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Basic Principles of Eddy Current Inspection

Eddy current inspection is one of several NDT methods that use the principal of
electromagnetism as the basis for conducting examinations. Several other methods
such as Remote Field Testing (RFT), Flux Leakage and Barkhausen Noise also use this
principle.
Eddy currents are created through a process called electromagnetic induction. When
alternating current is applied to the conductor, such as copper wire, a magnetic field
develops in and around the conductor. This magnetic field expands as the alternating
current rises to maximum and collapses as the current is reduced to zero. If another
electrical conductor is brought into the close proximity to this changing magnetic field,
current will be induced in this second conductor. Eddy currents are induced electrical
currents that flow in a circular path. They get their name from eddies that are formed
when a liquid or gas flows in a circular path around obstacles when conditions are right.

One of the major advantages of eddy current as an NDT tool is the variety of
inspections and measurements that can be performed. In the proper circumstances, eddy
currents can be used for

Crack Detection
Material Thickness Measurements
Coating Thickness Measurements
Conductivity Measurements For:
o Material Identification
o Heat Damage Detection
o Case Depth Determination
o Heat Treatment Monitoring

Some of the advantages of eddy current inspection include:

Sensitive to small cracks and other defects


Detects surface and near surface defects
Inspection gives immediate results
Equipment is very portable
Method can be used for much more than flaw detection
Minimum part preparation is required
Test probe does not need to contact the part
Inspects complex shapes and sizes of conductive materials

Some of the limitation of eddy current inspection include:

Only conductive materials can be inspected


Surface must be accessible to the probe
Skill and training required is more extensive than other techniques
Surface finish and and roughness may interfere
Reference standards needed for setup

Depth of penetration is limited


Flaws such as delaminations that lie parallel to the probe coil winding and probe
scan direction are undetectable

History of Eddy Current Testing


Eddy current testing has its origins with
Michael Faraday's discovery of
electromagnetic induction in 1831. Faraday
was a chemist in England during the early
1800's and is credited with the discovery of
electromagnetic induction, electromagnetic
rotations, the magneto-optical effect,
diamagnetism, and many other discoveries. In
1879, another scientist named Hughes
recorded changes in the properties of a coil
when placed in contact with metals of
different conductivity and permeability.
However, it was not until the Second World
War that these effects were put to practical use
for testing materials. Much work was done in
the 1950's and 60's, particularly in the aircraft
and nuclear industries. Eddy current testing is
now a widely used and well-understood
inspection technique.

Present State of Eddy Current Inspection


Eddy current inspection is used in a variety
of industries to find defects and make
measurements. One of the primary uses of
eddy current testing is for defect detection
when the nature of the defect is well
understood. In general the technique is used
to inspect a relatively small area and the
probe design and test parameters must be
established with a good understanding of the
flaw that is trying to be detected. Since eddy
currents tend to concentrate at the surface of
a material, they can only be used to detect
surface and near surface defects.
In thin materials such as tubing and sheet
stock, eddy currents can be used to measure
the thickness of the material. This makes eddy current a useful tool for detecting
corrosion damage and other damage that causes a thinning of the material. The
technique is used to make corrosion thinning measurements on aircraft skins and in the

walls of tubing used in assemblies such as heat exchangers. Eddy current testing is also
used to measure the thickness of paints and other coatings.
Eddy currents are also affected by the electrical conductivity and magnetic permeability
of materials. Therefore, eddy current measurements can be used to sort materials and to
tell if a material has seen high temperatures or been heat treated, which changes the
conductivity of some materials.
Eddy current equipment and probes can be purchased in a wide variety of
configurations. Eddyscopes and a conductivity tester come packaged in very small and
battery operated units for easy portability. Computer based systems are also available
that provide easy data manipulation features for the laboratory. Signal processing
software has also been developed for trend removal, background subtraction, and noise
reduction. Impedance analyzer are also sometimes used to allow improved quantitative
eddy-current measurements. Some laboratories have multidimensional scanning
capability that are used to produce images of the scan regions. A few portable scanning
systems also exist for special applications such as scanning regions of aircraft fuselage.
Research to Improve Eddy current measurements
A great deal of research continues to be done to improve eddy current measurement
techniques. A few of the these activities, which are being conducted at Iowa State
University are described below.
Photoinductive Imaging (PI)
A technique known as photoinductive imaging (PI) was pioneered at CNDE and
provides a powerful, high-resolution scanning and imaging tool. Microscopic resolution
is available using standard-sized eddy-current sensors. Development of probes and
instrumentation for photoinductive (PI) imaging is based on the use of a medium-power
(5 W nominal power) argon ion laser. This probe provides high resolution images and
has been used to study cracks, welds, and diffusion bonds in metallic specimens. The PI
technique is being studied as a way to image local stress variations in steel.
Pulsed Eddy Current
Research is currently being conducted on the use of a technique called pulsed eddy
current (PEC) testing. This technique can be used for the detection and quantification of
corrosion and cracking in multi-layer aluminum aircraft structures. Pulsed eddy-current
signals consist of a spectrum of frequencies meaning that, because of the skin effect,
each pulse signal contains information from a range of depths within a given test
specimen. In addition, the pulse signals are very low-frequency rich which provides
excellent depth penetration. Unlike multi-frequency approaches, the pulse-signals lend
themselves to convenient analysis. .
Measurements have been carried out both in the laboratory and in the field. Corrosion
trials have demonstrated how material loss can be detected and quantified in multi-layer
aluminum structures. More recently, studies carried out on three- and four-layer
structures show the ability to locate cracks emerging from fasteners. Pulsed eddycurrent measurements have also been applied to ferromagnetic materials, recent work
has been involved with measuring case depth in hardened steel samples

Properties of Electricity
Since eddy current inspection makes use of electromagnetic induction, it is important to
know about the scientific principles of electricity and magnetism. For a review of these
principles, the Science of NDT materials on this Internet site may be helpful. A review
of the key parameters will be provided here.
Electricity
It is well known that one of the subatomic particles of an
atom is the electron. Atoms can and usually do have a
number of electrons circling its nucleus. The electrons carry
a negative electrostatic charge and under certain conditions
can move from atom to atom. The direction of movement
between atoms is random unless a force causes the electrons
to move in one direction. This directional movement of
electrons due to some imbalance of force is what is known
as electricity.
Amperage
The flow of electrons is measured in units called amperes or amps for short. An amp is
the amount of electrical current that exists when a number of electrons, having one
coulomb of charge, moves past a given point in one second. A coulomb is the charge
carried by 6.25 x 10^18 electrons or 6,250,000,000,000,000,000 electrons.

Electromagnetic Force
The force that causes the electrons to move in an electrical circuit is called
the electromotive force, or EMF. Sometimes it is convenient to think of
EMF as electrical pressure. In other words, it is the force that makes
electrons move in a certain direction within a conductor. There are many
sources of EMF; the most common being batteries and electrical
generators.
The Volt
The unit of measure for EMF is the volt. One volt is defined as the electrostatic
difference between two points when one joule of energy is used to move one coulomb
of charge from one point to the other. A joule is the amount of energy that is being
consumed when one watt of power works for one second. This is also known as a wattsecond. For our purposes, just accept the fact that one joule of energy is a very, very
small amount of energy. For example, a typical 60-watt light bulb consumes about 60
joules of energy each second it is on.

Insulator:
Anything that insulates, esp., a nonconductor, usually a device of glass or porcelain
for insulating and supporting electric wires.

Conductor:
A substance or thing that conducts electricity, heat, sound, etc.

Resistance
Resistance is the opposition of a body or substance to the flow of electrical current
through it, resulting in a change of electrical energy into heat, light, or other forms of
energy. The amount of resistance depends on the type of material. Materials with low
resistance are good conductors of electricity. Materials with high resistance are good
insulators

Current Flow and Ohm's Law


Ohm's law is the most important, basic law of electricity. It defines the relationship
between the three fundamental electrical quantities: current, voltage, and resistance.
When a voltage is applied to a circuit containing only resistive elements (i.e. no coils),
current flows according to Ohm's Law, which is shown below.

I=V/R
Where:
Electrical Current
(Amperes)
V = Voltage (Voltage)
Resistance
R=
(Ohms)
I=

Ohm's law states that the electrical current (I) flowing in an circuit is proportional to the
voltage (V) and inversely proportional to the resistance (R). Therefore, if the voltage is
increased, the current will increase provided the resistance of the circuit does not
change. Similarly, increasing the resistance of the circuit will lower the current flow if
the voltage is not changed. The formula can be reorganized so that the relationship can
easily be seen for all of the three variables.
The Java applet below allows the user to vary each of these three parameters in Ohm's
Law and see the effect on the other two parameters. Values may be input into the dialog
boxes, or the resistance and voltage may also be varied by moving the arrows in the
applet. Current and voltage are shown as they would be displayed on an oscilloscope
with the X-axis being time and the Y-axis being the amplitude of the current or voltage.
Ohm's Law is valid for both direct current (DC) and alternating current (AC). Note that

in AC circuits consisting of purely resistive elements, the current and voltage are always
in phase with each other.
Exercise: Use the interactive applet below to investigate the relationship of the
variables in Ohm's law. Vary the voltage in the circuit by clicking and dragging the head
of the arrow, which is marked with the V. The resistance in the circuit can be increased
by dragging the arrow head under the variable resister, which is marked R. Please note
that the vertical scale of the Oscilloscope screen automatically adjusts to reflect the
value of the current.
See what happens to the voltage and current as the resistance in the circuit is increased.
What happens if there is not enough resistance in a circuit? If the resistance is increased,
what must happen in order to maintain the same level of current flow?

Induction and Inductance


Induction
In 1824 Oersted discovered that current passing though a coil created a magnetic field
capable of shifting a compass needle. Seven years later Faraday and Henry discovered
just the opposite. They noticed that a moving magnetic field would induce current in an
electrical conductor. This process of generating electrical current in a conductor by
placing the conductor in a changing magnetic field is called electromagnetic induction
or just induction. It is called induction because the current is said to be induced in the
conductor by the magnetic field.
Faraday also noticed that the rate at which the magnetic field changed also had an effect
on the amount of current or voltage that was induced. Faraday's Law for an uncoiled
conductor states that the amount of induced voltage is proportional to the rate of change
of flux lines cutting the conductor. Faraday's Law for a straight wire is shown below.

Where:

VL = the induced voltage in volts


d/dt = the rate of change in magnetic flux in
webers/second
Induction is measured in unit of Henries (H) which reflects this dependence on the rate
of change of the magnetic field. One henry is the amount of inductance that is required
to generate one volt of induced voltage when the current is changing at the rate of one
ampere per second. Note that current is used in the definition rather than magnetic field.
This is because current can be used to generate the magnetic field and is easier to
measure and control than magnetic flux..
Inductance
When induction occurs in an electrical circuit and affects the flow of electricity it is
called inductance, L. Self-inductance, or simply inductance is the property of a circuit
whereby a change in current causes a change in voltage in the same circuit. When one
circuit induces current flow in a second nearby circuit, it is known as mutualinductance. The image to the right shows an example of mutual-inductance. When an
AC current is flowing through a piece of wire in a circuit, an electromagnetic field is
produced that is constantly growing and shrinking and changing direction due to the
constantly changing current in the wire. This changing magnetic field will induce
electrical current in another wire or circuit that is brought close to the wire in the
primary circuit. The current in the second wire will also be AC and in fact will look very
similar to the current flowing in the first wire. An electrical transformer uses inductance
to change the voltage of electricity into a more useful level. In nondestructive testing,
inductance is used to generate eddy currents in the test piece.
It should be noted that since it is the changing magnetic field that is responsible for
inductance, it is only present in AC circuits and that high frequency AC will result in
greater inductive reactance since the magnetic field is changing more rapidly

Self-Inductance and Inductive Reactance


The property of self-inductance is a particular form of electromagnetic induction. Self
inductance is defined as the induction of a voltage in a current-carrying wire when the
current in the wire itself is changing. In the case of self-inductance, the magnetic field
created by a changing current in the circuit itself induces a voltage in the same circuit.
Therefore, the voltage is self-induced.
The term inductor is used to describe a circuit element possessing the property of
inductance and a coil of wire is a very common inductor. In circuit diagrams, a coil or
wire is usually used to indicate an inductive component. Taking a closer look at a coil
will help understand the reason that a voltage is induced in a wire carrying a changing
current. The alternating current running through the coil creates a magnetic field in and
around the coil that is increasing and decreasing as the current changes. The magnetic
field forms concentric loops that surrounds the wire and joins up to form larger loops
that surround the coil as shown in the image below. When the current increases in one
loop the expanding magnetic field will cut across some or all of the neighboring loops
of wire, inducing a voltage in these loops. This causes a voltage to be induced in the coil
when the current is changing.

