the position of R and the state parameters on it are governed by the flow field I of central rarefaction wave behind the detonation wave

D and by initial stage of motion of flyor also; the position of F and the state parameters of products

xP1--x,--u/n,

change of

P(x,

293

980

E Guokang

section by u/n,

-v//n

and 4/n,

is actually the results of the operation of operator T, on

X-X,

. The coordinate changes of point P(x, y) due to rotations of cross section after

second step, i. e., Xp2 -X0--2U/n,

are the results of the operation of T, on T,,(X-X0),

and so forth, so that

X n=zU/n.+T:,(X-X&+X,,

Xp,=3U/n+T:(X-X,)4-X,

(3.4)

.. .

XPn=

U+T:(X-Xo)+Xr,

free of the development order of 4, ZJ and v; Because

Abstract

The one-dimensional problem of the motion of a rigid flying plate under explosive attack has

an

solution

only y)

when

polytropic index

detonation

products

three.

the analytic

coordinates

of P(x,

afterthedisplacements

u, v,of zusand

rotations

u, equals

vand to (b

are In

general, a numerical analysis is required. In this paper, however, by utilizing the "weak" shock

behavior of the reflection shock inXp=U+exp[TI](X-X,)4-X0

the explosive products, and applying the small parameter (3.6)

purterbation method, an analytic, first-order approximate solution is obtained for the problem of flying

For small displacements U, v and $, Xp may be approximated as

plate driven by various high explosives with polytropic indices other than but nearly equal to three.

Final velocities of flying plate obtained

agree very well with numerical results by computers. Thus

Xp=U+(l+T,+T:/2)(X-Xo)+Xo

(3.7)

an analytic formula with two parameters of high explosive (i.e. detonation velocity and polytropic

Equation

(3.7), together

warping

displacement

G$ and z=O, leads to the following final

index)

for estimation

of thewith

velocity

of flying

plate is established.

displacements of point P(x, Y>:

uP=xP-x=ll-qgy-ylJ)-(qb~+u~)(x-xo)~~-uv(y-yo)/2

1. Introduction

vP=YP-y=v+~(x-xo)-u'v'(x-xo)/2-(~2+v'2)(y-yo)/2

Explosive

driven flying-plate technique ffmds its important use in the study of behavior of

wp=zp-z=ulg

-~rx-x,-~(y-yJ/2l--u[y-y,+~(x-x,)/2l

+a4

materials under intense impulsive loading, shock synthesis of diamonds, and explosive welding and

i

=~-u(x-&//2)-v(y+~x/2)+w~

cladding of metals.

The method of estimation of flyor velocity and the way of raising it are questions

of common interest.

(3.W

Under

the

assumptions

of

one-dimensional

plane

detonation

and

rigid

flying

plate,

the

normal

in which w is the longitudinal displacement of centroid and is expressed as

approach of solving the problem of motion of flyor is to solve the following system of equations

governing the flow field of detonation

products behind the flyor (Fig. I):

w=w,+u(x,-ctyo/2)+v(Yo+~xo/2)

(Wb)

The above derivation makes the buckling procedure free of the development order of

and v I or makes the deformations --ff

U, V + orau4, =o,

14I, v develop simuhaneously,

ap4, +u_~_xp

coincides with the physical behavior au

of flexural-torsional

buckling of structures.

au

1

The length of the deformed element at pointy P(x, =0,y) can be expressed in terms

change rate of UP, VP, wp as follows:aS

as

a--T

=o,

p =p(p, s),

(1 +Ep)dz=&/(dZ+W;dZ)2+

(u;dz)24+J~dZ)2

4, U

which

of the

(i.0

(3.9)

in which EP is the normal strain at point P(x, y). Substituting equations (3.8a) into the

equation

to the following

expression

for normal

strainvelocity

at pointof P(x,

y): products

where p, p,(3.9)

S, uleads

are pressure,

density, specific

entropy

and particle

detonation

respectively, with the trajectory R of reflected shock of detonation wave D as a boundary and the

Ep=-.(ZII-X1(/

+ [u2+v2+

(x; $y~)~2~/~-xovQ)+you~

trajectory

F of flyor as-yoi-my)

another boundary.

