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MARCH 2012
LEDsmagazine.com

Manufacturing
SIL track focuses on
cost reduction P.27

SIL 2012
Lighting and Market
tracks P.32 & P.39
TECHNOLOGY AND APPLICATIONS OF LIGHT EMITTING DIODES

Ecosystems
How will future SSL
systems look? P.57

Markets
Growth in LED
lighting P.21

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 !     "  


#" "
 " !   #  ! 

  

_____________________________

$%&'()%')

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ISSUE 50

2012

march

LED lighting from Nualight enhances the


appeal of produce in a supermarket display
cabinet. The company has signed a major
deal with Sainsburys, a UK food retailer
see pages 10 and 46.

features
21
27
32

columns/departments

MARKETS
LED lighting market to grow while LED component
market goes flat
Laura Peters and Maury Wright

COMMENTARY Tim Whitaker

MANUFACTURING

NEWS +ANALYSIS

LED manufacturers reduce cost with automation,


larger wafers, new materials
Laura Peters

Test to find the best color metric

Market growth and stealthy start-up


make news at SIL 2012
Philips joins The Climate Group's
LED lighting campaign

HB-LEDS

Seoul Semiconductor CEO outlines


AC-LED potential at SIL 2012

LED market adoption continues to grow


Tim Whitaker

Toyoda Gosei files LED patent


lawsuits against Formosa Epitaxy
Bridgelux gets $25 million in new funding

39
51
57

LEDsmagazine.com

LIGHTING
SSL must still clear hurdles to enable mass
adoption of LED lighting
Maury Wright

Lynk Labs unveils new Tesla ACLED packages at SIL 2012


LEDtronics lights Carpinteria

17

FUNDING+PROGRAMS

INDOOR LIGHTING

Global Lighting Association


aims to be more pro-active

LED lighting highlights the food at San Diego


burger restaurant
Maury Wright

Life-cycle energy consumption


of LED lamps compares well
EPA introduces TM-21 calculator
DOE updates specifications for
troffers, parking-lot luminaires

SSL ECOSYSTEMS
Ecosystems meeting paints future picture of
intelligent SSL systems
Laura Peters

64

LAST WORD Maury Wright


ZigBee standards are ready to
support lighting-control applications

MARCH 2012

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commentary

Test to find the


best color metric

twhitaker@pennwell.com
ASSOCIATE EDITOR Nicole Pelletier

nicolep@pennwell.com
SENIOR TECHNICAL Maury Wright
EDITOR maurywright@gmail.com
SENIOR TECHNICAL Laura Peters
EDITOR laurap@pennwell.com

MARKETING MANAGER Luba Hrynyk


PRESENTATION MANAGER Kelli Mylchreest
PRODUCTION DIRECTOR Mari Rodriguez

m writing this piece in the relatively quiet


period between two major events on our
calendar; Strategies in Light (SIL), which
took place in February, and Light+Building,
the biennial tradeshow that will hit
Frankfurt in mid April. Youll find extensive
coverage in this issue of all three conference
tracks at SIL (pages 27, 32 and 39), as well
as the most recent updates on the LED and
lighting markets from Strategies Unlimited
(page 21).
Market numbers aside, one of the mostdiscussed topics at SIL was color-rendering index (CRI). There seems to be general
agreement that this much-derided metric is not up to the job for LEDs, but there
is a lack of consensus on what it should be
replaced with. In our last issue, my colleague
Maury Wright used the Last Word column
(www.ledsmagazine.com/features/9/2/11) to
bemoan the failure of the CIE technical committee TC 1-69 to reach agreement on what
could replace CRI. The column suggested
there could be various political or self-interest reasons for the absence of a decision by
TC 1-69. But this wasnt why the column was
written; our main thrust was to encourage
some kind of resolution to the issue.
The CIE seems to recognize the need for
a revised approach, and in fact went so far
as to write an official response to our article which explained the activities of TC
1-69 from their point of view. But, at the
last minute, the CIE asked us not to publish
their piece, citing internal disagreements
and potential legal issues. However, several
committee members made comments on
our article, and these can be viewed at the
URL above.
One of the main alternatives considered
by TC 1-69 is color-quality scale (CQS), but
despite being popular in some quarters it
clearly doesnt tick all the boxes otherwise,

SENIOR VICE PRESIDENT Christine Shaw


& PUBLISHING DIRECTOR cshaw@pennwell.com
EDITOR Tim Whitaker

MARCH 2012

presumably, TC 1-69 would have approved


it. Voicing an alternative opinion, the Lighting Research Center (LRC) advocates a twometric system that combines CRI with the
gamut-area index (GAI) metric. Quoted on
page 40, the LRCs Jean Paul Freyssinier
says that no single metric can characterize
color rendering.
One of the comments on our website highlights another issue: the goals of the CIE are
principally scientific, and not necessarily
aligned with developing metrics that help
the lighting industry. Good for them, you
might say. But in that case, perhaps the
lighting industry needs to be more proactive if it wants a useful metric. One way to
do this is to test some of the different metrics in real-world scenarios, rather than relying on calculations. Theoretical data are all
very well, but Id like to see data where the
calculated score is correlated with the preferences expressed by lighting experts using
products in the field.
Which brings me to a fi nal point: whichever metric (or combination) eventually
supersedes CRI, it will only have limited
usefulness. Lighting specifiers will not simply look at the number and trust it, without fi rst evaluating the lamp or luminaire
in the intended application. A metric of
this kind helps to narrow down the product options that should be considered, but a
better metric will certainly make this process easier.

SENIOR ILLUSTRATOR Christopher Hipp


AUDIENCE DEVELOPMENT Jayne Sears-Renfer

EDITORIAL OFFICES PennWell Corporation,

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Tim Whitaker, EDITOR

Copyright 2012 PennWell Corp (ISSN 2156-633X). All rights


reserved. Contents of this publication may not be reproduced in any
form without prior written consent of Publishers.

twhitaker@pennwell.com
LEDsmagazine.com

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Aluminology...
SM

Innovation and Technology


In Thermal Management Solutions
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One Company, One Call, Unlimited Solutions


877-710-Sapa | www.sapagroup.com/NA
NorthAmerica.Sales@sapagroup.com

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FEATURED

| online
Webcasts:
Identifying Unique Testing
Requirements for LED Street Lights
DATE:

March 2012

PRESENTER:

Carl Bloomfield, Intertek

Lighting for Tomorrow - Promoting SSL


Lighting and Controls that are Judged to Sell
DATE:

February 2012

PRESENTERS:

Terry McGowan, ALA


Eileen Eaton, CEE
Shari Hunter, UL

Visit www.ledsmagazine.com/webcasts
to access upcoming and archived presentation.