By studying this image of a coil, it can be seen that the number of turns in the coil will
have an effect on the amount of voltage that is induced into the circuit. Increasing the
number of turns or the rate of change of magnetic flux increases the amount of induced
voltage. Therefore, Faraday's Law must be modified for a coil of wire and becomes the
following.

Where:
VL = the induced voltage in volts
N = the number of turns in the coil
d/dt = the rate of change in magnetic flux
in webers per second
The equation simply states that the amount of induced voltage (VL) is proportional to
the number of turns in the coil and the rate of change of the magnetic flux (d/dt). In
other words, when the frequency of the flux is increased or the number of turns in the
coil is increased, the amount of induced voltage will also increase.
In a circuit, it is much easier to measure current than it is to measure magnetic flux so
the following equation can be used to determine the induced voltage if the inductance
and frequency of the current are known. This equation can also be reorganized to allow
the inductance to be calculated when the amount of inducted voltage can be determined
and the current frequency is known.

Where:
VL = the induced voltage in volts
L = the value of inductance in henries
di/dt = the rate of change in current in amperes per second
Lenz's Law
Soon after Faraday proposed his law of induction, Heinrich Lenz developed a rule for
determining the direction of the induced current in a loop. Basically, Lenz's law states
that an induced current has a direction such that its magnetic field opposes the
change in magnetic field that induced the current. This means that the current
induced in a conductor will oppose the change in current that is causing the flux to
change. Lenz's law is important in understanding the property of inductive reactance,
which is one of the properties measured in eddy current testing.
Inductive Reactance
The reduction of current flow in a circuit due to induction is called inductive
reactance. By taking a closer look at a coil of wire and applying Lenz's law, it can be
seen how inductance reduces the flow of current in the circuit. In the image below, the
direction of the primary current is shown in red, and the magnetic field generated by the
current is shown in blue. The direction of the magnetic field can be determined by
taking your right hand and pointing your thumb in the direction of the current. Your
fingers will then point in the direction of the magnetic field. It can be seen that the
magnetic field from one loop of the wire will cut across the other loops in the coil and
this will induce current flow (shown in green) in the circuit. According to Lenz's law,
the induced current must flow in the opposite direction of the primary current. The
induced current working against the primary current results in a reduction of current
flow in the circuit.
It should be noted that inductive reactance will increase if the number of winds in the
coil is increased since the magnetic field from one coil will have more coils to interact
with.

Since inductive reactance reduces the flow of current in a circuit, it appears as an energy
loss just like resistance. However, it is possible to distinguish between resistance and
inductive reactance in a circuit by looking at the timing between the sine waves of the
voltage and current of the alternating current. In an AC circuit that contains only
resistive components, the voltage and the current will be in-phase, meaning that the
peaks and valleys of their sine waves will occur at the same time. When there is
inductive reactance present in the circuit, the phase of the current will be shifted so that
its peaks and valleys do not occur at the same time as those of the voltage. This will be
discussed in more detail in the section on circuits

Mutual Inductance
(The Basis for Eddy Current Inspection)
The magnetic flux through a circuit can be related to the current in that circuit and the
currents in other nearby circuits, assuming that there are no nearby permanent magnets.
Consider the following two circuits.

The magnetic field produced by circuit 1 will intersect the wire in circuit 2 and create
current flow. The induced current flow in circuit 2 will have its own magnetic field
which will interact with the magnetic field of circuit 1. At some point P on the magnetic
field consists of a part due to i and a part due to i . These fields are proportional to the
currents producing them.
1

Self Inductance:
The property of an electric circuit or component that
generated in it as a result of a change in the current
Mutual Inductance:
The property of an electric circuit or component that
generated in it as a result of a change in the current
circuit with which it is magnetically linked.

caused an e.m.f. to be
flowing through the circuit.
caused an e.m.f. to be
flowing through a neighboring

The coils in the circuits are labeled L and L and this term represents the self inductance of
each of the coils. The values of L1 and L2 depend on the geometrical arrangement of the
circuit (i.e. number of turns in the coil) and the conductivity of the material. The
constant M, called the mutual inductance of the two circuits and it is dependent on the
geometrical arrangement of both circuits. In particular, if the circuits are far apart, the
magnetic flux through circuit 2 due to the current i will be small and the mutual
inductance will be small. L and M are constants.
1

We can write the flux,

through circuit 2 as the sum of two parts.


B2

= Li + iM
2 2

An equation similar to the one above can be written for the flux through circuit 1.
B1

= Li + iM
1 1

Though it is certainly not obvious, it can be shown that the mutual


inductance is the same for both circuits. Therefore, it can be written as
follows:
M =M
1,2

2,1

How is mutual induction used in eddy current inspection?


In eddy current inspection, the eddy currents are generated in the test
material due to mutual induction. The test probe is basically a coil of wire
through which alternating current is passed. Therefore, when the probe is connected to
an eddyscope instrument, it is basically represented by circuit one above. The second
circuit can be any piece of conductive material.

Eddy Current:
A current induced in a conductor situated in a changing magnetic field or moving in
a fixed one.

When alternating current is passed through the coil, a magnetic field is generated in and
around the coil. When the probe is brought in close proximity to a conductive material,
such as aluminum, the probes changing magnetic field generates current flow in the
material. The induced current flows in closed loops in planes perpendicular to the

magnetic flux. They are named eddy currents because they are thought to
resemble the eddy currents that can be seen swirling in streams.
The eddy currents produce their own magnetic fields that interact with the
primary magnetic field of the coil. By measuring changes in the resistance and inductive
reactance of the coil, information can be gathered about the test material. This
information includes the electrical conductivity and magnetic permeability of the
material, the amount of material cutting through the coils magnetic field, and the
condition of the material (i.e. whether it contains cracks or other defects.) The distance
that the coil is from the conductive material is called liftoff, and this distance affects the
mutual-inductance of the circuits. Liftoff can be used to make measurements of the
thickness of nonconductive coating such as paint that hold the probe a certain distance
from the surface of the conductive material.
Magnetic Permeability:
The ratio of the magnetic flux density, B, in a substance to the external field
strength.
Ferromagnetic:
A term used to describe materials, such as iron, nickel, and cobalt, which have a
high magnetic permeability.

It should be noted that if a sample is ferromagnetic, the magnetic flux is concentrated


and strengthened despite opposing eddy current affects. The increase inductive
reactance due to the magnetic permeability of ferromagnetic materials makes it easy to
distinguish these materials from nonferromagnetic materials.
In the applet below, the probe and the sample are shown in cross-section. The boxes
represent a the cross-sectional area of a group of turns in the coil. The liftoff distance
and the drive current of the probe can be varied to see the effects of the shared magnetic
field. The liftoff value can be set to 0.1 or less and the current value can be varied from
0.01 to 1.0. The strength of the magnetic field is shown by the darkness of the lines.

Circuits and Phase


A circuit can be thought of as a closed path in which current flows through the
components that make up the circuit. The current (i) obeys Ohm's Law, which is

discussed in section 2.1. The simple circuit below consists of a voltage source (in this
case an alternating current voltage source) and a resistor. The graph below the circuit
diagram shows the value of the voltage and the current for this circuit over a period of
time. This graph shows one complete cycle of an alternating current source. From the
graph, it can be seen that as the voltage increases so does the current. The voltage and
the current are said to be "in-phase" since their zero, peak, and valley points occur at the
same time. They are also directly proportional to each other.

In the circuit below, the resistive component has been replaced with an inductor. When
inductance is introduced into a circuit, the voltage and the current will be "out-ofphase," meaning that the voltage and current do not cross zero, or reach their peaks and
valleys at the same time. When a circuit has an inductive component, the current (i ) will
lags the voltage by one quarter of a cycle. One cycle is often referred to as 360 degree,
so it can be said that the current lags the voltage by 90 degrees.
L

The resistive and inductive components are of primary interest in eddy current testing
since the test probe is basically a coil of wire, which will have both resistance and
inductive reactance. However, for the sake of completeness, capacitance also needs to
be mentioned. This simple circuit below consists of an alternating current voltage
source and a capacitor. Capacitance in a circuit caused the current (i ) to lead the voltage
by one quarter of a cycle (90 degrees current lag).
c

When there is both resistance and inductive reactance (and/or capacitance) in a circuit,
the combined opposition to current flow is known as impedance. Impedance will be
discussed more on the next page

Impedance
Electrical Impedance (Z), is the total opposition that a circuit presents to alternating
current. Impedance is measured in ohms and may include resistance (R), inductive
reactance (XL), and capacitive reactance (XC). However, the total impedance is not
simply the algebraic sum of resistance, inductive reactance, and capacitive reactance.
Since the inductive reactance and capacitive reactance are 90 degrees out of phase with
the resistance and, therefore, their maximum values occur at different times, vector
addition must be used to calculate impedance.
In the image below, a circuit diagram is shown that represents an eddy current
inspection system. The eddy current probe is a coil of wire so it contains resistance and
inductive reactance when driven by alternating current. The capacitive reactance (XC)
can be dropped as most eddy current probes have little or no capacitive reactance. The
solid line in the graph below shows the circuit's total current, which is affected by the
total impedance of the circuit. The two dashed lines represent the portion of the current
that is affected by the resistance and the inductive reactance components individually. It
can be seen that the resistance and the inductive reactance lines are 90 degrees out of

phase, so when combined to produce the impedance line, the phase shift is somewhere
between zero and 90 degrees. The phase shift is always relative to the resistance line
since the resistance line is always in-phase with the voltage. If more resistance than
inductive reactance is present in the circuit then the impedance line will move toward
the resistance line and the phase shift will decrease. If more inductive reactance is
present in the circuit then the impedance line will shift toward the inductive reactance
line and the phase shift will increase.

The relationship between impedance and its individual components (resistance and
inductive reactance) can be represented using vector as shown below. The amplitude of
the resistance component is shown by a vector along the x-axis and the amplitude of the
inductive reactance is shown by a vector along the y-axis. The amplitude of the the
impedance is shown by a vector that stretches from zero to a point that represents both
the resistance value in the x-direction and the inductive reactance in the y-direction.
Eddy current instruments with impedance plane displays present information in this
format.

The impedance in a circuit with resistance and inductive reactance can be calculated
using the following equation. If capacitive reactance was present in the circuit, its value
would be added to the inductance term before squaring.

Phase Angle:
The difference in phase between two sinusoidally varying quantities.

The phase angle of the circuit of the circuit can be calculated using the equation below.
If capacitive reactance was present in the circuit, its value would be subtracted from the
inductive reactance term.

The applet below, can be used to see how the variables in the above equation are related
on the the vector diagram (or the impedance plane display.) Values can be entered into
the dialog boxes or the arrow head on the vector diagram can be dragged to a point

representing the desired values. Note that the capacitive reactance term has been
included in the applet but as mentioned before, in eddy current testing this value is small
and can be ignored.

Impedance and Ohm's Law


In previous pages, Ohm's Law was discussed for a purely resistive circuit. When there is
inductive reactance or capacitive reactance also present in the circuit, Ohm's Law must
be written to include the total impedance in the circuit. Therefore, Ohm's law becomes:
I=V/Z
Ohm's law now simply states that the current (I), in amperes, is proportional to the
voltage (V), in volts, divided by the impedance (Z), in ohms.
The applet below can be used to see how the current and voltage of a circuit is affected
by impedance. The applet allows the user to vary inductance (L), resistance (R), voltage
(V) and the current (I). Voltage and current are shown as they would be displayed on an
oscilloscope. Note that the resistance and/or the inductive reactance values must be
changed to change the impedance in the circuit.

Also note that when there is inductance in the circuit, the voltage and current are out of
phase. This is because the voltage across the inductor will be a maximum when the rate
of change of current is greatest. For a sinusoidal wave form like AC, this is at the point
where the actual current is zero. Thus the voltage applied to an inductor reaches its
maximum value a quarter-cycle before the current does - the voltage is said to lead the
current by 90 degrees

Depth of Penetration & Current Density


Eddy currents are closed loops of induced current
circulating in planes perpendicular to the
magnetic flux. They normally travel parallel to
the coil's winding and flow is limited to the area
of the inducing magnetic field. Eddy currents
concentrate near the surface adjacent to an
excitation coil and their strength decreases with
distance from the coil as shown in the image.
Eddy current density decreases exponentially with
depth. This phenomenon is known as the skin
effect.
Skin effect arises when the eddy currents flowing in the test object at any depth produce
magnetic fields which oppose the primary field, thus reducing net magnetic flux and
causing a decrease in current flow as depth increases. Alternatively, eddy currents near
the surface can be viewed as shielding the coil's magnetic field, thereby weakening the
magnetic field at greater depths and reducing induced currents.
The depth that eddy currents penetrate into a material is affected by the frequency of the
excitation current and the electrical conductivity and magnetic permeability of the
specimen. The depth of penetration decreases with increasing frequency and increasing
conductivity and magnetic permeability. The depth at which eddy current density has
decreased to 1/e, or about 37% of the surface density, is called the standard depth of
penetration (). The word 'standard' denotes plane wave electromagnetic field excitation
within the test sample (conditions which are rarely achieved in practice). Although eddy
currents penetrate deeper than one standard depth of penetration they decrease rapidly
with depth. At two standard depths of penetration (2), eddy current density has
decreased to 1/e squared or 13.5% of the surface density. At three depths (3) the eddy
current density is down to only 5% of the surface density.