Both are unknown;

the position of R and the state parameters on it are governed by the flow field I of central rarefaction wave behind the detonation wave

--x stage

x06++/5v+v)

]-y[ the position

y&b/i)- of~(du-~~u/)]+~(X2+y2)~12

D and by initial

of motion of flyor also;

F and the state parameters of products

I

293

(3.101

Buckling of Structures

981

Because geometric equations are independent of material properties, equations (3.8) and

(3.10) are actually suitable for any material, i. e., elastic or plastic material and so forth.

IV.

Modification

in Pstential

Variatiohal

Equation

f v, in which U is the strain energy

stored in the structure, and V is the potential energy of the loading system. They are expressed

as

upep+tpyp)dAds

u=+\L\,(

5

v,-

)g,u~+qzur,)dz-

(4.1)

(Qrvq+Qzw--&)

Abstract

For equilibrium

of a deformed position, the principle of virtual work requires that

The one-dimensional problem of the motion of a rigid flying plate under explosive attack has

cwr= 0 for all sets of virtual deformations 6u, &Y, Bzar, 64,

an analytic solution only when the polytropic index of detonation products equals to three. In

For aneutral

equilibrium

(buckling)

general,

numerical

analysis is

required. In this paper, however, by utilizing the "weak" shock

behavior of the reflection shock in the explosive products, and applying the small parameter pur-f d2UT

+av+ solution

6V)is =o

(4.28)

terbation method, an analytic, first-order

approximate

obtained for the problem of flying

plate driven by various high explosives with polytropic indices other than but nearly equal to three.

Final

velocities

of flying

plate obtained

for any

set of virtual

deformations

Bs, agree

&I, very

&u, well

84. with

Now numerical results by computers. Thus

an analytic formula with two parameters of high explosive (i.e. detonation velocity and polytropic

index) for estimation of the velocity of flying plate is established.

1.

Introduction

Explosive driven flying-plate technique ffmds its important use in the study of behavior of

materials under intense impulsive loading, shock synthesis of diamonds, and explosive welding and

cladding of metals. The method of estimation of flyor velocity and the way of raising it are questions

of common interest.

Under the assumptions of one-dimensional plane detonation and rigid flying plate, the normal

approach of solving the problem of motion of flyor is to solve the following system of equations

governing the flow field of detonation products behind the flyor (Fig. I):

6*&p=dx*+cYv2+

(4 +y:)6~2-2x~Bv8~f+2y~~u8~f

--ff

=o,

ap +u_~_xp+ au

4 (&W

-dddv)]

-y[,y,B~*-(8~6u8--~6uf)]

au

cyyp=o,

c~~=N/A-kMzy/l~, au T~=O

y1

=0,

--X[2xod42

+ (X+y*)&*

(i.0

(4.3b)

aS

as

a--T ~P=N/A,

=o, hf+=qr=QI=O

(a) For an axially loaded column.

and ~ZP;B=#wg=o

due to equation (3.8a). It assumedp that

during

buckling,

the

centroidal

strain remains zero

=p(p, s),

(inextensional buckling), so that the column buckles under constant force N. The inextensional

where

S, u arelp~

pressure,

density,

specific

andorder

particle

velocity with

of detonation

bucklingp, p,requires

in equation

c3.10)

to beentropy

of small

compared

the other products

buckling

respectively, with the trajectory R of reflected shock of detonation wave D as a boundary and the

and therefore,

-i \LEAwd*the position

arisingof R

from

(4.2bj

deformations

trajectory

F of U,

flyorV, asd,another

boundary. the

Bothterm

are unknown;

and equation

the state parameters

it are governed by the flow field I of central rarefaction wave behind the detonation wave

can be on

ignored.