White Papers:
Designing for Moldability
www.ledsmagazine.com/whitepapers/20
Understanding the IECEE CB Scheme:
The Definitive Q&A Guide to Achieving
International Approvals for Lighting Products
www.ledsmagazine.com/whitepapers/19

ADVERTISERS

events

Phosphor Global Summit 2012


March 20-22, 2012
Scottsdale, AZ, USA
LEDucation 6
March 21, 2012
New York City, USA
Light+Building 2012
April 15-20, 2012
Frankfurt, Germany
Lightfair 2012
May 9-11, 2012
Las Vegas, United States
Strategies in Light China 2012
May 22-24, 2012
Shenzhen, China
Guangzhou Intl Lighting Exhibition
June 9-12, 2012
Guangzhou, China
euroLED 2012
June 13-14, 2012
Birmingham, United Kingdom
LED Lighting Taiwan 2012
June 19-21, 2012
Taipei, Taiwan
LED Expo 2012
June 26-29, 2012
KINTEX, Seoul, South Korea
The LED Show 2012
July 31-August 1, 2012
Rio Hotel & Casino, Las Vegas, USA

MORE: www.ledsmagazine.com/events

index

American Bright Optoelectronics............. 15

Labsphere Inc. ...................................... 36

Seoul Semiconductor Co. Ltd. ................. 8

Arc Solid State Lighting Corp. ................ 58

Ledlink Optics Inc. ................................. 11

Shanxi Guangyu LED Lighting Co. Ltd. .... 28

Arlon Silicone Technologies .................... 14

LightFair International............................. 50

Sharp Electronics Europe GmbH ............. 35

Beautiful Light Tech................................ 13

Linear Technology ................................ CV3

Shenzhen Baikang Optical Co. Ltd. ........ 20

Carclo Technical Plastics ........................ 46

Matrix Lighting Limited, Hong Kong....... CV2

Shenzhen Bang-Bell Electronics Co. Ltd. .. 54

Cree Inc. ............................................. CV4

MBN GmbH............................................ 29

Daejin DMP ............................................ 47

Optronics Laboratories ........................... 48

Shenzhen Refond ................................... 12


Optoelectronics Co. Ltd.

EBV Elektronik ....................................... 19

Osram Opto-Semiconductors GmbH ....... 25

Signcomplex Limited .............................. 37

Edison Opto Corporation ........................ 43

Philips Lumileds ....................................... 2

The Bergquist Company ......................... 23

Ellsworth Adhesives ............................... 60

Posco LED ............................................. 55

The Korean Consulate General ............... 31

Fin-Core Corp. ....................................... 18

Premier Farnell UK Ltd. .......................... 38

Thomas Research Products...................... 7

Global Lighting Technologies .................. 44

Proto Labs Inc. ...................................... 16

Tridonic GmbH & CO KG ......................... 41

Instruments Systems GmbH................... 26

Renesas Electronics Europe GmbH .......... 1

Underwriters Laboratories ...................... 45

Inventronics (Hangzhou) Co. Ltd. ........... 49

Sapa Industrial......................................... 5

Vossloh-Schwabe Deutschland GmbH .... 62

MARCH 2012

LEDsmagazine.com

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New Options to Power the Future


LEG Series
 
Drivers

Line Voltage
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Drivers

Line Voltage Drivers


100-10% dimming range
Leading/trailing edge models available
Compatible with industry standard
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LEG Series Drivers


Industry standard sizes and profiles,
matches fluorescent ballasts

Designs optimized to deliver high


performance and controlled cost
Dimmable and standard variants
75 - 100 - 120 - 150W models

11548 Smith Dr. Huntley, IL 60142


 
   

LEDoptions@thomasresearchproducts.com
www.thomasresearchproducts.com

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____________

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news

views
STRATEGIES IN LIGHT

Market growth and


stealthy start-up make
news at SIL 2012
The global market for packaged LEDs is expected to grow
by about 6% in 2012, following nearly 10% growth in 2011,
according to market-research fi rm Strategies Unlimited.
Looking further ahead, the market is expected to stay
roughly flat in 2013, and then decline slightly due to reduced
revenues from LEDs in the backlighting segment. However,
revenue from LED components used in lighting applications
will grow rapidly through 2016, as this emerges as the next
segment to drive the market forward.
These latest market numbers were announced at February's Strategies in Light (SIL), and are covered in more detail
beginning on page 21, followed by coverage of the three SIL
conference tracks.
Elsewhere at SIL 2012, one of the big stories was the first
public appearance of Soraa, a start-up based in Fremont,

Soraa CEO Eric Kim with the company's MR16 lamp.


California. CEO Eric Kim (pictured) announced that Soraa
is manufacturing LEDs using a unique GaN-on-GaN process and has used these LEDs to build high-performance
MR16 lamps that are its fi rst products. The company was
founded by three University of California Santa Barbara
(UCSB) professors - Steve DenBaars, Jim Speck, and Shuji
Nakamura. Soraa's LEDs have many unique features, but
skeptics believe they will be relatively expensive to produce
(page 32).

COLLABORATION

AC-LEDS

Philips joins The Climate Groups


LED lighting campaign

Seoul Semiconductor
CEO outlines AC-LED
potential at SIL 2012

Philips Lighting has become the fi rst corporate partner to join The
Climate Groups three-year Clean Revolution campaign. The partnership aims to speed the global switch to LED lighting. The Climate
Group is an independent, not-for-profit organization working with governments and business leaders to advance policies, technologies and
financing that will accelerate low-carbon economic growth.
Marc de Jong, CEO of Professional Lighting Solutions at Philips, said:
We have joined the Clean Revolution campaign as we believe it is an
excellent avenue to further strengthen the case for LED lighting that
can lead to dramatic savings in energy and spur low-carbon growth,
while enhancing peoples feeling of security and comfort on streets, in
buildings, and at home.
Mark Kenber, CEO of The Climate Group, said that the Lightsavers program has conducted LED-lighting pilots in ten global cities,
including Hong Kong, London, New York and Mumbai. Our cooperation with Philips will allow us to further highlight the great cost-savings and energy-efficiency improvement LEDs provide and catalyze a
low-carbon transformation in lighting around the world, he said.
MORE:

www.ledsmagazine.com/news/9/2/27

LEDsmagazine.com

At the recent Strategies in Light (SIL) conference, Chung


Hoon Lee, CEO and founder of Seoul Semiconductor,
provided a keynote address that discussed some of
the principles behind the companys Acrich2 AC-LED
modules, which operate directly from AC
line voltage.
Speak ing on the
complexity of LED lamp
design, Lee showed a
chart that compared
the companys AC-LEDs
to DC-LED lamps manufactured by five other companies (listed as Company A
through E). Holding up the electrolytic capacitators and
other components of the LED lamps, Lee asked What
page 10
is this? His answer, This is junk, received