Semiconductor:
A crystalline solid, such as silicon or germanium, with an electrical conductivity
intermediate between that of a conductor and an insulator.

Since the sensitivity of an eddy current inspection depends on the eddy current density
at the defect location, it is important to know the strength of the eddy currents at this
location. When attempting to locate flaws, a frequency is often selected which places
the expected flaw depth within one standard depth of penetration. This helps to assure
that the strength of the eddy currents will be sufficient to produce a flaw indication.
Alternately, when using eddy currents to measure the electrical conductivity of a
material, the frequency is often set so that it produces three standard depths of
penetration within the material. This helps to assure that the eddy currents will be so
weak at the back side of the material that changes in the material thickness will not
affect the eddy current measurements.
The applet below illustrates how eddy current density changes in a semi-infinite
conductor. The applet can be used to calculate the standard depth of penetration. The
equation for this calculation is

Where:
= Standard Depth of
Penetration (mm)
= 3.14
f = Test Frequency (Hz)
= Magnetic Permeability
(H/mm)

= Electrical Conductivity
(% IACS)
(Note, however, that the
applet uses the relative
permeability so there is a
permeability of free space
term in the equation. i.e.
relative permeability
multiplied by the
permeability of free space
puts the material
permeability in to H/mm
units.)

One should also note that although the currents are restricted to flow within specimen
boundaries, the magnetic field extends into the air space beyond. This allows the
inspection of multilayer components separated by an air space

Phase Lag
Phase lag is a parameter of the eddy current signal that makes it possible to obtain
information about the depth of a defect within a material. Phase lag is the shift in time
between the eddy current response from a disruption on the surface and a disruption at
some distance below the surface. The generation of eddy currents can be thought of as a
diffusion process meaning that the eddy currents below the surface take a little longer to
form than those at the surface. Therefore, subsurface defects will be detected by the
eddy current instrument a little later in time than surface defects. Both the signal voltage
and current will have this phase shift or lag with depth, which is different from the
phase angle discussed earlier. (With the phase angle, the current shifted with respect to
the voltage.)
Phase lag is an important parameter in eddy current testing because it makes it possible
to estimate the depth of a defect and with proper reference specimens, determine the
rough size of a defect. The signal produced by a flaw depends on both amplitude and
phase of the eddy currents being disrupted. A small surface defect and large internal
defect can have a similar effect on the magnitude of test coil impedance. However,

because of the increasing phase lag with depth, there will be a characteristic difference
in the test coil impedance vector.
Radian:
A unit in circular measure, an angle subtended at the center of a circle by an arc of
equal length to the radius. One radian is equal to 57.296.

At one standard depth of penetration, the phase lag is 57 degrees or one radian. This
means that the eddy currents flowing at one standard depth of penetration () below the
surface, lag the surface currents by 57 degrees. At two standard depths of penetration
(2) they lag the surface currents by 114 degrees. Therefore by measuring the phase lag
of a signal, the depth of a defect can be estimated.
In the applet below, the relationship between the depth of penetration and the phase lag
is explored. The equation at the bottom of the applet can be used to calculate the depth
of penetration by choosing an inspection frequency (f), and, the magnetic permeability
(u) and electrical conductivity for the test material. These values may also be selected
for a particular material by selecting one of the set materials in the dialog box.

Eddy Current Instruments


The most basic eddy current testing instrument consists of an alternating current source,
a coil of wire connected to this source, and a voltmeter to measure the voltage change
across the coil. An ammeter could also be used to measure the current change in the
circuit instead of using the voltmeter.

While it might actually be possible to detect some types of defects with this type of an
equipment, most eddy current instruments are a bit more sophisticated. In the following
pages, a few of the more important aspects of eddy current instrumentation will be
discussed

Resonant Circuits

Every circuit containing capacitance and inductance has a resonant frequency that is
inversely proportional to the square root of the product of the capacitance and
inductance.

Circuits not containing discreet components for resistance, capacitance, and inductance
can still exhibit their effects. For example, a coaxial cable used to interconnect pieces of
electronic equipment or equipment to probes, has some capacitance and inductance.
These capacitances and inductances distributed throughout the cable are very small, but
not negligible in sensitive circuits.
The applet represents an eddy current probe with a default resonant frequency of about
1.0 kHz. An ideal probe might contain just the inductance, but a realistic probe has some
resistance and some capacitance. The applet initially shows a single cycle of the 1.0 kHz
current passing through the inductor.

Exercise 1: Using your mouse, adjust the resistance by sliding the slide bar. Does the
frequency change?
Exercise 2: Note that changing the inductance and/or the capacitance changes the
resonant frequency of this resonant circuit. Can you find several combinations of
capacitance and inductance that resonate at 1.0 kHz?

Bridges
The bridge circuit shown in the applet below is known as the Maxwell-Wien bridge
(often called the Maxwell bridge), and is used to measure unknown inductances in terms
of calibrated resistance and capacitance. Calibration-grade inductors are more difficult
to manufacture than capacitors of similar precision, and so the use of a simple
"symmetrical" inductance bridge is not always practical. Because the phase shifts of
inductors and capacitors are exactly opposite each other, a capacitive impedance can
balance out an inductive impedance if they are located in opposite legs of a bridge, as
they are here.
Unlike this straight Wien bridge, the balance of the Maxwell-Wien bridge is
independent of source frequency, and in some cases this bridge can be made to balance

in the presence of mixed frequencies from the AC voltage source, the limiting factor
being the inductor's stability over a wide frequency range.

Exercise: Using the equations within the applet, calculate appropriate values for C and
R2 for a set of probe values . Then using your calculated values, balance the bridge. The
oscilloscope trace representing current (brightest green) across the top and bottom of the
bridge should be minimized (straight line).
In the simplest implementation, the standard capacitor (Cs) and the resistor in parallel
with it are made variable, and both must be adjusted to achieve balance. However, the
bridge can be made to work if the capacitor is fixed (non-variable) and more than one
resistor is made variable (at least the resistor in parallel with the capacitor, and one of
the other two). However, in the latter configuration it takes more trial-and-error
adjustment to achieve balance as the different variable resistors interact in balancing
magnitude and phase.
Another advantage of using a Maxwell bridge to measure inductance rather than a
symmetrical inductance bridge is the elimination of measurement error due to mutual
inductance between two inductors. Magnetic fields can be difficult to shield, and even a
small amount of coupling between coils in a bridge can introduce substantial errors in
certain conditions. With no second inductor to react within the Maxwell bridge, this
problem is eliminated

Display - Complex Impedance Plane (eddy scope)


Electrical Impedance (Z), is the total opposition that a
circuit presents to an alternating current. Impedance,
measured in ohms, may include resistance (R), inductive
reactance (X ), and capacitive reactance (X ). Eddy current
circuits usually have only R and XL components. As
discussed in the page on impedance, the resistance
component and the reactance components are not in phase so
vector addition must be used to relate them with impedance.
For an eddy current circuit with resistance and inductive
reactance components, the total impedance is calculated
using the following equation.
L

You will recall that this can be graphically displayed using the impedance plane diagram
as seen to the right. Impedance also has an associated angle, called the phase angle of
the circuit, which can be calculated by the following equation.

The impedance plane diagram is a very useful way of displaying eddy current data. As
shown in the figure below, the strength of the eddy currents and the magnetic
permeability of the test material cause the eddy current signal on the impedance plane to
react in a variety of different ways.

If the eddy current circuit is balanced in air and then placed on a piece of aluminum, the
resistance component will increase (eddy currents are being generated in the aluminum
and this takes energy away from the coil and this energy loss shows up as resistance)
and the inductive reactance of the coil decreases (the magnetic field created by the eddy
currents opposes the coil's magnetic field and the net effect is a weaker magnetic field to
produce inductance). If a crack is present in the material, fewer eddy currents will be
able to form and the resistance will go back down and the inductive reactance will go
back up. Changes in conductivity will cause the eddy current signal to change in a
different way.
When a probe is placed on a magnetic material such as steel, something different
happens. Just like with aluminum (conductive but not magnetic) eddy currents form
which takes energy away from the coil and this shows up as an increase in the coils
resistance. And, just like with the aluminum, the eddy currents generate their own
magnetic field that opposes the coils magnetic field. However, you will note for the

diagram that the reactance increase. This is because the magnetic permeability of the
steel concentrates the coil's magnetic field this increase in the magnetic field strength
completely overshadows the magnetic field of the eddy currents. The presence of a
crack or a change in the conductive will produce a change in the eddy current signal
similar to that seen with aluminum.
In the applet below, liftoff curves can be generated for several nonconductive materials
with various electrical conductivities. With the probe held away from the metal surface,
zero and clear the graph. Then slowly move the probe to the surface of the material. Lift
the probe back up, select a different material and touch it back to the sample surface.

The impedance calculations in the above applet are based on codes by Jack Blitz from
"Electrical and Magnetic Methods of Nondestructive Testing," 2nd ed., Chapman and
Hill

Display - Analog Meter


In order to use a DC-style meter movement, such as the D'Arsonval design pictured in
the applet below, the alternating current must be "rectified" into DC. This is most easily
accomplished through the use of devices called diodes. Without going into elaborate
detail over how and why diodes work as they do, remember that they each act like a
one-way valve for electrons to flow. They act as a conductor for one polarity and an
insulator for another. Arranged in a bridge, four diodes will serve to steer AC through
the meter movement in a constant direction.
An analog meter can easily measure just a few microamperes of current and is well
suited for use in balancing bridges.

Exercise: Using the equations within the applet, calculate appropriate values for C and
R2 for a set of probe values. Then balance the bridge using your calculated values. The
analog meter should swing close to the left end if its scale indicates little or no current
across the bridge. Across the bridge should be minimized (straight line).

Probes - Mode of Operation


Eddy current probes are available in a large variety
shapes and sizes. In fact, one of the major
advantages of eddy current inspection is that probes
can be custom designed for a wide variety of
applications. Eddy current probes are classified by
the configuration and mode of operation of the test
coils. The configuration of the probe generally
refers to the way the coil or coils are packaged to
best "couple" to the test area of interest. An example
of different configurations of probes would be
bobbin probes, which are inserted into a piece of
pipe to inspect from the inside out, versus encircling
probes, in which the coil or coils encircle the pipe to
inspect from the outside in. The mode of operation
refers to the way the coil or coils are wired and interface with the test equipment. The
mode of operation of a probe generally falls into one of four categories: Absolute,
differential, reflection and hybrid. Each of these classifications will be discussed in
more detail below.
Absolute Probes
Absolute probes generally have a single test coil that is used to generate the eddy
currents and sense changes in the eddy current field. As discussed in the physics section,
AC is passed through the coil and this sets-up a expanding and collapsing magnetic field
in and around the coil. When the probe is positioned next to a conductive material, the
changing magnetic field generate eddy currents within the material. The generation of
the eddy currents take energy from the coil and this appears as an increase in the
electrical resistance of the coil. The eddy currents generate their own magnetic field that
opposes the magnetic field of the coil and this changes the inductive reactance of the

coil. By measuring the absolute change in impedance of the test coil, much information
can be gained about the test material.
Absolute coils can be used for flaw detection, conductivity measurements, liftoff
measurements and thickness measurements. They are widely used due to their
versatility. Since absolute probes are sensitivity to things such as conductivity,
permeability liftoff and temperature, steps must be taken to minimize these variables
when they are not important to the inspection being performed. It is very common for
commercially available absolute probes to have a fixed "air loaded" reference coil that
compensates for ambient temperature variations.
Differential Probes
Differential probes have two active coils usually wound in opposition, although they
could be wound in addition with similar results. When the two coils are over a flaw-free
area of test sample, there is no differential signal developed between the coils since they
are both inspecting identical material. However, when one coil is over a defect and the
other is over good material, a differential signal is produced. They have the advantage
of being very sensitive to defect yet relatively insensitive to slowly varying properties
such as gradual dimensional or temperature variations. Probe wobble signals are also
reduced with this probe type. There are also disadvantages to using differential probes.
Most notably, the signals may be difficult to interpret. For example, if a flaw is longer
than the spacing between the two coils, only the leading and trailing edges will be
detected due to signal cancellation when both coils sense the flaw equally.
Reflection Probes
Reflection probes have two coils similar to a differential probe, but one coil is used to
excite the eddy currents and the other is used to sense changes in the test material.
Probes of this arrangement are often referred to as driver/pickup probes. The advantage
of reflection probes is that the driver coil can be made so as to produce a strong and
uniform flux field in the vicinity of the pickup coil. The pickup coil can be made very
small so that it will be sensitive to very small defects.
Hybrid Probes
An example of a hybrid probe is the split D, differential probe
shown to the right. This probe has a driver coil that surrounds
two D shaped sensing coils. It operates in the reflection mode
but additionally, its sensing coils operate in the differential
mode. This type of probe is very sensitive to surface cracks.
Another example of a hybrid probe is one that uses a
conventional coil to generate eddy currents in the material but
then uses a different type of sensor to detect changes on the
surface and within the test material. An example of a hybrid probe is one that uses a
Hall effect sensor to detect changes in the magnetic flux leaking from the test surface.
Hybrid probes are usually specially designed for a specific inspection application