D and by initial stage of motion of flyor also; the position of F and the state parameters of products

If the buckling deformations

{au, &J, 6w, cS$} are rewritten as {ti, U, zw, d}, then

293

substituting equations (4.3) into equation (4.2) leads to

E Guokang

982

+ GJc,hr2+EI,#2)dz

+$\L~rrll2-tv2+

(4.4)

in which

t-j =I,/A

5 rZ=IplA,

r;=r:+rp,

t-i= I A ddA

conventional

equati&l,

which shows that the modified geometric equations do not affect the buckling

behavior of axially loaded column.

(b) For structures with monosymmetricAbstract

cross-section (i. e., x,=0 ) under the action of

due to equation (3.8b)

axial load N and bending moment M, , we know that 82~q=d2wg=0

The one-dimensional problem of the motion of a rigid flying plate under explosive attack has

and analytic

from equation

an

solution(3.8a),

only when the polytropic index of detonation products equals to three. In

general,c%J+

a numerical

analysis is required. In this paper, however, by utilizing the "weak" shock

-(X-X,)(Buav~+BU~v)-2(~u-yll)(s~s~+6uBu)

behavior of the reflection shock in the explosive products, and applying the small parameter pur6% method,

*=-(x--x,)6u6v-(y*-~o)6~2

(4.5)

terbation

an analytic, first-order approximate solution is obtained for the problem of flying

cYvg=by- various

(x-x,)&80

- (&?-y,)&d2

plate driven

high explosives

with polytropic indices other than but nearly equal to three.

Final velocities of flying plate obtained agree very well with numerical results by computers. Thus

It is assumed

buckling, the

centroidal

strain

the curvature

thepolytropic

principal

an analytic

formulathat

withduring

two parameters

of high

explosive

(i.e. and

detonation

velocityinand

index)

for estimation

of the

of flying

plate is established.

YZ plane

remain zero,

sovelocity

that the

beam-column

buckles under constant axial force N and

bending moment

M,. In this case, the buckling displacements 6~ and 6~ are of a small

order as compared with the other buckling

displacements 6~ and ?$ in equations (4.3), and

1. Introduction

{u, v, w, d}, then

after rewriting the buckling displacements {&, 6v, 6w, Sd} as

Explosive

driven flying-plate

technique

its important

use into the

of behavior

of

substituting

equations

(4.3) and (4.5)

into ffmds

equations

(4.2) leads

thestudy

following

essential

materials under intense impulsive loading, shock synthesis of diamonds, and explosive welding and

forr&la for the buckling of a monosymmetric beam-column with inextensional neutral axis:

cladding of metals. The method of estimation of flyor velocity and the way of raising it are questions

of common interest.

Under the assumptions of one-dimensional plane detonation and rigid flying plate, the normal

approach of solving the problem of motion of flyor is to solve the following system of equations

governing the flow field of detonation products behind the flyor (Fig. I):

--ff

ap +u_~_xp+

in which

au

au

aS

as

au

y1

=o,

(4.6)

=0,

(i.0

a--T

=o,

p =p(p, s),

and the first underlined term is different from its counterpart in equation (1.3), while the

where p,underlined

p, S, u are term

pressure,

specific

entropy

and particle

velocity

of .modified

detonation varitional

products

second

is andensity,

additional

term.

Equation

(4.6) is

just the

respectively,

with

the

trajectory

R

of

reflected

shock

of

detonation

wave

D

as

a

boundary

equation of total potential energy for flexural-torsional buckling analysis of structures. and the

trajectory F of flyor as another boundary. Both are unknown; the position of R and the state parameters

on it are governed

by the flow field

I of central rarefaction

the detonationbeamwave

V.