MARCH 2012

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news+views
RETAIL LIGHTING

Nualight selected as LED


lighting partner to Sainsbury's
Nualight, an Ireland-based specialist in LED
lighting for food retail, has been selected by
Sainsbury's, a UK-based supermarket chain,
to be its partner for a significant LED lighting program in refrigerated cases across all
new and refurbished stores. Nualight will
supply Sainsbury's with LED lighting for
low- and medium-temperature and speciality cases in all new stores. As well as
enhancing the merchandising impact of the
food displays, Nualight's lighting will support Sainsbury's targets to reduce its carbon
emissions.
Harold Allen from Sainsbury's said that
LED lighting would help to bring the quality food proposition to lifeLighting is used
strategically to create the unique Sainsbury's
store ambience and bring out the best qualities in the food on display in our stores.
MORE:

www.ledsmagazine.com/news/9/2/31

PATENTS

Toyoda Gosei files LED patent


lawsuits against Formosa Epitaxy
Japan-based LED maker Toyoda Gosei Co.,
Ltd. has fi led a patent-infringement lawsuit
in Taoyuan District Court of Taiwan against
Formosa Epitaxy Inc. (Forepi), an LED-chip
manufacturer based in Taoyuan County,
Taiwan. The lawsuit alleges that Forepi is
infringing two Toyoda Gosei patents relating to GaN-based LEDs, and seeks an injunction against various Forepi LED products.
Toyoda Gosei also filed a patent-infringement lawsuit in the US District Court, Northern District of California. Th is lawsuit also
alleges infringement by Forepi of eight Toyoda
Gosei LED chip patents and seeks damages
and an injunction against various Forepi LED
products, amongst other remedies.
MORE:

www.ledsmagazine.com/news/9/2/28

FINANCING

Bridgelux gets $25 million


in new funding
Bridgelux has raised an additional $25
million in investment capital to further
its research and development of LEDs for

10

MARCH 2012

Seoul from page 9

applause from the audience.


Lee stated that these additional components can cause LED lamp failures. In
tests, Seoul determined that many of the
other LED lamps reached temperatures of
70C to 82C during operation. Lee stated
that even though companies typically
claim lamp lifetimes of 35,000 or 50,000
hours, it can be reduced to 10,000 hours or
less due to these operating temperatures.
Moreover, tested power factor of the LEDs
ranged greatly, from 54% to over 90%.

general-illumination applications. The new


funding is coming from Xiamen, China-based
Kaistar Lighting, a joint venture between
LED-chip maker Epistar Corporation and
Shenzhen Kaifa Technology Company (www.
___
ledsmagazine.com/news/9/2/15). Bridgelux
CEO Bill Watkins said, Kaistars cost-competitive manufacturing capabilities combined with Bridgeluxs high-performance
packaging solutions will continue to drive
down the cost of solid-state technology for
general lighting, helping to more rapidly
expand the market for LED.
Previous investments in Bridgelux have
included a $60 million series E round in
August 2011. Bridgelux is optimizing a gallium-nitride-on-silicon (GaN-on-Si) manufacturing process that it believes can significantly reduce the cost of LEDs.
In related news, Bridgelux has partnered
with Chevron Energy Solutions to offer
municipalities a low-cost path to streetlight retrofits (www.ledsmagazine.com/

Lee said the Acrich2 design can provide


a better power factor and less total harmonic distortion. We can reduce the heat
sink, protect the environment and provide
more design freedom, he said.
Acrich AC-LED modules use an integrated circuit to provide power conditioning and circuit protection. In recent weeks,
Seoul Semiconductor has made several
product announcements in the Acrich2
family including a linear module designed
as a fluorescent-tube replacement.
MORE:

www.ledsmagazine.com/news/9/2/26

_______ The program will use a retronews/9/3/1).


fit module, containing a single Bridgelux
LED array, which can be installed in existing cobra-head lights. The installation will
require the removal of the existing ballast
and socket, but does not require municipalities to dispose of the housing. The Northern California cities of Livermore (pictured)
and Dublin have installed the modules and
are serving as demonstration sites for the
partnership.

AC LEDS

Lynk Labs unveils new Tesla ACLED packages at SIL 2012


Lynk Labs Inc., a developer of AC-driven
LEDs for general lighting, demonstrated
a broad line-up of AC-LED components
with various power and voltage options at
the recent Strategies in Light 2012 conference. The companys Tesla AC-LED packages included products designed to operate from low-voltage
(12-48V) direct AC and
others operating from
high-voltage (50-240V)
rectified AC. The packages are available in various power, CCT and lumen
levels (www.ledsmaga___________
zine.com/news/9/2/25).
_______________
As well as the new Tesla
AC-LED packages and
BriteDriver power supply/
driver solutions, Lynk also
introduced a new LampOn-Chip technology. The
new 12V AC-LED single
LEDsmagazine.com

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____________________

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news+views
chip is part of Lynk Labs core patented
AC-LED technology integrated onto a single low-voltage chip through a joint development between Lynk Labs and Epistar
Corp, said Mike Miskin, Lynk Labs president & CEO.
Lynk also introduced warm-on-dim
technology, allowing the company to provide AC-LED light engines and COB (chipon-board) packages which, when dimmed
with standard dimmers, provide a similar
quality of light to incandescent lamps. Like
incandescents, the CCT decreases when the
light intensity is dimmed (www.ledsmaga__________

zine.com/news/9/2/34).
______________
OUTDOOR LIGHTING

LEDtronics lights Carpinteria


Late last year, the city of Carpinteria,
California, completed a retrofit of 199 highpressure sodium (HPS) decorative lights
with 29W LED lamps. LEDtronics designed

the lamps to fit into the existing pendants


mounted at the end of a goose-neck arm on
light poles.
The city expects the retrofit to deliver an
80% energy saving equating to a $11,600
saving on its annual power bill. The new
lights are installed on Linden and Carpinteria avenues and along the citys Amtrak
train platform (pictured).
The LEDtronics lamps fit into the existing light fi xtures with only minor modifications and look great, said Matthew
Roberts, director of the citys Parks and