Probes - Configurations

As mentioned on the previous page, eddy current probes are classified by the
configuration and mode of operation of the test coils. The configuration of the probe
generally refers to the way the coil or coils are packaged to best "couple" to the test area
of interest. Some of the common classifications of probes based on their configuration
include surface probes, bolt hole probes, ID probes, and OD probes.
Surface Probes
Surface probes are usually designed to be
handheld and are intended to be used in contact
with the test surface. Surface probes generally
consist of a coil of very fine wire encased in a
protective housing. The size of the coil and shape
of the housing are determined by the intended use
of the probe. Most of the coils are wound so that
the axis of the coil is perpendicular to the test
surface. This coil configuration is sometimes
referred to as a pancake coil and is good for
detecting surface discontinuities that are oriented
perpendicular to the test surface. Discontinuities,
such as delaminations, that are in a parallel plane
to the test surface will likely go undetected with
this coil configuration.
Wide surface coils are used when scanning large
areas for relatively large defects. They sample a relatively large area and allow for
deeper penetration. Since they do sample a large area, they are often used for
conductivity tests to get more of a bulk material measurement. However, their large
sampling area limits their ability to detect small discontinuities.
Pencil probes have a small surface coil that is encased in a long slender housing to
permit inspection in restricted spaces. They are available with a straight shaft or with a
bent shaft, which facilitate easier handling and use in applications such as the inspection
of small diameter bores. Pencil probes are prone to wobble due to their small base and
sleeves are sometimes used to provide a wider base.
Bolt Hole Probes
Bolt hole probes are a special type of surface probe that is designed to be used with a
bolt hole scanner. They have a surface coil that is mounted inside a housing that
matches the diameter of the hole being inspected. The probe is inserted in the hole and
the scanner rotates the probe within the hole.
ID or Bobbin Probes
ID probes, which are also referred to as Bobbin
probes or feed-through probes, are inserted into
hollow products, such as a pipe, to inspect from the
inside out. The ID probes have a housing that keep
the probe centered in the product and the coil(s)

orientation somewhat constant relative to the test surface. The coils are most commonly
wound around the circumference of the probe so that
the probe inspects an area around the entire
circumference of the test object at one time.
OD or Encircling Coils
OD probes are often called encircling coils. They are
similar to ID probes except that the coil(s) encircle the
material to inspect from the outside in. OD probes are
commonly used to inspect solid products, such as bar.

Probes - Shielding & Loading


One of the challenges of performing an eddy current inspection,
is getting sufficient eddy current field strength in the region of
interest within the material. Another challenge is keeping the field
away from nonrelevent features of the test component. Features
that could produce a response that complicates the desired signal
information. Probe shielding and loading are sometimes used to
limit the spread and concentrate the magnetic field of the coil. Of
course, if the magnetic field is concentrated near the coil, the
eddy currents will also be concentrated in this area.
Probe Shielding
Probe shielding is used to prevent or reduce the interaction of the
probes magnetic field with nonrelevent features in close proximity of
the probe. Shielding could be used to reduce edge effects when testing
near dimensional transitions such as a step or an edge. Shielding
could also be used to reduce the effects of conductive or magnetic
fasteners in the region of testing.
Eddy current probes are most often shielded using magnetic shielding
or eddy current shielding. Magnetically shielded probes have their
coil surrounded by a ring of ferrite or other material with high permeability and low
conductivity. The ferrite creates and area of low magnetic reluctance and the probe's
magnetic field is concentrated in this area rather than spreading beyond the shielding.
This concentrates the magnetic field into tighter area around the coil.
Eddy current shielding uses a ring of highly conductive but nonmagnetic material,
usually copper, to surround the coil. The portion of the coil's magnetic field that cuts
across the shielding generates eddy currents in the shielding material rather than in the

nonrelevent features outside of the shielded area. The higher the frequency of the
current used to drive the probe, the more effective the shielding will be due to skin
effect in the shielding material.
Probe Loading with Ferrite Cores
Sometimes coils are wound around a ferrite core. Since
ferrite is ferromagnetic, the magnetic flux produced by the
coil prefers to travel through the ferrite than through air.
Therefore, the ferrite core concentrates the magnetic field
near the center of the probe. This, in turn, concentrates the
eddy currents near the center of the probe. Probes with ferrite
cores tend to be more sensitive than air core probes and less
affected by probe wobble and lift-off.

Coil (Probe) Design - Diameter


The most important feature in eddy current testing is the way in which the eddy currents
are induced and detected in the material under test. This depends on the design of the
probe, which can contain either one or more coils. A coil consists of a length of wire
wound in a helical manner around the length of a cylindrical tube or rod, called a
former. The winding usually has more than one layer so as to increase the value of
inductance for a given length of coil.
It is desirable with eddy current testing that the wire is made from copper or other
nonferrous metal to avoid magnetic hysteresis effects. The main purpose of the former
is to provide a sufficient amount of rigidity in the coil to prevent distortion. Formers
used for coils with diameters greater than a few millimeters, e.g. encircling and pancake
coils, generally take the form of tubes or rings made from dielectric materials.
The region inside the former is called the core, which can consist of either a solid
material or just air. Small-diameter coils are usually wound directly on to a solid core,
which acts as the former. The higher the inductance (L) of a coil, at a given frequency,
the greater the sensitivity of eddy current testing. It is essential that the current through
the coil is as low as possible. Too high a current may produce

a rise in temperature, hence an expansion of the coil, which increases the value
of L.
magnetic hysteresis, which is small but detectable when a ferrite core is used.

The simplest type of probe is the single-coil probe, which is in widespread use. The
following applet may be used to calculate the effect of the inner and outer diameters of a
simple probe design on the probe's self inductance. Dimensional units are in
millimeters.

The higher the inductance (L) of a coil, at a given frequency, the greater the sensitivity
of eddy current testing. A more precise value of L is given by
L = Kn2 pi [ (ro2 - rc2) - rrc2] o/l

ro is the mean radius of the coil.


rc is the radius of the core
l is the length of the coil.
n is the number of turns.
r is the relative magnetic permeability of the core.
o is 4 pi x 10-7 H/m (i.e. the permeability of free space which is effectively
equal to the permeabilities of the materials of both the wire and the former).
K is a dimensionless constant characteristic of the length and the external and
internal radii.

Coil (Probe) Design - Turns


As mentioned in the previous section, an important feature in eddy current testing is the
way in which the eddy currents are induced and detected in the material under test.
The winding usually has more than one layer so as to increase the value of inductance
for a given length of coil. It is desirable with eddy current testing that the wire is made
from copper or other nonferrous metal to avoid magnetic hysteresis effects. The main
purpose of the former is to provide a sufficient amount of rigidity in the coil to prevent
distortion. Formers used for coils with diameters greater than a few millimeters, e.g.
encircling and pancake coils, generally take the form of tubes or rings made from
dielectric materials.
The region inside the former is called the core, which can consist of either a solid
material or just air. Small-diameter coils are usually wound directly on to a solid core,
which acts as the former. The higher the inductance (L) of a coil, at a given frequency,
the greater the sensitivity of eddy current testing.
The simplest type of probe is the single-coil probe. The following applet may be used to
calculate the effect of the number of turns in the coil on the probe's self inductance.

Impedance Matching

Eddy current testing requires us to determine the


components of the impedance of the detecting coil or
the potential difference across it. Most applications
require the determination only of changes in
impedance, which can be measured with a high degree
of sensitivity using an AC bridge. The principles of
operation of the most commonly used eddy current
instruments are based on Maxwell's inductance bridge,
in which the components of the impedance of the
detecting coil, commonly called a probe, are compared
with known variable impedances connected in series
and forming the balancing arm of the bridge. Refer
back to Sec.3.3 - Bridges.
The input to the bridge is an AC oscillator, often
variable in both frequency and amplitude. The detector arm takes the form of either a
meter or a storage cathode-ray oscilloscope, a phase-sensitive detector, a rectifier to
provide a steady indication, and usually an attenuator to confine the output indication
within a convenient range. Storage facilities are necessary in the oscilloscope in order to
retain the signal from the detector for reference during scanning with the probe.
The highest sensitivity of detection is achieved by properly matching the impedance of
the probe to the impedance of the measuring instrument. Thus, with a bridge circuit
which is initially balanced, a subsequent but usually small variation in the impedance of
the probe upsets the balance, and a potential difference appears across the detector arm
of the bridge.
Although the Maxwell inductance bridge forms the basis of most eddy current
instruments, there are several reasons why it cannot be used in its simplest form (e.g.
Hague, 1934), including the creation of stray capacitances, such as those formed by the
leads and leakages to earth. These unwanted impedances can be eliminated by earthing
devices and the addition of suitable impedances to produce one or more wide-band
frequency (i.e. low Q) resonance circuits. Instruments having a wide frequency range,
e.g. from 1 kHz to 2 MHz, may possess around five
of these bands to cover the range. The value of the
impedance of the probe is therefore an important
consideration in achieving proper matching and, as a
result, it may be necessary to change the probe when
switching from one frequency band to another

Surface Breaking Cracks


Eddy current equipment can be used for a variety of
applications such as the detection of cracks
(discontinuities), measurement of metal thickness,
detection of metal thinning due to corrosion and

erosion, determination of coating thickness, and the measurement of electrical


conductivity and magnetic permeability. Eddy currents inspection is an excellent
method for detecting surface and near surface defects when the probable defect location
and orientation is well known. Defects such as cracks are detected when they disrupt the
path of eddy currents and weaken their strength. The images to the right show an eddy
current surface probe on the surface of a conductive component. The strength of the
eddy currents under the coil of the probe in indicated by color. In the lower image, there
is a flaw under the right side of the coil and it can be see that the eddy currents are
weaker in this area.
Of course, factors such as the type of material, surface finish and condition of the
material, the design of the probe, and many other factors can affect the sensitivity of the
inspection. Successful detection of surface breaking and near surface cracks requires:
1. A knowledge of probable defect type, position, and orientation.
2. Selection of the proper probe. The probe should fit the geometry of the part and
the coil must produce eddy currents that will be disrupted by the flaw.
3. Selection of a reasonable probe drive frequency. For surface flaws, the
frequency should be as high as possible for maximum resolution and high
sensitivity. For subsurface flaws, lower frequencies are necessary to get the
required depth of penetration and this results in less sensitivity. Ferromagnetic or
highly conductive materials require the use of an even lower frequency to arrive
at some level of penetration.
4. Setup or reference specimens of similar material to the component being
inspected and with features that are representative of the defect or condition
being inspected for.
The basic steps in performing an inspection with a surface probe are the following:
1. Select and setup the instrument and probe.
2. Select a frequency to produce the desired depth of penetration.
3. Adjust the instrument to obtain an easily recognizable defect response using a
calibration standard or setup specimen.
4. Place the inspection probe (coil) on the component surface and null the
instrument.
5. Scan the probe over part of the surface in a pattern that will provide complete
coverage of the area being inspected. Care must be taken to maintain the same
probe-to-surface orientation as probe wobble can affect interpretation of the
signal. In some cases, fixtures to help maintain orientation or automated
scanners may be required.
6. Monitor the signal for a local change in impedance that will occur as the probe
moves over a discontinuity.
The applet below depicts a simple eddy current probe near the surface of a calibration
specimen. Move the probe over the surface of the specimen and compare the signal
responses from a surface breaking crack with the signals from the calibration notches.
The inspection can be made at a couple of different frequency to get a feel for the effect
that frequency has on sensitivity in this application

Surface Crack Detection Using Sliding Probes

Many commercial aircraft applications involve the use of multiple fasteners to connect
the multilayer skins. Because of the fatigue stress that is caused by the typical
application of any commercial aircraft, fatigue cracks can be induced in the vicinity of
the fastener holes. In order to inspect the fastener holes in an adequate amount of time,
sliding probes are an efficient method of inspection.
Sliding probes have been named so because they move over fasteners in a sliding
motion. There are two types of sliding probes, fixed and adjustable, which are usually
operated in the reflection mode. This means that the eddy currents are induced by the
driver coil and detected by a separate receiving coil.
Sliding probes are one of the fastest methods to inspect large numbers of fastener holes.
They are capable of detecting surface and subsurface discontinuities, but they can only
detect defects in one direction. The probes are marked with a detection line to indicate
the direction of inspection. In order to make a complete inspection there must be two
scans that are 90 degrees separated from each other.
PROBE TYPES
FIXED SLIDING PROBES
These probes are generally used for thinner material compared to
the adjustable probes. Maximum penetration is about 1/8 inch.
Fixed sliding probes are particularly well suited for finding
longitudinal surface or subsurface cracks such as those found in
lap joints. Typical frequency range is from 100 Hz to 100 kHz.
ADJUSTABLE SLIDING PROBES
These probes are well suited for finding subsurface cracks in thick
multilayer structures, like wing skins. Maximum penetration is about
3/4 inch. The frequency range for adjustable sliding probes is from
100 Hz to 40 kHz.
Adjustable probes, as the name implies, are adjustable with the use of spacers, which
will change the penetration capabilities. The spacer thickness between the coils is
normally adjusted for the best detection. For tangential scans or 90 degree scanning with
an offset from the center, a thinner spacer is often used.
The spacer thickness range can vary from 0 (no spacer) for
inspections close to the surface and small fastener heads to
a maximum of about 0.3 inch for deep penetration with
large heads in the bigger probe types. A wider spacer will
give more tolerance to probe deviation as the sensitive area
becomes wider but the instrument will require more gain.
Sliding probes usually penetrate thicker materials compared
to the donut probes.
REFERENCE STANDARDS

Reference/calibration standards for setup of sliding probes typically consist of three or


four aluminum plates that are fastened together within a lap joint type configuration.
EDM notches or naturally/artificially- induced cracks are located in the second or third
layer of the standard.