Modification

in Differential

Equilibrium

Equations wave

of behind

Monosymmetric

D andColumn

by initialforstage

motion of Position

flyor also; the position of F and the state parameters of products

theof Buckled

The buckling equilibrium

beam-column

293

loading ( Un=.Yg=Yai=Yoj

can be obtained

which the functions U, 4 which make

Buckling of Structures

983

according to

(5.1)

stationary

-&(jg)+$$(gQ=o,

(5.2)

-g---&(g-)+&(-$+o

(5.3aj

Abstract

(5.3b)

of theequations

motion offor

a rigid

plate

under explosive

has

which The

are one-dimensional

the differential problem

equilibrium

the flying

buckled

position

U, #J forattack

bending

an analytic solution only when the polytropic index of detonation products equals to three. In

about the y axis and torsion. The underlined parts in equations (5.3) are different from their

general, a numerical analysis is required. In this paper, however, by utilizing the "weak" shock

underlined

equations

(1.4j. Equations

just the

modified

differential

behavior of counterparts

the reflection in

shock

in the explosive

products,(5.3)

and are

applying

the small

parameter

purequilibrium

equations

of

monosymmetric

beam-column

for

buckled

position.

terbation method, an analytic, first-order approximate solution is obtained for the problem of flying

plate driven by various high explosives with polytropic indices other than but nearly equal to three.

VI.

Examples

and Comparisons

Final velocities of flying plate obtained agree very well with numerical results by computers. Thus

an analytic

with two

parameters

of high with

explosive

(i.e.symmetrical

detonation velocity

and polytropic

1. The formula

first example

is about

a cantilever

double

cross-section

subjected

index)

for

estimation

of

the

velocity

of

flying

plate

is

established.

to a concentrated bending moment M, and a concentrated lateral force P at the free end,

respectively, with YP=UJI=Y,;

==u* as is shown in Fig. 2.

1. Introduction

l+----LA

(b)

Explosive driven flying-plate technique ffmds its important use in the study of behavior of

materials under intense impulsive loading, shock synthesis of diamonds, and explosive welding and

cladding of metals. The method of estimation of flyor velocity and the way of raising it are questions

of common interest.

Under the assumptions of one-dimensional plane detonation and rigid flying plate, the normal

approach of solving the problem of motion of flyor is to solve the following system of equations

2 the flyor (Fig. I):

governing the flow field of detonation productsFig.

behind

Because the difference of the new formula from the present accepted formula is from the

--ff

=o,

underlined term in equation (4.6) and

is equal

ap #?=

+u_~_xp

+ to

au zero for double symmetrical cross-secticn,

it is only necessary for us to compare

results1 from the underlined term in equation (4.6)

au the au

with those from its counterpart in equation (1.3) ify only =0,

one mode shape function is chosen for

the description of II and #. For aS

the cantilever,

the lateral displacement

as

a--T

=o,

assumed as follows:

u=uo[

p =p(p, s),

l-cos(?ccz/nl)],

and rotation

(i.0

are

&=q5,( I-COS(.7tZj2L)l

p, S, u are

density,

entropyand

and rotation

particle velocity

of detonation

products

inwhere

whichp, uO,

arepressure,

the shear

center specific

displacement

of cross-section

at free

end: L

respectively, with the trajectory R of reflected shock of detonation wave D as a boundary and the

is the span length of the beam. Substituting the above two mode-shape functions into equation

trajectory F of flyor as another boundary. Both are unknown; the position of R and the state para(Imeters

.?) andonequation

(4.6) leads

to flow

the following

relativerarefaction

buckling wave

loads:behind the detonation wave

it are governed

by the

field I of central

D and by initial stage of motion

of flyor also; the position

of F and the

Mcr/Mcro=0.554,

Pc,/Pc,o=

1.162state parameters of products

where the numerator

is the buckling load got with the new formula. w.hiie the denominator

293

is

984

E Guokana

2. Another example is about a simple beam with double symmetrical cross-section

subjected toconcentrated bending moment M at its two ends and concentrated lateral force P

at the midspan, respectively, with y~=yr=y,=O,

as is shown in Fig. 3.

e-4

(at

k----L------+(

(b)

Fig.