Recreation Department. I think the consensus is that the new bulbs produce [less
glare], are easier on the eyes, and have a
very appropriate color temperature for our
needs. The project utilized lamps with a
CCT of 3000K.
The LEDtronics LED30HPS-600-SIW002-BU lamps are designed for use in posttop applications and are essentially retrofit
lamps that directly replace HPS bulbs with
an E26 base.
MORE: www.ledsmagazine.com/news/9/2/33

BUSINESS

LED products make up 18%


of lighting sales at Philips
Philips has revealed that LED products now
constitute 18% of total lighting sales while
it continues to introduce new LED families. In the fourth quarter of 2011, sales in
the lighting business were 2.072 billion
from a company-wide total of 6.7 billion

_________

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news+views
(w w w.ledsmagazine.com/news/9/2/1).
The company stated that its LED-based
sales (including packaged LEDs, lamps
and luminaires) grew 37% compared to Q4
2010, reaching 373 million for Q4 2011.
Philips overall lighting sales for the quarter increased 7% year-on-year, driven by
double-digit sales growth in the lamps and
automotive groups, but this was partly offset by a sales decrease at Lumileds, the companys LED-manufacturing subsidiary. In

2011, Philips total sales for lighting were


7.64 billion, of which 5%, or 380 million
(approx. $500 million) came from packaged
LEDs (i.e. Lumileds).
At Strategies in Light, Lumileds introduced three new LED families: Luxeon M
is a family of multichip, 8W, 12V packages,
while Luxeon K is a family of LED arrays
(pictured), with between 4 and 24 LEDs,
and a typical flux at 700 mA ranging from
620 to 4455 lm, measured at 85C. Lumileds
also introduced a new high-voltage Luxeon
H package, designed to operate at 100V or
200V, which is offered as a light source for
GU10 and other small-form-factor lamps
(www.ledsmagazine.com/press/34266).
LED LAMPS

Lemnis Lighting introduces


low-cost LED retrofit lamps
Lemnis Lighting has introduced a new line
of LED lamps in its Pharox family with the

240-lm, 5W version priced at $4.95 and the


360-lm 6W version priced at $6.95. These
Pharox BLU lamps, which do not support
dimming and come with a one-year warranty, are the fi rst products in what will
become three separate product families. The
dimmable Pharox XL and Pro product lines
will carry a three-year 35,000-hour warranty
and the latter will also include Energy Star
qualification.
The lamps are designed for low lumenoutput applications. Lemnis co-founder
Warner Philips said the typical home will
have eight to a dozen sockets in which the
light levels would be serviceable. Philips said
he is using the new lamps in some recessed
cans in the kitchen and dining areas of his
own home as well as in closet lighting and in
bedside table lamps.
The Pharox BLU 200 and 300 lamps use
four and six LEDs, respectively, which
point predominantly upward from the base
according to Philips. Lemnis calls the lamps

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news+views
omnidirectional with a 320 beam pattern.
But Philips readily admitted that the flux
distribution is not even and that the lamps
can perform better in applications with
some directional requirements.
MORE:

www.ledsmagazine.com/news/9/2/22

RETAIL LIGHTING

Cree lights gas station


and food mart
The Highland Chevron gas station and
ExtraMile food mart have been renovated
indoor and out with Cree LED-based luminaires to provide 70% energy savings.
Outdoors in the gas station canopy, the retrofit encompasses a total of twenty-four
105W Cree (BetaLED) 304-series recessed
canopy lights that replaced 368W metalhalide (MH) fi xtures.
The owner of the station, Bob Barman,
cited light quality, economic, and environmental benefits attributable to the lighting

retrofit. Barman said, The high-quality


LED light makes everything appear brighter
and safer and that translates into a better
customer experience.
The Oregon area is known for environmental sensitivity and green practices, and
that influenced the LED choice.
Cree also noted that the NanoOptic total
internal reflection (TIR) lenses, which were
originally developed by BetaLED, tightly

control light distribution in the installed


fixtures. Those TIR
optics eliminate light
spill for the outdoor
sources and enable
the station to meet
local light-pollution
ordinances.
Sti l l, econom ics
are also important
and the savings are
attributable to both
the indoor and outdoor lighting. Indoors,
27 Cree 304-series pendant SSL luminaires
replaced 330W fluorescent fi xtures.
Barman expects the retrofit to achieve
payback in 2.5 years. According to Cree,
the lighting retrofit will allow the station
and mart to consume one third less energy,
in total, relative to a typical 24-hour convenience store and gas station.
MORE:

www.ledsmagazine.com/news/9/2/19

LEDsmagazine.com

________________
MARCH 2012

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funding
programs
Global Lighting Association
aims to be more proactive
In mid March, the Global Lighting Forum
(GLF; www.globallightingforum.org) underwent a name change to become the Global
Lighting Association (GLA) and also adopted
a more proactive approach to promoting the
use of energy-efficient lighting, including but
not limited to LED-based lighting.
The GLF was established in 2007 as an
association of associations GLF members are national or regional lighting organizations, each made
up of multiple lighting
companies. Among the
GLFs members are the
European Lamp Companies Federation (ELC), the US-based
National Electrical Manufacturers Association (NEMA) and the Japan Electric Lamp
Manufacturers Association (JELMA). Associations from China, Taiwan, Brazil, India
and Australia are also represented.
Jan Denneman, GLF president, told LEDs
Magazine that the GLF was formed to share
knowledge of global trends and legislative
developments in lighting, and also to share
information about the activities of the individual associations. There were lots of bilateral discussions between associations, said
Denneman. So it was suggested to bring
them together at the same time to share
information and also save travel costs.
The initial focus of the group was energy
efficiency, but was soon extended to performance and quality, as well as areas such as
standardization and legislation. As well as
sharing knowledge, the GLF aims to initiate policies and actions on areas of common interest, and to seek opportunities for
LEDsmagazine.com