Reference standards used should be manufactured from the same material type, alloy,
material thickness, and chemical composition that will be found on the aircraft
component to be inspected. Sizes and tolerances of flaws introduced in the standards are
usually regulated by inspection specifications.
INSTRUMENT DISPLAY (LIFTOFF)
Liftoff is normally adjusted to be horizontal, but on the CRT liftoff shows up as a
curved line rather than a straight line. Sometimes liftoff can be a steep curve and may
have to be allowed to move slightly upwards before moving downwards. See Figures 1
and 2.

SCANNING PATTERNS
A typical scan is centralized over the fastener head and moves along the axis of the
fastener holes. This scan is generally used to detect cracks positioned along the axis of
the fastener holes. For detecting cracks located transverse or 90 degrees from the axis of
the fastener holes, a scan that is 90 degrees from the axis of the fastener holes is
recommended.
CRACK DETECTION
SIGNAL INTERPRETATION
When the probe moves over a fastener hole with a crack, the indication changes and
typically will create a larger vertical movement. The vertical amplitude of the loop
depends on the crack length, with longer cracks giving higher indications.
If the crack is in the far side of the fastener, as the probe moves over it the dot will
follow the fastener line first but will move upwards (clockwise) as it goes over the

crack. If the crack is in the near side, it will be found first and the dot will move along
the crack level before coming down to the fastener level.
If two cracks on opposite sides of the fastener hole are present, the dot will move
upwards to the height by the first crack length and then come back to the fastener line
and balance point. If the second crack is longer than the first one, the dot will move
even higher and complete the loop (clockwise) before going down to the balance point.
See figures 3 and 4.

VARIABLES:
PROBE SCAN DEVIATION
Most probes are designed to give a narrow indication for a good fastener hole so that the
loops from the cracks are more noticeable. Some probes and structures can give wider
indications and a similar result can be obtained if the probe is not straight when it
approaches the fastener. It is important to keep the probe centralized over the fastener
heads. Doing this will give you a maximum indication for the fastener and a crack.
If the probe deviates from the center line, the crack indication will move along the loop
that we saw in figure 5 and is now present in figure 6. The crack indication is at "a"
when the probe is centralized and moves toward "b" as it deviates in one direction, or
"c" as it deviates in the opposite direction. Point "b" gives an important indication even
if it loses a small amount of amplitude it has gained in phase, giving a better separation
angle. This is because we deviated to the side where the crack is located.

CRACK ANGLE DEVIATION


A reduction in the crack indication occurs when the crack is at an angle to the probe
scan direction. This happens if the crack is not completely at 90 degrees to the normal
probe scan or changes direction as it grows. Both the fixed and adjustable sliding probes
are capable of detecting cracks up to about 30 degrees off angle. See to figures 7 and 8.

ELECTRICAL CONTACT
When inspecting fasteners that have just been installed or reference standards that have
intimate contact with the aluminum skin plate, it is not unusual to obtain a smaller than
normal indication. In some extreme cases, the fastener indication may disappear almost
completely. This is due to the good electrical contact between the fastener and the skin
that allows the eddy currents to circulate without finding the boundary and therefore no
obstacle or barrier. Because of this effect it is recommended to paint the holes before
fastener installation

Metal Thinning (Corrosion Damage)

Nondestructive Testing (NDT) methods are used extensively to detect metal thinning
due to corrosion. Corrosion is a natural process and is a result of the inherent tendency
of metals to revert to their more stable compounds, which are usually oxides. Most
metals are found in nature in the form of various chemical compounds called ores. In
the refining process, energy is added to the ore to produce the metal. It is this same
energy that provides the driving force causing the metal to revert back to the more
stable compound.
Eddy current inspection is often used to detect corrosion and
erosion in tubing such as that used in heat exchangers. A
technique that is often used involves feeding a differential
bobbin probe into the individual tube of the heat exchanger.
With the differential probe used, no signal will be seen on the
eddy current instrument as long as no metal thinning is present.
When metal thinning is present, a loop will be seen on the
impedance plane as one coil of the differential probe passes
over the flawed area and a second loop will be produced when
the second coil passes over the damage. When the corrosion is
on the outside surface of the tube, the depth of corrosion is
indicated by a shift in the phase lag. The size of the indication
provides an indication of the total extent of the corrosion
damage.
A tube inspection using a bobbin probe is simulated below. Click the "null" button and
then drag either the absolute of the differential probe through the tube. Note the
different signal responses provided by the two probes. Also note that the absolute probe
is much more sensitive to dings and the build up of magnetite on the outside of the tube,
than the differential probe is.

Another application where eddy currents is used to characterize corrosion damage is on


the skins of aircraft. Eddy current techniques can be used to do spot checks or scanners
can be used to inspect small areas. Eddy current inspection has an advantage over
ultrasound in this application because no mechanical coupling is required to get the
energy into the structure. Therefore, in multi-layered areas of the structure like lap
splices, eddy current can often determine if corrosion thinning is present in buried
layers. Eddy current inspection has an advantage
over radiography for this application because only
single sided access is required to perform the
inspection. To get a piece of film on the back side of
the aircraft skin might require removing interior
furnishings, panels, and insulation which could be
very costly. Advanced eddy current techniques are
being developed that can determine thickness
changes down to about 3 percent of the skin
thickness.

Conductivity Measurements
One of the uses of eddy current instruments is
for the measurement of electrical conductivity.
The value of the electrical conductivity of a
metal depends on several factors, such as its
chemical composition and the stress state of
its crystalline structure. Therefore, electrical
conductivity information can be used for
sorting metals, checking for proper heat
treatment, and inspecting for heat damage.
The technique usually involves nulling an
absolute probe in the air and placing the probe
in contact with the sample surface. For nonmagnetic materials, the change in impedance
of the coil can be correlated directly to the conductivity of the material. The technique
can be used to easily sort magnetic materials from nonmagnetic materials but it is
difficult to separate the conductivity effects from magnetic permeability effects, so
conductivity measurements are limited to nonmagnetic materials. It is important to
control factors that can affect the results such as the inspection temperature and the part
geometry. Conductivity changes with temperature so measurements should be made at a
constant temperature and adjustments made for temperature variations when necessary.
The thickness of the specimen should generally be greater than three standard depths of
penetration. This is so the eddy currents at the back surface of the sample are
sufficiently weaker than variations in specimen thickness that are not seen in the
measurements.
Generally large pancake type, surface probes are used to get a value for a relatively
large sample area. The instrument is usually setup such that a ferromagnetic material
produces a response that is nearly vertical. Then, all conductive but nonmagnetic
materials will produce a trace that moves down and to the right as the probe is moved
toward the surface. Think back to the discussion on the impedance plane and these type
of responses make sense. Remember that inductive reactance changes are plotted along
the y-axis and resistance changes are plotted in the x-axis. Since ferromagnetic
materials will concentrate the magnetic field produced by a coil, the inductive reactance
of the coil will increase. The effects on the signal from the magnetic permeability
overshadow the effects from conductivity since they are so much stronger.
When the probe is brought near a conductive but nonmagnetic material, the coil's
inductive reactance goes down since the magnetic field from the eddy currents and

opposes the magnetic field of the coil. The resistance in the coil increases since it takes
some of the coils energy to generate the eddy currents and this appears as additional
resistance in the circuit. As the conductivity of the materials being tested increases, the
resistance losses will be less and the inductive reactance changes will be greater.
Therefore, the signals will be come more vertical as conductivity increases as shown in
the image above.
To sort materials, using an impedance plane device, the signal from the unknown
sample must be compared to a signal from a variety of reference standards.. However,
there are devices available that can be calibrated to produce a value for electrical
conductivity which can then be compared to published values of electrical conductivity
in MS/m or percent IACS (International Annealed Copper Standard). Please be aware
that the conductivity of a particular material can vary significantly with slight variations
in the chemical composition and, thus, a conductivity range is generally provided for a
material. The conductivity range for one material may overlap with the range of a
second material of interest so conductivity alone can not always be used to sort
materials. The electrical conductivity values for a variety of materials can be found in
the material properties reference tables.
The following applet is based on codes for nonferrous materials written by Back Blitz
from his book, "Electrical and Magnetic Methods of Nondestructive Testing", 2nd ed.,
Chapman & Hill (1997). The applet demonstrates how a impedance plane eddy current
instrument can be used for sorting of materials.

Conductivity Measurements
for the Verification of Heat Treatment
With some materials, such as solution heat treatable
aluminum alloys, conductivity measurements are
often made verifying that parts and materials have
received the proper heat treatment. High purity
aluminum is soft and ductile, and gains strength and
hardness with the addition of alloying elements. A
few such aluminum alloys are the 2000 series
(2014, 2024, etc.), 6000 series (6061, 6063, etc.),
and 7000 series (7050, 7075, etc.). The 2xxx series
aluminum alloys have copper, the 6xxx series have
magnesium, and the 7xxx have zinc as their major
alloying elements.

Heat treatment of aluminum alloys is accomplished in two phases - solution heat


treatment and then aging. In the solution heat treatment step, the alloys are heated to an
elevated temperature to dissolve the alloying elements into solution. The metal is then
rapidly cooled or quenched to freeze the atoms of the alloying elements in the lattice
structure of the aluminum. This distorts and stresses the structure making electron
movement more difficult and, therefore, decreases the electrical conductivity. In this
condition, the alloys are still relatively soft but start to gain strength as the alloying
elements begin to precipitate out of solution to form extremely small particles that
impede the movement of dislocations within the material. The formation of the
precipitates can be controlled for many alloys by heating and holding the material at an
elevated temperature for a period of time (artificial aging). As the alloying elements
precipitate out of solid solution, the conductivity of the material gradually increases. By
controlling the amount of precipitated particles within the aluminum, the properties can
be controlled to produce peak strength or some combinations of strength and corrosion
resistance. Sometimes the material must be annealed or put into the softest most ductile
condition possible in order to perform forming operations. Annealing allows all of the
alloying elements to precipitate out of solution to form a course widely spaced
precipitate. The electrical conductivity is greatest when the material is in the annealed
condition.
Since solution heat-treated and aged materials are stronger, components that can be
made using less material. A lighter or more compact design is often of great importance
to the designer and well worth the cost of the heat treating process. However, think of
the consequences that could arise if a component that was suppose to be solution heat
treated and aged some how left the manufacturing facility and was put into service
unheat treated or annealed. This is a real possibility since heat treated aluminum parts
look exactly like unheat treated parts. Consider 2024 aluminum as an example. Select
tensile properties and its electrical conductivity for various heat treatment conditions are
given in the following table.
Properties for Alclad 2024 Aluminum
Heat Treatment Condition Ultimate Strength Yield Strength

Electrical
Conductivity

Annealed (O)

50 % IACS

26 ksi (180 MPa) 11 ksi (75 MPa)

Solution Heat Treated and


64 ksi (440 MPa) 42 ksi (290 MPa) 30 % IACS
Naturally Aged (T42)
Solution Heat Treated,
Coldworked and
Artificially Aged (T861)

70 ksi (485 MPa) 66 ksi (455 MPa) 38 % IACS

It can be seen that the yield strength for the material is 42 kilipounds/square inch (ksi)
(290 MPa) in the solution heat treated and naturally aged condition (T42 condition). The
yield strength can be increased to 66 ksi (455 MPa) when coldworked and artificially
aged (T861 condition). But in the annealed condition, the yield strength is reduced to 11
ksi or 75 MPa). If an annealed part were accidentally used where a part in the T42 or
T861 was intended, it would likely fail prematurely. However, a quick check of the
conductivity using an eddy current instrument of all parts prior to shipping the parts
would prevent this from occurring.