3

Abstractas follows:

u=u,sin(m/l),

$=&sin

(m/L)

The one-dimensional problem of the motion of a rigid flying plate under explosive attack has

an which

analytic

whencenter,

the polytropic

indexandof rotation

detonation

products equals

to three. InL

4, are only

the shear

displacement

of cross-section

at mid-span,

in

u,, solution

general,

a

numerical

analysis

is

required.

In

this

paper,

however,

by

utilizing

the

"weak"

shock

is the span length of the beam. Substituting the above two mode-shape functions into equation

behavior of the reflection shock in the explosive products, and applying the small parameter pur(1.3) and equation (4.6) leads to the following relative buckling loads:

terbation method, an analytic, first-order approximate solution is obtained for the problem of flying

plate driven by various high explosives

with 1,

polytropic

indices other

than but nearly equal to three.

Pcr/Pcro=

1,203

M crIMcro=

Final velocities of flying plate obtained agree very well with numerical results by computers. Thus

in

theformula

symbolswith

usedtwo

areparameters

of the same

as those(i.e.

useddetonation

in example

1. and polytropic

an which

analytic

of means

high explosive

velocity

From

the above ofexamples,

it is

that isthe

buckling loadings got with equation (4.6)

index)

for estimation

the velocity

of known

flying plate

established.

may be increased or decreased by about twenty percent and sometimes keep unchanged as

compared to those got with equation (1.3).

1. Introduction

VII.

Conclusions

Explosive driven flying-plate technique ffmds its important use in the study of behavior of

materials

intenseexisting

impulsive

loading,

shock

synthesis

of diamonds,

and explosive welding

and

1. Theunder

problems

in the

present

accepted

theory

on the flexural-torsional

buckling

cladding

of

metals.

The

method

of

estimation

of

flyor

velocity

and

the

way

of

raising

it

are

questions

analysis of structures are discussed and indicated through detailed analysis on the formulation

of common

of

geometric interest.

equations. Based on the analysis it can be concluded that the present accepted

Under the assumptions of one-dimensional plane detonation and rigid flying plate, the normal

theory makes the buckling procedure restricted to certain order of development

of

approach of solving the problem of motion of flyor is to solve the following system of equations

displacements

andfield

rotation,

so the products

present behind

accepted

theory(Fig.

canI):not reflect actual buckling

governing the flow

of detonation

the flyor

behavior.

2. A. fresh idea is proposed for the mathematical description of actual flexural-torsional

--ff

=o,

ap geometric

+u_~_xp+ equations

au

buckling procedure of structures. New

are formulated and new formulae

au

au

1 of structures. The conventional potential

are got for the flexural-torsional

buckling

analysis

y

=0,

variational equation and differential equilibrium equations are modified, which leads to (i.0

a set

aS

a s differential equilibrium equations which can

of new potential variational equation

and

a--T

=o,

reasonably reflect the buckling procedure.

3. The geometric equations got p in=p(p,

this s),

paper are not based upon the small deformation

assumption. In other words, the geometric equation (3.6) can also be used for large

where p, p, S, u are pressure, density, specific entropy and particle velocity of detonation products

deformation analysis of flexural-torsional structures. The grometric equations got here can be

respectively, with the trajectory R of reflected shock of detonation wave D as a boundary and the

used

not only

flectural-torsional

buckling

of sutrctures

but of

a&oR for

flexuraltrajectory

F of for

flyor

as another boundary.

Both analysis

are unknown;

the position

and other

the state

paratorsional

analyses.

e.

g..

static

analysis,

dynamic

analysis

and

elasto-plastic

analysis

meters on it are governed by the flow field I of central rarefaction wave behind the detonation waveof

D and by initial stage of motion of flyor also; the position of F and the state parameters of products

structures.