communicating with government authorities and other stakeholders. In this lobbying


role, the GLF provides governments with relevant product and market information.
As an example, Denneman discussed
the phase-out of incandescent lamps that
has now been initiated in various countries
and regions around the world. For a government to initiate a phase-out, there must be
an [energy-efficient] alternative available,
he said, but the situation is different according to the market in
that particular country or region. Also, said
Denneman, it would be impossible if all countries were to try to initiate a ban at the exact
same moment, as there would be insufficient
capacity. Similarly, manufacturers might be
faced with a large spike in demand that would
not be sustained in the longer term. The GLF
is positioned to give advice on such issues on
behalf of the lighting industry, since it represents over 5000 lighting manufacturers with
combined annual sales of $50 billion.
The GLF formed an LED Working Group
in October 2010 (www.ledsmagazine.com/
news/7/10/18),
_________ and Denneman says that
there are many issues to be addressed with
solid-state lighting, such as poor-quality
products and consumer dissatisfaction.
The GLFs role would be to share experiences in areas such as consumer education,
or market-surveillance and quality-assurance programs, and develop consensus on
best practices that could be implemented at
the national or regional level by the GLFs
members.

Life-cycle energy
consumption of LED
lamps compares well
The US Department of Energy (DOE)
has published a report that compared
the energy consumed over the entire
life-cycle for LED lamps, compact fluorescent lamps (CFLs), and incandescent lamps. The report states that the
average life-cycle energy consumption
of LED lamps and CFLs is similar and
is about one quarter of the fi gure for
incandescent lamps. However, if LED
lamps meet their performance targets
by 2015 their life-cycle energy use is
expected to decrease by approximately
one-half.
The report entitled Review of the
Life-Cycle Energy Consumption of
Incandescent, Compact Fluorescent
and LED Lamps is based on existing
literature that assesses the life-cycle of
lighting products.
The report is the fi rst installment of
a larger DOE project to assess the lifecycle and environmental costs of different lighting technologies. It looks at the
manufacturing, transportation, use,
and disposal of the products.
Also, the use stage of all three types
of lamps represents the most energyintensive life-cycle stage, accounting
for 90 percent of total life-cycle energy,
on average. This is followed by the
manufacturing and transport phases,
respectively. Transportation typically
represents less than one percent of lifecycle energy use for all lamp types.
Most of the uncertainty in life-cycle
energy consumption of an LED lamp
centers on the manufacturing of the
LED package, which is estimated at
anywhere from 0.1% to 27% of life-cycle
energy use, with an average of 7%.
In the larger DOE study, life-cycle
analysis of an LED lamp will consider the direct and indirect material
and process inputs to fabricate, ship,
operate, and dispose of the lamp.
MORE: www.ledsmagazine.com/news/9/2/30

MARCH 2011

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funding programs
EPA introduces TM-21 calculator
The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has made available the Energy Star TM-21 calculator, which is based on the IES
(Illuminating Engineering Society) Technical Memorandum,
TM-21. The calculator is available for download at www.energy________
star.gov/TM-21calculator.
________________
TM-21 is used to project lumen degradation of an LED package, array or module based on data collected according to LM-80.
For instance, if 6000 hours of testing of an LED package has been
performed according to LM-80 criteria, that data can be extrapolated to provide an estimate of lumen degradation at 36,000 hours.
TM-21 is referenced in the Energy Star Luminaires v1.1 specification and in draft 1 of the Energy Star Lamps v1.0 specification.
The calculator has been developed specifically to simplify
lumen-maintenance projection calculations for manufacturers
designing lighting products to Energy Star requirements, and to
ensure consistent results across all EPA-recognized Certification
Bodies and Laboratories. Calculated results have been validated
by the US National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST).
For any given product, the EPA encourages users to download a
new blank worksheet and to save individual product results on
a local drive.
MORE: www.ledsmagazine.com/news/9/2/8

DOE updates specifications for


troffers, parking-lot luminaires
The US Department of Energy (DOE) has introduced new voluntary
energy-saving specifications for troffers used in indoor commercial
buildings, as well as updated specs for LED parking-lot luminaires
and various types of parking-structure luminaires.
The Commercial Building Energy Alliances (CBEA) High-Efficiency
Troffer Specification, v3.0, provides minimum performance levels for
LED and fluorescent troffers used in commercial buildings. The spec
includes 22-ft, 14-ft and 24-ft troffers and delivers energy savings
of 15% to 45% compared with conventional systems. There is also an
optional section on lighting controls.
Version 1.3 of the CBEA LED Site (Parking Lot) Lighting Specification contains additions related to IES TM-15, IES TM-21 and
surge protection. WalMart was the first company to use this specification and the company has reported energy savings of 58% compared with ASHRAE standard 90.1-2010, a widely-used commercial building code.
The CBEA High-Efficiency Parking Structure Lighting Specification, Version 1.1, includes minimum performance requirements for LED, f luorescent, and induction luminaires.
MORE:

www.ledsmagazine.com/news/9/2/23

__________

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Avagos 0.25 W & 0.5 W High Performance White TheiaLED Series


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Baikang - Professional
LED Lenses & Reflectors
Manufacturer


  







 



 





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__________

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markets | LED S AND LIGHTING

LED lighting market to grow while


LED component market goes flat
Strategies Unlimiteds analysts believe that the LED lighting market is growing nicely, though
they expect lower LED prices to keep a lid on LED-component growth in the foreseeable future.
LAURA PETERS and MAURY WRIGHT report from the Strategies in Light conference.

lla Shum, director of LED research


of Strategies Unlimited based in
Mountain View, CA, kicked off this
year's Strategies in Light (SIL) conference
with her LED market forecast as the opener
of the HB-LED Market track. Shum said she
expects revenues from packaged LEDs to be
relatively flat in the coming years as good
growth in LED lighting is offset by decreasing revenues in other applications. The market for LED components (i.e. packaged LEDs)
in the lighting market grew 44% from $1.2
billion in 2010 to $1.8 billion in 2011.
Shum tracks the packaged LED market,
which does not include LED chips or end
products. The worldwide packaged LED
market grew nearly 10% from $11.3 billion
in 2010 to $12.5 billion in 2011. Fig. 1 shows
the packaged LED market by application
segment.
Strategies Unlimited also tracks the solidstate lighting (SSL) industry. Vrinda Bhandarkar, director of research for LED lighting at Strategies Unlimited and conference
co-chair, provided a review and forecast of
the LED lighting industry at SIL see below.
Shum, also an SIL conference co-chair,
stated that the most significant change in
the LED market in 2011 was the price drop
in LED components. The average cool-white
1W LED package fell in price from $13 per
kilolumen to $6/klm in one year. Shum
stated that in general the number of LEDs
required for a given application is dropping, and prices are dropping even faster.
Price reductions, combined with an oversupply of low- and medium-power LEDs

MAURY WRIGHT and LAURA PETERS are

Senior Technical Editors with LEDs Magazine.