Thickness Measurements of Thin Material


Eddy current techniques can be used to perform a number of dimensional
measurements. The ability to make rapid measurements without the need for couplant
or, in some cases even surface contact, makes eddy current techniques very use. The
type of measurements that can be made include:

thickness of thin metal sheet and foil, and of metallic coatings on


metallic and nonmetallic substrate
cross-sectional dimensions of cylindrical tubes and rods
thickness of nonmetallic coatings on metallic substrates

Thickness Measurement of Thin Conductive Sheet, Strip and Foil


Eddy current techniques are used to measure the thickness of hot sheet, strip and foil in
rolling mills, and to measure the amount of metal thinning that has occurred over time
due to corrosion on fuselage skins of aircraft. On the impedance plane, thickness
variations exhibit the same type of eddy current signal response as a subsurface defects,
except that the signal represents a void of infinite size and depth. The phase rotation
pattern is the same, but the signal amplitude is greater. In the applet, the lift-off curves
for different areas of the taper wedge can be produced by nulling the probe in air and
touching it to the surface at various locations of the tapered wedge. If a line is drawn
between the end points of the lift-off curves, a comma shaped curve is produced. As
illustrated in the second applet, this comma shaped curve is the path that is traced on the
screen when the probe is scanned down the length of the tapered wedge so that the
entire range of thickness values are measured.

When making this measurement, it is important to keep in mind that the depth of
penetration of the eddy currents must cover the entire range of thickness being
measured. Typically, a frequency is selected that produces about one standard depth of
penetration at the maximum thickness. Unfortunately, at lower frequencies, which are
often needed to get the necessary penetration, the probe impedance is more sensitive to

changes in electrical conductivity. Thus, the effects of electrical conductivity cannot be


phased out and it is important to verify that any variations of conductivity over the
region of interest are at a sufficiently low level.
Measurement of Cross-sectional Dimensions of Cylindrical Tubes and Rods
Dimensions of cylindrical tubes and rods can be measured with either OD coils or
internal axial coils, whichever is appropriate. The relationship between change in
impedance and change in diameter is fairly constant at all but at very low frequencies.
However, the advantages of operating at a higher normalized frequency are twofold.
First, the contribution of any conductivity change to the impedance of the coil becomes
less important and, it can easily be phased out. Second, there is an increase in
measurement sensitivity resulting from the higher value of the inductive component of
the impedance. Because of the large phase difference between the impedance vectors
corresponding to changes in fill-factor and conductivity (and defect size), simultaneous
testing for dimensions, conductivity, and defects can be carried out.
Typical applications include measuring eccentricities of the diameters of tubes and rods
and the thickness of tube walls. Long tubes are often tested by passing them at a
constant speed through encircling coils (generally differential) and providing a close fit
to achieve as high a fill-factor as possible.
An important application of tube-wall thickness measurement is the detection and
assessment of corrosion, both external and internal. Internal probes must be used when
the external surface is not accessible, i.e. when testing pipes that are buried or supported
by brackets. Success has been achieved in measuring thickness variations in
ferromagnetic metal pipes with the remote field technique. See Sec. 5.5 Remote Field
Sensing.
Thickness Measurement of Thin Conductive Layers
It is also possible to measure the thickness of a thin layer of metal on a metallic
substrate, provided the two metals have widely differing electrical conductivity, e.g.
silver on lead where sigma = 67 and 10 MS/m, respectively. A frequency must be
selected such that there is complete eddy current penetration of the layer, but not of the
substrate itself. The method has also been used successfully for measuring thickness of
very thin protective coatings of ferromagnetic metals, e.g. chromium and nickel, on
non-ferromagnetic metal bases.
Depending on the required degree of penetration, measurements can be made using a
single-coil probe or a transformer probe, preferably reflection type. Small-diameter
probe coils are usually preferred since they can provide very high sensitivity and
minimize effects related to property or thickness variations in the underlying base metal
when used in combination with suitably high test frequencies. The goal is to confine the
magnetizing field, and the resulting eddy current distribution, to just beyond the thin
coating layer and to minimize the field within the base metals

Thickness Measurements of Nonconducting Coatings on


Conductive Materials
The thickness of nonmetallic coatings on metal substrates can be determined simply
from the effect of liftoff on impedance. This method has widespread use for measuring
thickness of paint and plastic coatings. The coating serves as a spacer between the probe
and the conductive surface. As the distance between the probe and the conductive base
metal increases, the eddy current field strength decreases because less of the probe's
magnetic field can interact with base metal. Thickness between 0.5 and 25 m can be
measured to an accuracy between 10% for lower values and 4% for higher values.
Contributions to impedance changes due to conductivity variations should be phased
out, unless it is known that conductivity variations are negligible, as normally found at
higher frequencies.

Fairly precise measurements can be made with a standard eddy current flaw detector
and a calibration specimen. The probe is nulled in air and the direction of the lift off
signal is established. The location of the signal is marked on the screen as the probe is
placed on the calibration specimen in areas of decreasing coating thickness. When the
probe is placed on the test surface, the position of the signal will move from the air null
position to a point that can be correlated to the calibration markings.

Specialized eddy current coating thickness detectors are also available and are often
pocket-sized with the probe resembling a small pencil. They are usually operated by a
small battery and provide a digital read-out in the appropriate units. Calibration
adjustments, some of which are laid down by standards, e.g. BS EN 2360 (1995) and
ASTM B 244 and E 376, may be assisted by the use of an inbuilt microprocessor

Scanning

Eddy current data can be collected using automated scanning systems to improve the
quality of the measurements and to construct images of scanned areas. The most
common type of scanning is line scanning where an automated system is used to push
the probe at a fixed speed. Line scan systems are often used when performing tube
inspections or aircraft engine blade slot inspections, where scanning in one dimension is
needed. The data is usually presented as a strip chart recording. The advantage of using
a linear scanning system is that the probe is moved at a constant speed so indication on
the strip chart can be correlated to a position on the part being scanned. As with all
automated scanning systems, operator variables, such as wobble of the probe, are
reduced.
Two-dimensional scanning systems are used to scan a two-dimensional area. This could
be a scanning system that scans over a relatively flat area in a X-Y raster mode, or it
could be a bolt hole inspection system that rotates the probe as it is moved into the hole.
The data is typically displayed as a false-color plot of signal strength or phase angle
shift as a function of position, just like an ultrasonic C-scan presentation. Shown below
is a portable scanning system that is designed to work on the skins of aircraft fuselage
and wing sections.
Listed below are some automated scanning advantages:

minimizes changes in liftoff or fill factor


resulting from probe wobble, uneven surfaces,
and eccentricity of tubes caused by faulty
manufacture or denting
accurate indexing
repeatability
high resolution mapping

Multiple Frequency Techniques


Multiple frequency eddy current techniques simply involve collecting data at several
different frequencies and then comparing the data or mixing the data in some way.
Why the need for multiple frequencies? - Some background information
The impedance of an eddy current probe may be affected by the following factors:

variations in operating frequency


variations in electrical conductivity and the magnetic permeability of a object or
structure, caused by structural changes such as grain structure, work hardening,
heat treatment, etc.
changes in liftoff or fill factor resulting from probe wobble, uneven surfaces, and
eccentricity of tubes caused by faulty manufacture or denting
the presence of surface defects such as cracks, and subsurface defects such as
voids and nonmetallic inclusions
dimensional changes, for example, thinning of tube walls due to corrosion,
deposition of metal deposits or sludge, and the effects of denting
the presence of supports, walls, and brackets
the presence of discontinuities such as edges

Several of these factors are often present simultaneously. In the simple case where
interest is confined to detecting defects or other abrupt changes in geometry, a
differential probe can be used to eliminate unwanted factors, providing they vary in a
gradual manner. For example, variations in electrical conductivity and tube thinning
affect both coils of a differential probe simultaneously. However, if unwanted
parameters that occur abruptly are affecting the measurements, they can sometimes be
negated by mixing signals collected at several frequencies.
An example of where a multi-frequency eddy current inspection is used is in heat
exchanger tube inspections. Heat exchanger assemblies are often a collection of tubing
that have support brackets on the outside. When attempting to inspect the full wall
thickness of the tubing, the signal from the mounting bracket is often troublesome. By
collected a signal at the frequency necessary to inspect the full thickness of the tube and
subtracting a second signal collected at a lower frequency (which will be more sensitive
to the bracket but less sensitive to features in the tubing), the affects of the bracket can
be reduced.
There are a number of commercially available multi-frequency eddy current
instruments. Most operate at only two frequencies at a time but some units can collect
data at up to four frequencies simultaneously. Multi-frequency measurements can also
be made using an impedance analyzer but this equipment is generally not suitable for
field measurements. A typical impedance analyzer system is shown below. The interest
in pulsed eddy current instruments is largely due to their ability to, in essence, perform
multi-frequency measurements very quickly and easily.

Swept Frequency
Swept frequency eddy current techniques involve collecting eddy current data at a wide
range of frequencies. This usually involves the use of a specialized piece of equipment
such as an impedance analyzer, which can be configured to automatically make
measurements over a range of frequencies. The swept-frequency technique can be
implemented with commercial equipment but it is a difficult and time-consuming
measurement. The advantage of a swept frequency measurement is that depth
information can be obtained since eddy current depth of penetration varies as a function
of frequency.
Swept frequency measurements are useful in applications such as measuring the
thickness of conductive coatings on conductive base metal, differentiating between
flaws in surface coatings and flaws in the base metal, differentiating between flaws in

various layers of built-up structure. An example application would be the lap splice of a
commercial aircraft. Swept frequency measurements would make it possible to tell if
cracking was occurring on the outer skin, the inner skin or a double layer. Below is an
example of the type of data that can be obtained from swept-frequency measurements.

Data from swept-frequency measurements on two heats of material.


It can be seen in the etched condition, the material labeled "good" exhibits a much
different signal response than the material labeled "bad." It can also be seen that a
frequency of around 2.2 MHz provides the largest separation in the curves, and,
therefore, it should be used if a single frequency were used to sort parts made from the
two metals

Pulsed Eddy Current Inspection


Conventional eddy current inspection techniques use sinusoidal alternating electrical
current of a particular frequency to excite the probe. The pulsed eddy current technique
uses a step function voltage to excite the probe. The advantage of using a step function
voltage is that it contains a continuum of frequencies. As a result, the electromagnetic
response to several different frequencies can be measured with just a single step. Since
the depth of penetration is dependent on the frequency of excitation, information from a
range of depths can be obtained all at once. If measurements are made in the time
domain (that is by looking at signal strength as a function of time), indications produced

by flaws or other features near the inspection coil will be seen first and more distant
features will be seen later in time.
To improve the strength and ease interpretation of the signal, a reference signal is
usually collected to which all other signals are compared (just like nulling the probe in
convention eddy current inspection). Flaws, conductivity, and dimensional changes
produce a change in the signal and a difference between the reference signal and the
measurement signal that is displayed. The distance of the flaw and other features
relative to the probe will cause the signal to shift in time. Therefore, time gating
techniques (like in ultrasonic inspection) can be used to gain information about the
depth of a feature of interest.

Remote Field Sensing


Eddy current testing for external defects in tubes when external access is not possible,
e.g. with buried pipelines, is conducted using internal probes. When testing thick-walled
ferromagnetic metal pipes with conventional internal probes, very low frequencies (e.g.
30 Hz for a steel pipe 10 mm thick) are necessary to achieve the through-penetration of
the eddy currents. This situation produces a very low sensitivity of flaw detection. The
degree of penetration can, in principle, be increased by the application of a saturation
magnetic field. However, because of the large volume of metal present, a large
saturation unit carrying a heavy direct current may be required to produce an adequate
saturating field.
The difficulties encountered in the internal testing of ferromagnetic tubes can be greatly
alleviated with the use of the remote field eddy current method, which allows
measurable through penetration of the walls at three times the maximum frequency
possible with the conventional direct field method. This technique was introduced by
Schmidt in 1958. Although it has been used by the petroleum industry for detecting
corrosion in their installations since the early 1960s, it has only recently evoked general
interest. This interest is largely because the method highly sensitive to variations in wall
thickness, but relative insensitive to fill-factor changes. The method has the added
advantage of allowing equal sensitivities of detection at both inner and outer surfaces of
a ferromagnetic tube. It cannot, however, differentiate between signals from these
respective surfaces.