4. Additional term in the potential variational equation is found, which can not be taken

293

Buckling of Structures

985

into account with conventional geometric equations. This term in- equation (4.6) shows the

influence of the external bending moments on potential variational equation due to. the offset

of their application axis to centroid.

5. Examples are given to detect the numerical difference between the new equations and

the present accepted equations. From the numerical comparisons, it is known that buckling

loadings got with the new equation will be larger than those in some cases and less than those

in others got with that in present accepted theory. There is also the case in which both the

buckling loadings calculated with both equation (1.3) and equation (4.6) are of same value.

From the modified neutral equilibrium equations (5.3), we know that if the internal bending

moment is constant, the modified neutral equilibrium equations are the same as conventional

ones. In this case, the buckling loadings calculated with both the modified and conventional

potential variational equations should be equal to each other if the assumed buckling mode

Abstract

shape functions are accurate. This case has

already been shown by example 2 with a simple

beam in pure bending. But in example 1 with a cantilever in pure bending, the buckling

The one-dimensional problem of the motion of a rigid flying plate under explosive attack has

loading calculated with the modified potential variational equations is smaller than that

an analytic solution only when the polytropic index of detonation products equals to three. In

calculateda numerical

with conventional

This Inphenomena

from

the fact the

that"weak"

the assumed

general,

analysis is one.

required.

this paper,appears

however,

by utilizing

shock

mode

shape

functions

in

example

1

are

inaccurate.

behavior of the reflection shock in the explosive products, and applying the small parameter purterbation

analytic,

first-order

obtained

for the problem

flying

6. If method,

there isanno

external

bendingapproximate

moment orsolution

lateral is force

subjected

to the of

structure,

plate

driven(4.6)

by various

high explosives

withconsistent

polytropicwith

indices

other than

nearly

equal to three.

equation

and equations

(5.3) are

equation

(1.3) but

(with

u-concerned

terms

Final

velocities

of

flying

plate

obtained

agree

very

well

with

numerical

results

by

computers.

Thus

ignored) and equations (1.4), respectively. This shows that the modification here is just in some

an analytic formula with two parameters of high explosive (i.e. detonation velocity and polytropic

terms that

are relevant

to velocity

bending ofmoment

and islateral

forces.

index)

for estimation

of the

flying plate

established.

7. The idea proposed here is also suitable for the lateral buckling analysis and flexuraltorsional analysis of curved beam. The results got here can be extended without difficulty to

1. Introduction

modifying the theory on lateral buckling analysis and flexural-torsional

anslysis of curved

beams.Explosive driven flying-plate technique ffmds its important use in the study of behavior of

shock

diamonds,

Acknowledgment

The writer loading,

is grateful

to synthesis

Professor ofDai

Shiqiangandofexplosive

Shanghaiwelding

Instituteand of

cladding of metals. The method of estimation of flyor velocity and the way of raising it are questions

Applied Mathematics

and Mechanics for his review for this manuscript and his kind

of common interest.

recommendation

in publishingof one-dimensional

this paper.

Under the assumptions

plane detonation and rigid flying plate, the normal

approach of solving the problem of motion of flyor is to solve the following system of equations

References

governing the flow field of detonation products behind the flyor (Fig. I):

[ l] A. G. Ml Michell, Elastic stability of long beams under transverse forces, Philosophical

[2]

=o,

+u_~_xptorsion,

+ au and buckling

S. P. Timoshenko, Theory of ap

bending,

of thin-walled

members of

au Papea.s

au of 1Ste$en, P. Timoshenko, McGraw-Hill,

open cross-section, in Col!ecretl

New

y

=0,

(i.0

York (1953), 559-609.

aS

as

[ 3] S. P. Timoshenko, Theor]* oj- Elastic

Srabiiir,~,,

2nd ed., McGraw-Hill,

New York (1961).

a--T

=o,

[4]

H. Wagner, Torsion and buckling of open cross-sections. NACA Technical Memorandum

p =p(p, s),

807 (1936).