LEDsmagazine.com

Ella Shum of Strategies Unlimited discusses the LED market at SIL.


(predominantly used in backlighting), has
put pressure on revenue growth, while unit
growth continues to rise.
The upside to such price decreases is more
rapid adoption of LEDs in lighting, mobile,
automotive, signage, and backlighting segments. As will be discussed, LED lighting
revenues more than tripled in three years.

Top performers
The top ten manufacturers accounted for
68% of all LED component sales in 2011 but
75% of total sales in 2010. In 2011, the top
three LED manufacturers each had revenues
exceeding $1 billion. The companies in the
top ten were the same in 2011 as 2010 but the
order was slightly different (Table 1).
Packaged LED makers in Japan accounted

for the greatest portion of overall LED


component revenues (30%) followed by
Korea (26%) and then Taiwan and Southeast Asia (19%).

LED growth by segment


Mobile applications including mobile
phones, notebooks, tablets and portable
DVD players, made up the largest LED segment at $3.4 billion. In the mobile phone
market, OLEDs are beginning to supplant LED-backlit LCD displays (Fig. 2).
However, the reduced market for LEDs in
mobile phones is compensated by growing
demand in tablets. Shum said the two products that matter the most in terms of tablet
volume are the iPad2, which uses 36 LEDs,
and the Kindle Fire, which uses 20 LEDs.
MARCH 2012

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markets | LED S

AND LIGHTING

Total: US$12.5B

Others
14%
Auto
9%
Sign
11%
Li
Lighting
15%

Mobile
27%

Backlight
TV/monitor
24%

Source:
Strategies Unlimited

and she expects this percentage to only


increase.
In automotive lighting, Strategies Unlimited is forecasting a 34% compound annual
growth rate (CAGR) from 2011 to 2016 for
front exterior headlamps. Automakers are
also using LED-based interior lighting,
including instrument panels using backlighting, and have started introducing LEDbacklit decorative panels. OLEDs are being
considered as sunroof materials, with some
future designs showing OLED windows that
also function as solar panels.

Essentially flat sales are expected for 2013


and 2014, projected at $13.3 billion and
$13.1 billion, respectively.

LED lighting on the rise


The LEDs in Lighting track at SIL commenced with a plenary session in which
Vrinda Bhandarkar reported LED Lighting
revenue of $9.4 billion in 2011 and projected
an industry-wide CAGR of 20% through
2016. In her talk entitled Global Lighting
Transformation, Bhandarkar opened by
stating, The rate at which we use energy
now is unsustainable. And that energyconservation theme pervaded the discus-

FIG. 1. Revenue from packaged LEDs by

LED manufacturers response

application in 2011.

Shum said that LED manufacturers are reacting to pric- Units (M)
ing pressures in various ways. 1200
Companies are differentiating 1000
their products based on the
800
quality of the light produced,
OLED smart phone
600
including higher CRIs. She
also mentioned the inclusion of
400
LED smart phone
embedded controls in packages
200
and testing of LED packages at
0
high temperatures. Luminaire
2013
2014
2015
2016
2010
2011
2012
manufacturers may be willing
Source: Strategies Unlimited
to pay a premium for this testing, she said.
FIG. 2. The LED-backlit mobile phone market is
Due to continued pricing expected to flatten while OLED displays take off.
pressure and intense competition, Shum said she expects consolidation sion on the uptake of SSL. Bhandarkar
and vertical integration to occur as a means made a forecast for the LED lighting market
and discussed the factors that could impact
to maintain profit margins.
Strategies Unlimiteds forecast for 2012 acceptance of the technology.
She began by stating that last years drasshows an LED market of $13.3 billion, up 6%
over the 2011 level of $12.5 billion (Fig. 3). tic decline in the price of LEDs should lead
to a faster uptake of SSL.
2011 Ranking
LED Maker
The LED lighting industry has already
1
Nichia
experienced tremendous growth. In just
2
Samsung LED
3 years the market has grown 3.5 times,
3
Osram Opto Semiconductors
said Bhandarkar. LED lighting revenue
climbed from $2.7 billion in 2008 to $9.4 bil4
LG Innotek
lion last year. Bhandarkar said that more
5
Seoul Semiconductor
LED lighting products are becoming main6=
Philips Lumileds
stream and that is in part the impetus for
6=
Cree
the growth rate.

A higher-resolution iPad3, which has yet


to be introduced, is expected to use 80 or
more LEDs.
The LED revenue for TV and monitor
backlights was $3 billion in 2011, but is projected to drop substantially by 2016. At the
one end, manufacturers continue to pursue high-end edge-lit displays, such as the
85-inch display from Sharp, said Shum.
However, demand for lower-cost televisions
in developing regions has caused manufacturers to develop a lower-cost direct-backlighting scheme, which results in thicker
panels (so-called chubby TVs). These use
fewer LEDs compared with slim edge-lit
designs. The resulting display cost is 5-10%
higher than displays using CCFLs, compared with a 20-30% premium for the thinner edge-lit designs.
The lighting segment of the packaged LED
market experienced the
2010 Ranking
greatest upside in 2011,
1
growing 44% to $1.8 bil2
lion. Shum said she
3
expects LED lighting to
continue to take a greater
6=
proportion of the LED pie
4=
in the coming years.
4=
LED signs and chan6=
nel letters came in at a
8
8
Sharp
market size of $1.4 billion in 2011. Th is market
9=
9
Toyoda Gosei
has the greatest demand
9=
10
Everlight
and supply from China.
According to Shum, 87% TABLE 1. Top 10 packaged LED suppliers. Note: Does not
of all LED signs are man- include chip sales; companies are given the same ranking
ufactured in China today when revenue differences are within the margin of error.