In its basic form, the probe arrangement consists of an exciting coil and a receiver coil
kept at a rigidly fixed separation along the axial direction. The separation between
exciting coil and receiver coil should be at least twice the inner diameter of the tube,
preferably two and a half times, for the reasons explained below.
The exciting coil induces a magnetic field in the normal manner; some of the field
penetrates the wall of the tube and the rest remains within the tube's air space. Eddy
currents follow circular paths concentric with the axis of the tube flow within the tube
wall and set up a reverse magnetic field. The reverse field attenuates that part of the
field remaining within the air space, which decreases to zero before reaching receiver
coil. The region that is active where the field induces directly by the exciting coil, is
called the direct field zone. This field can produce a current in any coil suitably placed
within the zone. The remote field zone is the region in which no direct coupling can
take place between the exciting coil and any receiver coil inside it. Coupling can take
place only through diffusion of the magnetic flux excited by the exciting coil into the
tube wall and its subsequent spreading lengthwise along the tube, but with a lower
attenuation than the direct field.
The remote field technique has been highly effective in testing tube-wall thinning, but in
its present form it is not suitable for crack detection. However, Atherton et al. (1989)
has achieved some success in increasing the flux penetration through the tube wall by
using "saturation windows." Permanent magnets are located in the vicinities of the wall
at the two probe positions, thus increasing the sensitivity of the method and enabling it
to detect cracks.
Dubois et al. (1992) reported that working in the transition zone can increase sensitivity
in measuring defects, allowing the probe length to be shorter and enabling a higher
degree of resolution. The resultant field effect becomes a maximum where direct and
indirect fields have equal magnitudes and opposite phases. Small variations in the
incident magnetic field can produce large changes in the resultant field, thus increasing
the sensitivity of defect detection. With a careful choice of frequency it is possible to
resolve signals indicating variations of magnetic permeability from signals indicating
the presence and size of defects

EC Standards and Methods

STANDARDS
British Standards (BS) and American Standards (ASTM), relating to magnetic flux
leakage and eddy current methods of testing are given below. National standards are
currently being harmonized across the whole of Europe, and British Standards are no
exception. Harmonized standards will eventually be identified by the initials BS EN; for
example, BS 5411 has been revised and is now known as BS EN 2360. Harmonization
is unlikely to be completed before 2001. The year of updating a British Standard is
given in brackets. ASTM standards are published annually and updated when necessary.
FLUX LEAKAGE METHODS (INCLUDING MAGNETIC PARTICLE
INSPECTION)
British Standards (BS)
BS 6072:1981 (1986) Magnetic particle flaw detection
BS 4489:1984 Black light measurement
BS 5044:1973 (1987) Contrast aid paints
BS 5138:1974 (1988) Forged and stamped crankshafts
BS 3683 (part 2):1985 Glossary
BS 4069:1982 Inks and powders
American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM)
ASTM E 709 Magnetic particle inspection practice
ASTM E 125 Indications in ferrous castings
ASTM E 1316 Definition of terms
ASTM E 570 Flux leakage examination of ferromagnetic steel tubular products
EDDY CURRENT METHODS
British Standards (BS)
BS 3683 (part 5):1965 (1989) Eddy current flaw detection glossary
BS 3889 (part 2A): 1986 (1991) Automatic eddy current testing of wrought steel tubes
BS 3889 (part 213): 1966 (1987) Eddy current testing of nonferrous tubes
BS 5411 (part 3):1984 Eddy current methods for measurement of coating thickness of
nonconductive coatings on nonmagnetic base material. Withdrawn: now known as BS
EN 2360 (1995).
American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM)
ASTM A 450/A450M General requirements for carbon, ferritic alloys and austenitic
alloy steel tubes
ASTM B 244 Method for measurement of thickness of anodic coatings of aluminum
and other nonconductive coatings on nonmagnetic base materials with eddy current
instruments
ASTM B 659 Recommended practice for measurement of thickness of metallic coatings
on nonmetallic substrates
ASTM E 215 Standardizing equipment for electromagnetic testing of seamless

aluminum alloy tube


ASTM E 243 Electromagnetic (eddy current) testing of seamless copper and copper
alloy tubes
ASTM E 309 Eddy current examination of steel tubular products using magnetic
saturation
ASTM E 376 Measuring coating thickness by magnetic field or eddy current
(electromagnetic) test methods
ASTM E 426 Electromagnetic (eddy current) testing of seamless and welded tubular
products austenitic stainless steel and similar alloys
ASTM E 566 Electromagnetic (eddy current) sorting of ferrous metals
ASTM E 571 Electromagnetic (eddy current) examination of nickel and nickel alloy
tubular products
ASTM E 690 In-situ electromagnetic (eddy current) examination of nonmagnetic heatexchanger tubes
ASTM E 703 Electromagnetic (eddy current) sorting of nonferrous metals
ASTM E 1004 Electromagnetic (eddy current) measurements of electrical conductivity
ASTM E 1033 Electromagnetic (eddy current) examination of type F continuously
welded (CW) ferromagnetic pipe and tubing above the Curie temperature
ASTM E 1316 Definition of terms relating to electromagnetic testing
ASTM G 46 Recommended practice for examination and evaluation of pitting corrosion

Material Properties Tables


Electrical Conductivity and Resistivity
(Please give the tables time to load)
-

Aluminum & Aluminum Alloys (htm) (pdf)


Copper & Copper Alloys (htm) (pdf)
Iron & Iron Alloys (htm) (pdf)
Magnesium & Magnesium Alloys (htm) (pdf)
Nickel & Nickel Alloys (htm) (pdf)
Titanium & Titanium Alloys (htm) (pdf)
Misc. Materials & Alloys (htm) (p

Electrical Conductivity & Resistivity for


Aluminum & Aluminum Alloys
Material
Aluminum
Pure
99.99%
99.99%
Red X-8 Cond. Stress
Relieved
Red X-8 As Cast
11S Cond. T3
13
14S Cond. "0"
14S Cond. T6
17S Cond. "0"
17S Cond. T4
18S Cond. "0"
18S Cond. T61
2S Cond. "0"
2S Cond. H18
24S Cond. "0"
24S Cond. T4
24S Cond. T6
3S Cond. "0"
3S Cond. H 12
3S Cond. H 14
3S Cond. H 18
32S Cond. "0"
32S Cond. T6
40E
43 (Annealed)
43 As Cast
A51S Cond. "0"
A51S Cond. T4 and T6
52S Cond. "0" and H 38
53S Cond. "0"
53S Cond. T4 and T6
56S Cond. "0"
56S Cond. H 38
61S Cond. "0"
61S Cond. T4 and T6
75S Cond. T6
85
Aluminum Allcast
As Cast
Cond. Sol. H.T. & Stress

Conductivity

Resistivity

Reference Notes

(% IACS)

(Siemens/m)

(Ohm-m)

(See Below)

61.00
64.94
64.94

3.538E+07
3.767E+07
3.767E+07

2.826E-08
2.655E-08
2.655E-08

ECTM
CSNDT
ALASM

29.00

1.682E+07

5.945E-08

CSNDT

26.00
40.00
39.00
50.00
40.00
45.00
30.00
50.00
40.00
59.00
57.00
50.00
30.00
40.00
50.00
42.00
41.00
40.00
40.00
35.00
35.00
42.00
37.00
55.00
45.00
35.00
45.00
40.00
29.00
27.00
45.00
40.00
30.00
28.00

1.508E+07
2.320E+07
2.262E+07
2.900E+07
2.320E+07
2.610E+07
1.740E+07
2.900E+07
2.320E+07
3.422E+07
3.306E+07
2.900E+07
1.740E+07
2.320E+07
2.900E+07
2.436E+07
2.378E+07
2.320E+07
2.320E+07
2.030E+07
2.030E+07
2.436E+07
2.146E+07
3.190E+07
2.610E+07
2.030E+07
2.610E+07
2.320E+07
1.682E+07
1.566E+07
2.610E+07
2.320E+07
1.740E+07
1.624E+07

6.631E-08
4.310E-08
4.421E-08
3.448E-08
4.310E-08
3.831E-08
5.747E-08
3.448E-08
4.310E-08
2.922E-08
3.025E-08
3.448E-08
5.747E-08
4.310E-08
3.448E-08
4.105E-08
4.205E-08
4.310E-08
4.310E-08
4.926E-08
4.926E-08
4.105E-08
4.660E-08
3.135E-08
3.831E-08
4.926E-08
3.831E-08
4.310E-08
5.945E-08
6.386E-08
3.831E-08
4.310E-08
5.747E-08
6.158E-08

CSNDT
CSNDT
CSNDT
CSNDT
CSNDT
CSNDT
CSNDT
CSNDT
CSNDT
CSNDT
CSNDT
CSNDT
CSNDT
CSNDT
CSNDT
CSNDT
CSNDT
CSNDT
CSNDT
CSNDT
CSNDT
CSNDT
CSNDT
CSNDT
CSNDT
CSNDT
CSNDT
CSNDT
CSNDT
CSNDT
CSNDT
CSNDT
CSNDT
CSNDT

27.00
36.00

1.566E+07
2.088E+07

6.386E-08
4.789E-08

CSNDT
CSNDT

Relieved
Sol H.T. and Aged
Stress Relieved
Aluminum Alloy
(Wrought)
1050-0
1060-O
1060-H18
1100
1100-O
1100-H18
1145-O
1145-H18
1199-O
1350-O
1350-Hx
2011-T3
2011-T3 and T4
2011-T8
2014-F and -0
2014-O
2014-T3 and -T4
2014-T3, T4, and T451
2014-T6
2014-T6, T651, and T652
2017-F
2017-O
2017-T4
2024-F
2024-O
2024-T3
2024-T36

30.00
30.00

5.747E-08
5.747E-08

CSNDT
CSNDT

2.810E-08
2.780E-08
2.780E-08

ALASM
ALASM
ALASM

2.903E-08

NDT Mag

2.920E-08
3.020E-08
2.830E-08
2.830E-08
2.670E-08
2.790E-08
2.820E-08

ALASM
ALASM
ALASM
ALASM
ALASM
ALASM
ALASM

4.756E-08

NDT Mag

4.400E-08
3.800E-08

ALASM
ALASM

3.473E-08

NDT Mag

3.400E-08

ALASM

5.124E-08

NDT Mag

5.100E-08

ALASM

4.438E-08

NDT Mag

4.300E-08

ALASM

3.490E-08

NDT Mag

3.500E-08
5.000E-08

ALASM
ALASM

3.618E-08

NDT Mag

3.400E-08

ALASM

1.876E+07

5.330E-08

NDT Mag

1.699E+07

5.884E-08

NDT Mag

5.700E-08

ALASM

5.766E-08

NDT Mag

38.00

4.500E-08

ALASM

52.00
41.00

3.320E-08
4.210E-08

ALASM
ALASM

61.30
62.00
61.00
57.00 61.80
59.00
57.00
61.00
60.00
64.50
61.80
61.00
36.00 36.50
39.00
45.00
48.60 50.70
50.00
32.50 34.80
34.00
38.00 39.70
40.00
49.30 49.50
50.00
34.00
46.80 48.50
50.00
28.60 36.10
29.10 29.50

2024-T3, T36, T351,


T361, and T4

30.00

2024-T4

28.80 31.00

2024-T6, T81, T851, and


T861
2036-O
2036-T4

1.740E+07
1.740E+07

3.445E+07

2.103E+07

2.880E+07
1.952E+07
2.253E+07
2.865E+07

2.764E+07

1.734E+07

2048-T851
2124-O

42.00
50.00

4.000E-08
3.450E-08

ALASM
ALASM

2124-T851

39.00

4.421E-08

ALASM

2.451E+07

4.081E-08

NDT Mag

2.169E+07

4.610E-08
4.500E-08
4.300E-08
3.900E-08
6.200E-08

NDT Mag
ALASM
ALASM
ALASM
ALASM

5.700E-08

ALASM

2.332E+07

3.900E-08
4.289E-08
4.700E-08

ALASM
NDT Mag
ALASM

2.741E+07

3.649E-08

NDT Mag

3.400E-08

ALASM

3.861E-08

NDT Mag

4.100E-08
4.200E-08
4.300E-08

ALASM
ALASM
ALASM

2.474E+07

4.043E-08

NDT Mag

2.404E+07

4.160E-08

NDT Mag

4.100E-08

ALASM

3.435E-08

NDT Mag

3.830E-08
4.310E-08

ALASM
ALASM

4.816E-08

NDT Mag

4.790E-08

ALASM

3.235E-08

NDT Mag

4.100E-08

ALASM

3.281E-08

NDT Mag

3.320E-08

ALASM

3.515E-08

NDT Mag

3.400E-08

ALASM

4.843E-08

NDT Mag

4.930E-08

ALASM

5.956E-08

NDT Mag

2127-T4
2218-T61
2218-T61
2218-T72
2219-O
2219-T31, T37, and T351
2219-T62, T81, T87, and
T851
2319-O
2618
2618-T61
3003-O
3003-O
3003-H14 and -H12
3003-H12
3003-H14
3003-H18
3003-H24 and -H28
3004
3004-O
X3005-O
3105-O
4032-O
4032-T6
4032-T6
4043-F
4043-O
5005
5005-O and H38
5050
5050-O and H38
5052
5052-O and H38
5056