[ 51 F. Bleich. Buckling Strerigth of Metal Structures, McGraw-Hill,

New York (1952).

where p, p, S, u are pressure, density, specific entropy and particle velocity of detonation products

[respectively,

61 R. S. Barsoum

R. H.R Gallagher.

analysis

and torsionalwith the and

trajectory

of reflectedFinite

shock element

of detonation

waveofDtorsional

as a boundary

and the

flexural

stability

problems,

Int.

Journal

of

hiwmrical

Methods

in

Engineering,

2 (1970),

trajectory F of flyor as another boundary. Both are unknown; the position of R and the state

parameters

it are governed by the flow field I of central rarefaction wave behind the detonation wave

335on-3.52.

initial

of flyor

also; the

position

F and the

state parameters

products of

[D71andY.by B.

Yangstage

andof motion

S. R. Kuo,

Static

stability

of ofcurved

thin-walled

beams,ofJournal

293

Enginroiq:

A4crhmic.c. A SCE, 112, 8 (1956). 52 1 -84 1.

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N. S. Trahair and J. P. Papangelis, Flexural-torsional buckling of monosymmetiic

Journal qf Structural Engineering, ASCE, 113, 10 (1987). 2271-2288.

arches,

[ 91

.beams, Jourrzal of Structural Engineering, AXE, 117, 7 (199 l), 1963 - 1978.

[lo] S. R. Kuo and Y. B. Yang, New theory on buckling of curved beams, Journnl of

&gineeriug Medumics, ASCE, 117, 8 (1991); 1698- 1717.

[ll]

N. S. Trahair, Flesural-Torsional Buckling of Structures, CRC Press Inc. (1993).

[12] Y. L. Pi and N. S. Trahair. Nonlinear inelastic analysis of steel beam-columns-theory.

Jour~rtrl c?fStructrud Engineeri~lg, A SCE, 120, 7 (1994). 204 1-206 1.

[13] Y. L. Pi and N. S. Trahair, Nonlinear

in elastic analysis of steel beam-columns

applications, Journal qf Structurd Engineering, ASCE, 120, 7 (1994), 2062- 2085.

Abstract

The one-dimensional problem of the motion of a rigid flying plate under explosive attack has

an analytic solution only when the polytropic index of detonation products equals to three. In

general, a numerical analysis is required. In this paper, however, by utilizing the "weak" shock

behavior of the reflection shock in the explosive products, and applying the small parameter purterbation method, an analytic, first-order approximate solution is obtained for the problem of flying

plate driven by various high explosives with polytropic indices other than but nearly equal to three.

Final velocities of flying plate obtained agree very well with numerical results by computers. Thus

an analytic formula with two parameters of high explosive (i.e. detonation velocity and polytropic

index) for estimation of the velocity of flying plate is established.

1.

Introduction

Explosive driven flying-plate technique ffmds its important use in the study of behavior of

materials under intense impulsive loading, shock synthesis of diamonds, and explosive welding and

cladding of metals. The method of estimation of flyor velocity and the way of raising it are questions

of common interest.

Under the assumptions of one-dimensional plane detonation and rigid flying plate, the normal

approach of solving the problem of motion of flyor is to solve the following system of equations

governing the flow field of detonation products behind the flyor (Fig. I):

--ff

ap +u_~_xp+

au

au

aS

as

au

y1

=o,

=0,

(i.0

a--T

=o,

p =p(p, s),

where p, p, S, u are pressure, density, specific entropy and particle velocity of detonation products

respectively, with the trajectory R of reflected shock of detonation wave D as a boundary and the

trajectory F of flyor as another boundary. Both are unknown; the position of R and the state parameters on it are governed by the flow field I of central rarefaction wave behind the detonation wave

D and by initial stage of motion of flyor also; the position of F and the state parameters of products

293

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