22

MARCH 2012

Winning in a down market


Ironically, LED lighting is a growing segment within a declining lighting market.
Bhandarkar said, In 2011, the general lighting market declined in the US and Europe
but the global LED lighting market grew by
LEDsmagazine.com

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NEW T-CLAD PA
STICKS IT TO HEAT.

Peel and place thermal solution withstands the heat of solder reflow.
Easier assembly, cooler LEDs.
Bergquists T-Clad with pre-applied Bond-Ply 450 allows you to adhere your
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Thermal Materials

Thermal Substrates

Fans and Blowers

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markets | LED S

AND LIGHTING

69%. Bhandarkar placed LEDs as being only 5-10% of the general


lighting market, and that is why SSL was able to experience tremendous growth in a down market. The SSL lighting market almost doubled from $5.5 billion in 2010 to the 2011 level of $9.4 billion.
The presentation included a review of the LED lighting market by
application segment (Fig. 4). The commercial and industrial segment
showed the highest growth last year, and accounted for 25% of the
total market in 2011. Some niches such as portable lighting including flashlights are essentially 100% LED at this point. Retrofit lamps
accounted for only 13% of the revenue in 2011 down percentagewise from 15% in 2010. But the retrofit numbers are way up in terms
of actual revenue due to the overall market growth.
Bhandarkar summed up the state of LED lighting saying, No one
is questioning whether LEDs will be there or not. The former skeptical view of the technology has largely disappeared and the primary
driver for LED uptake is energy efficiency.
The presentation included a few product-specific market statistics.
Bhandarkar said the price of LED downlights, retrofit lamps, and
street lights dropped 15-20% in 2011. Globally, she said the industry
sold 23 million LED recessed downlights. She said that those sales
were not only in the US and Europe but also in Japan and other
parts of Asia.
Different lighting segments and market factors are driving
uptake of different SSL product types. Bhandarkar said that the
commercial segment has driven adoption of directional LED PAR
lamps. Price is far more important for omnidirectional A19 lamps
where consumers will ultimately become the driving force and
where retailers establishing new low pricing levels will determine deployment. Bhandarkar said, People could think about
a $10 bulb, implying a threshold at which the typical consumer
would consider LED lighting and which was achieved in low-end
lamps in 2011.

Total: US$9.4B
Entertainment 3%
Emergency 4%

Off-grid 3%
Commercial/industrial
25%

Outdoor roadway/area
5%
Retail display
9%
Residential
9%

Architectural
17%
Consumer portable
13%
Source:
Strategies Unlimited

Replacement lamp 13%

FIG. 4. The $9.4 billion LED lighting market in 2011.


Revenue (US$B)
20
18
16
14
12
10
8
6
4
2
0

R=
CAG

19 %
Luminaires

CAGR = 23 %

Replacement lamp
2011

2012

2013

2014

2015

2016

FIG. 5. Strategies Unlimited projects robust growth for both the

LED retrofit lamp and luminaire markets.

She pointed out the widely-debated DOE efficiency guidelines that


have taken effect in the US (www.ledsmagazine.com/news/8/12/18).
Moreover, others countries and regions including the UK, Korea, the
European Union, Canada, Australia, and others are implementing
Efficiency drives LED uptake
There are numerous reasons that LEDs will continue on a growth lamp-efficiency requirements.
In the long term, Bhandarkar projected that LEDs will be the
path, according to Bhandarkar, but most come back to efficiency.
only clearly viable solution to the energy issue. She said
Revenue (US$B)
CAGR = -0.2%
many people expect a transition to halogen sources, but
14
$13.3B
$13.3B
that increasingly-stringent guidelines in the US would
$13.1B
$12.7B
$12.5B
$12.3B Totals
result in a phase-out of halogen between 2014 and 2016.
12
Others
Fluorescent technologies including compact fluores10
cent
lamps (CFLs) also have a shaky future. Bhandarkar
Auto
said that in general fluorescent technology provides a
8
Lighting
good quantity of light, reasonable efficiency, and in some
products acceptable light quality. Still, she noted that low
6
Sign
cost has been the driver of all fluorescent lighting usage.
4
And the rare-earth quotas being imposed by China are
Mobile
raising fluorescent pricing (www.ledsmagazine.com/
2
Backlight TV/
features/8/2/7).
_________
monitor
0
Bhandarkar also discussed additional character2015
2016
2011
2012
2013
2014
istics
of LEDs that can compound energy savings. She
Source: Strategies Unlimited
said, LEDs become the most flexible technology that
FIG. 3. The LED market forecast is relatively flat, with growth in LED
can use controls easily and of course controls and dimlighting being offset by revenue decreases in other markets.
ming increase the potential for savings. Bhandarkar also

24

MARCH 2012

LEDsmagazine.com

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markets | LED S

AND LIGHTING

www.osram-os.com/oslon-square

Strategies Unlimited's Vrinda Bhandarkar provided a forecast


of the lighting industry.
noted the directionality of LEDs and the ability of lighting design
to eliminate wasted light.

LED lighting projections


All of the above factors lead to some rather positive projections.
Bhandarkar separated the LED retrofit lamp and luminaire segments, noting the different lighting-company market strategies and
application scenarios. She projected a CAGR of 19% for luminaires
through 2016 and 23% for retrofit lamps. As Fig. 5 shows, however,
the retrofit lamp market is growing from a lower revenue base.
Bhandarkar said the biggest uncertainty in Strategies Unlimiteds projection is the impact of price declines. She said, Frankly
we do not know how the market will react to price declines. The
projected combined CAGR for all LED lighting products is 20%
through 2016.
Bhandarkar said that her projections rely on less-aggressive estimation of price decline relative to data that the DOE has presented.
The DOE has used a relative cost index of 100 to represent the cost
of an LED lamp or luminaire in 2010. By 2015 the DOE projects a
reduction of 80% to a relative index of 20. Bhandarkar expects a
more moderate 13-15% decline each year, and that would equate to
an index in the range of 38 to 43 by 2015.
Bhandarkar concluded by pointing out that the LED retrofit market will quickly become a commodity market. She said that all factors including rebates and purchase incentives are pushing the segment toward commoditization, low cost, and broad adoption. If
you are going to be in the lamps market, you have to be part of the
mass market, she said.
Bhandarkar sees the luminaire market quite differently, noting
that we are just at the stage of having lighting manufacturers install
LED sources in legacy form factors. She expects LEDs, as a disruptive technology, to result in new form factors and new ways of thinking about light. Bhandarkar said, For the first time you have control over quantity of light. You can tweak the quantity of light. And
you can control it wherever you want. Those factors, according to
Bhandarkar, provide LEDs with a tremendous advantage over other
light sources.