42.10 42.40
37.40
38.00
40.00
44.00
28.00
30.00
44.00
40.20
37.00
44.70 49.80
50.00
37.80 51.50
42.00
41.00
40.00
37.80 47.50
39.40 43.50
42.00
50.10 50.30
45.00
40.00
35.30 36.30
36.00
52.30 54.30
42.00
52.30 52.80
52.00
48.30 49.80
50.00
33.60 37.60
35.00
28.10 29.80

2.590E+07

2.912E+07

2.076E+07
3.091E+07
3.048E+07
2.845E+07
2.065E+07
1.679E+07

resistivity converted
from conductivity

5056-O
5056-H38
5083
5086
5154
5154
5182
5252
5254
5356-O
5357
5454
5456
5457
5652
5657
6005-T5
6009-O
6009-T4
6009-T6
6010-O
6010-T4
6010-T6
6053
6061-F and -0
6061-O
6061-T4
6061-T4
6061-T6 and -T9
6061-T6
6062-F
6062-T4
6062-T6
6063-O
6063-T1
6063-T5
6063-T6 and T83
6066-O
6066-T6
6070-T6
6101-T6

29.00
27.00
29.00
31.00
30.50 32.80
32.00
31.00
35.00
32.00
29.00
42.30 47.00
34.00
29.00
46.00
35.00
54.00
49.00
54.00
44.00
47.00
53.00
39.00
44.00
39.30 48.00
42.30 48.50
47.00
37.60 40.50
40.00
40.00 44.80
43.00
47.00 51.00
43.50 44.00
44.70 49.50
58.00
50.00
55.00
53.00
40.00
37.00
44.00
57.00

5.900E-08
6.400E-08
5.950E-08
5.600E-08

ALASM
ALASM
ALASM
ALASM

5.448E-08

NDT Mag

5.390E-08
5.560E-08
4.900E-08
5.400E-08
5.940E-08

ALASM
ALASM
ALASM
ALASM
ALASM

3.861E-08

NDT Mag

5.100E-08
5.950E-08
3.750E-08
4.900E-08
3.200E-08
3.500E-08
3.190E-08
3.920E-08
3.670E-08
3.250E-08
4.420E-08
3.920E-08

ALASM
ALASM
ALASM
ALASM
ALASM
ALASM
ALASM
ALASM
ALASM
ALASM
ALASM
ALASM

2.532E+07

3.950E-08

NDT Mag

2.633E+07

3.798E-08

NDT Mag

3.700E-08

ALASM

4.415E-08

NDT Mag

4.300E-08

ALASM

4.066E-08

NDT Mag

4.000E-08

ALASM

2.842E+07

3.519E-08

NDT Mag

2.538E+07

3.941E-08

NDT Mag

2.732E+07

3.661E-08

NDT Mag

3.000E-08
3.500E-08
3.200E-08
3.300E-08
4.300E-08
4.700E-08
3.900E-08
3.020E-08

ALASM
ALASM
ALASM
ALASM
ALASM
ALASM
ALASM
ALASM

1.836E+07

2.590E+07

2.265E+07
2.459E+07

6101-T61
6101-T63
6101-T64
6101-T65

2.920E-08
2.970E-08
2.870E-08
2.970E-08

ALASM
ALASM
ALASM
ALASM

3.184E-08

NDT Mag

3.200E-08

ALASM

4.066E-08

NDT Mag

4.100E-08

ALASM

3.879E-08

NDT Mag

3.800E-08
3.200E-08
3.700E-08
3.500E-08
3.900E-08
3.800E-08
3.400E-08
3.100E-08
3.300E-08

ALASM
ALASM
ALASM
ALASM
ALASM
ALASM
ALASM
ALASM
ALASM

3.077E+07

3.250E-08

NDT Mag

3.254E+07

3.073E-08

NDT Mag

4.010E-08

ALASM

38.00

4.540E-08

ALASM

35.00

4.930E-08

ALASM

7039

32-40

4.3E-8--5.4E-8

ALASM

7049
7050-O
7050-T76 and T7651
7050-T736 and T73651

40.00
47.00
39.50
40.50
60.00 60.10
60.00
44.50 47.80
31.40 34.80
32.00
27.00 37.00

4.300E-08
3.670E-08
4.360E-08
4.260E-08

ALASM
ALASM
ALASM
ALASM

2.871E-08

NDT Mag

2.870E-08

ALASM

2.677E+07

3.736E-08

NDT Mag

1.920E+07

5.209E-08

NDT Mag

1.856E+07

5.388E-08

ECTM

1.856E+07

5.388E-08

NDT Mag

33.00

5.220E-08

ALASM

38.50

4.480E-08

ALASM

40.00

4.310E-08

ALASM

6151-0
6151-O
6151-T4
6151-T6
6151-T6
6151-T6
6201-T81
6205-T1
6205-T5
6262-T9
6351-T6
6463-T1
6463-T5
6463-T6
6951-F
6951-0
7005-O
7005-T53, T5351, T63,
and T6351
7005-T6

7072
7072-O
7075-F
7075-T6
7075-T6
7075-W
7075-T6, T62, T651, and
T652
7075-T76 and T7651
7075-T73, T7351, and
T7352

59.00
58.00
60.00
58.00
53.30 55.00
54.00
41.50 43.30
42.00
43.90 45.00
45.00
54.00
45.00
49.00
44.00
46.00
50.00
55.00
53.00
53.00 53.10
55.70 56.50
43.00

3.141E+07
2.459E+07
2.578E+07

3.483E+07

resistivity converted
from conductivity

7076
7175-O
7175-T66
7175-T736 and T73652
7178-O
7178-T6 and T651
7178-T76 and T7651

7475-O
7475-T61 and T651
7475-T761 and T7651
7475-T7351

35.00
46.00
36.00
40.00
46.00
32.00
39.00
45.50 46.00
26.80 32.60
46.00
36.00
40.00
42.00

Aluminum Alloys (Cast)


122 Perm. Mold As Cast
122 Sand Cond. T2
122 Sand Cond. T61
113
C113
A 132 Cond. T551
201.0-T6

34.00
41.00
33.00
30.00
27.00
29.00
27-32

206.0-T6

27-32

5.4E-8--6.4E-8

ALASM

206.0-T7

32-34

5.0E-8--5.4E-8

ALASM

208.0 as-cast
(208.0) 108
208.0 annealed
214
A214
218
220
242.0-T21, sand
(242.0) 142 Sand Cond.
T21
242.0-T571, sand
(242.0) 142 Sand Cond.
T571
242.0-T77, sand
(242.0) 142 Sand Cond.
T77
242.0-T61, permanent
mold
295.0-T4
(295.0) 195 Cond. T4

31.00
31.00
38.00
35.00
33.00
24.00
21.00
44.00

5.560E-08
5.562E-08
4.540E-08
4.926E-08
5.225E-08
7.184E-08
8.210E-08
3.920E-08

ALASM
CSNDT
ALASM
CSNDT
CSNDT
CSNDT
CSNDT
ALASM

3.918E-08

CSNDT

5.070E-08

ALASM

5.071E-08

CSNDT

4.540E-08

ALASM

4.660E-08

CSNDT

5.220E-08

ALASM

4.930E-08
4.926E-08

ALASM
CSNDT

X7178-F and -0
X7178-W and T6

44.00

3.750E-08
3.750E-08
4.790E-08
4.310E-08
3.750E-08
5.390E-08
4.420E-08

ALASM
ALASM
ALASM
ALASM
ALASM
ALASM
ALASM

2.654E+07

3.769E-08

NDT Mag

1.723E+07

5.805E-08

NDT Mag

3.750E-08
4.790E-08
4.310E-08
4.110E-08

ALASM
ALASM
ALASM
ALASM

5.071E-08
4.205E-08
5.225E-08
5.747E-08
6.386E-08
5.945E-08
4.5E-8--6.4E-8

CSNDT
CSNDT
CSNDT
CSNDT
CSNDT
CSNDT
ALASM

1.972E+07
2.378E+07
1.914E+07
1.740E+07
1.566E+07
1.682E+07

1.798E+07
2.030E+07
1.914E+07
1.392E+07
1.218E+07
2.552E+07

34.00
34.00

1.972E+07

38.00
37.00

2.146E+07

33.00
35.00
35.00

2.030E+07

conductivity
converted from
resistivity
conductivity
converted from
resistivity

295.0-T62
(295.0) 195 Cond. T62
296.0-T4 and T6
(296.0) B 195 Cond. T4
(296.0) B 195 Cond. T6
308.0
(308.0) A 108
R 317
319.0
319 Sand
319 Perm. Mold
336.0-T551
355.0-T51, sand
355 Sand Cond. T51
355.0-T6, sand
355 Sand Cond. T6
355.0-T61, sand
355 Sand Cond. T61
355.0-T7, sand
355 Sand Cond. T7
355.0-T6, permanent mold
355 Perm. Mold Cond. T6
356.0-T51, sand
356 Sand Cond. T51
356.0-T6, sand
356 Sand Cond. T6
356.0-T7, sand
356.0-T6, permanent mold
360.0

37.00
37.00
33.00
35.00
36.00
37.00
37.00
30.00
27.00
27.00
28.00
29.00
43.00
43.00
36.00
36.00
39.00
37.00
42.00
42.00
39.00
39.00
43.00
43.00
39.00
39.00
40.00
41.00
28.00

4.930E-08
4.660E-08
5.220E-08
4.926E-08
4.789E-08
4.660E-08
4.660E-08
5.747E-08
6.390E-08
6.386E-08
6.158E-08
5.950E-08
4.010E-08
4.010E-08
4.790E-08
4.789E-08
4.420E-08
4.660E-08
4.100E-08
4.105E-08
4.420E-08
4.421E-08
4.010E-08
4.010E-08
4.420E-08
4.421E-08
4.310E-08
4.210E-08
6.160E-08

ALASM
CSNDT
ALASM
CSNDT
CSNDT
ALASM
CSNDT
CSNDT
ALASM
CSNDT
CSNDT
ALASM
ALASM
CSNDT
ALASM
CSNDT
ALASM
CSNDT
ALASM
CSNDT
ALASM
CSNDT
ALASM
CSNDT
ALASM
CSNDT
ALASM
ALASM
ALASM

A360.0

30.00

5.747E-08

ALASM

360
380.0
380

37.00
27.00
27.00

4.660E-08
6.500E-08
6.386E-08

CSNDT
ALASM
CSNDT

383.0

23.00

7.496E-08

ALASM

384.0

22.00

7.837E-08

ALASM

A384.0

23.00

7.496E-08

ALASM

390.0-F

27.00

6.386E-08

ALASM

390.0-T5

25.00

6.896E-08

ALASM

413.0
443.0 As-Cast

31.00
37.00

5.56E-08
4.660E-08

ALASM
ALASM

443.0 Annealed

42.05

4.100E-08

ALASM

514.0

35.00

4.930E-08

ALASM

2.146E+07
2.030E+07
2.088E+07
2.146E+07
1.740E+07
1.566E+07
1.624E+07
2.494E+07
2.088E+07
2.146E+07
2.436E+07
2.262E+07
2.494E+07
2.262E+07

2.146E+07
1.566E+07

resistivity converted
from conductivity

resistivity converted
from conductivity
resistivity converted
from conductivity
resistivity converted
from conductivity
resistivity converted
from conductivity
resistivity converted
from conductivity
conductivity
converted from
resistivity

518.0

25.00

6.896E-08

ALASM

520.0-T4
535.0
712.0

21.00
20.00
35.00

8.210E-08
7.500E-08
4.930E-08

ALASM
ALASM
ALASM

713.0

35.00

4.926E-08

ALASM

750

45.00

3.831E-08

CSNDT

771.0

27.00

6.386E-08

ALASM

850.0

47.00

3.670E-08

ALASM

2.610E+07

resistivity converted
from conductivity

resistivity converted
from conductivity

resistivity converted
from conductivity

ALASM=ASM Specialty Handbook Aluminum and Aluminum Alloys


CSNDT=CSNDT compiled by Eddy Current Technology Incorporated
ECTM=Eddy Current Testing Manual on Eddy Current Melted compiled by Eddy
Current Technology Incorporated
NDT Mag=NDT Magazine Sept/Oct 1955, Cosgrove Article compiled by Eddy Current
Technology Incorporated
Compiled by the Collaboration for NDT Education