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footprint of only 3 mm 3 mm it provides greater freedom
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We bring quality to light.

Putting LEDs in the right light.


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Instrument Systems set the benchmark in LED
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Hall 4.1 Booth No. K89

light measurement
Instrument Systems Germany Phone: +49 89 45 49 43 0 ssl@instrumentsystems.com www.instrumentsystems.com

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strategies in light | MANUFACTURING TRACK

LED manufacturers reduce cost with


automation, larger wafers, new materials
The LED Manufacturing track at Strategies in Light presented methods for reducing cost and
improving yield of LED components, as LAURA PETERS reports.

he LED Manufacturing track at


Strategies in Light 2012 featured
several speakers who primarily
focused on cost-reduction methods in LED
manufacturing. Topics included the importance of moving to larger-diameter wafers
to the use of materials that can withstand
higher-temperature LED operation.
Iain Black, VP of manufacturing engineering and innovation at Philips Lumileds,
provided the fi rst of two keynote talks. He
stated that the complexity of LED products
and applications and the diverse array of
customers in the illumination market make
low-cost LED manufacturing a tremendous
challenge. There are numerous applications and thousands of LEDs that need to
be matched together, he said.
As a result, Black stated that Lumileds
is moving toward more standardized LED
products that become differentiated toward
the end of the manufacturing process. This
will simplify the front-end processes, where
the capital outlay is the greatest, while also
reducing the number of different die types.
Black continued, We still will have custom solutions in cases of very large customers or niche products, but the practice of
customizing single-die emitters for lighting is no longer practical.
In addition, the company is building
highly-configurable manufacturing lines to
achieve the necessary flexibility. Lumileds
is in the process of expanding its LED backend assembly facility in Penang, Malaysia.
The all-LED-lit facility is aimed at completion in mid-2012.

LED manufacturing supply and demand


The changing global landscape of LED manufacturing was discussed by Karen Savala,
president of SEMI America. SEMI has estimated that there are 142 LED fabs in operation worldwide, up from 64 facilities in
2006. Capacity in 2012 is estimated at 1.57
million (4-inch-equivalent) wafers per
month, with the global distribution shown
in Fig. 1. Taiwan has the greatest LED chipmanufacturing capacity, followed by Japan
and China.
Savala commented that some of the
recent build-up in China has been put on
hold due to falling LED prices and oversupply concerns. We see some overcapacity, but we believe this will be a short-term
issue, she said. Savala also provided an
update of sapphire substrate prices, which
had fallen to a new low of $10 per 2-inch substrate by the end of 2011 (Fig. 2).
Industry standards provide one path to
cost reduction in LED manufacturing. Savala noted that currently there are over 30
different 6-inch sapphire-wafer products
on the market. In 2010, SEMI organized the
HB-LED standards committee and there are
currently four task forces for LED manufacturing. The mission is to develop geometric
standards for 6-inch sapphire wafers (currently in the ballot stage); defi ne substratecarrier geometries and interfaces for automation; investigate the allowable impurities
and defect levels for 6-inch sapphire wafers;
and identify appropriate ESH (environmental, safety and health) guidelines for LED
manufacturing.

Manufacturing roadmap on schedule


LAURA PETERS is a Senior Technical Editor

with LEDs Magazine.


LEDsmagazine.com

Jim Brodrick, the US DOEs solid-state


lighting program manager, began his talk

SE Asia
3%

Europe and Mideast


1%

Americas
6%

Korea
19%

China
21%

Taiwan
28%

Japan
22%

Source: SEMI

FIG. 1. Global distribution of LED fab


capacity.

by inviting the audience to download the


Manufacturing Roadmap for Solid-state
Lighting Research & Development (www.
____
ssl.energy.gov/techroadmaps.html) and to
actively participate in its on-going revision.
He stated that the industry is essentially on
schedule with the roadmap to achieve LED
efficacy of 176 lm/W in 2012 with a price of
$6/klm (cool white). Brodrick cited two priorities in the roadmap, which are the development of flexible and cost-effective manufacturing methods for LED modules, light
engines and luminaires as well as highspeed, non-destructive test equipment
and standardized test procedures for key
stages in the manufacturing process. For
LED luminaires, a 20 reduction in manufacturing cost is projected between 2010
and 2020 (Fig. 3).
Brodrick emphasized that cost reduction,
while maintaining high-quality manufacturing, all comes down to one metric: binning yield. The DOE is funding programs in
upstream process control, non-destructive
MARCH 2012

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strategies in light | MANUFACTURING

TRACK

testing, manufacturing automa- Two-inch sapphire substrate price ($)


worlds largest semiconductor
tion, and advanced packaging
foundry company. He answered
40
35
schemes that can lead to higher
his own question in the affi rma30
binning yields. In packaging,
tive, stating that many high-pro25
Brodrick said that higher levels
ductivity processes can be trans20
of component integration are
ferred from semiconductor to
15
10
needed, and that LED companies
LED manufacturing.
5
Firstly, he said, there is a need
will in general move to wafer0
1
2
1 2 3 4 1 2 3 4
for an integrated development
scale packaging for cost reasons.
2011
200
2009
2010
environment in LED manufacHe noted that of the DOEs
Source: SEMI
turing that includes device and
total SSL program, worth $114
FIG. 2. Two-inch sapphire substrate price.
process simulation, similar to
million in 2011, 31% is dedicated
to OLED-related activities. The
what exists in semiconductor
roadmap calls for a reduction in OLED the focus areas for cost reduction include manufacturing. The GaN industry has not
luminaire manufacturing cost from around better utilization of materials, reduced had enough databases to build the infra$230/klm in 2012 to under $20/klm in 2020. organic layer cost and improved encapsu- structure, so many developments have been
empirical, he stated.
High-speed, low-cost, thin-fi lm deposition lation methods.
TSMC plans to bring fully automated
for OLED production probably will require
8-inch manufacturing processes to LED
new tool platforms, said Brodrick. He Wafer size increases
added that developments in large-screen Jacob Tarn, president of TSMC Solid State manufacturing. For instance, Tarn talked
OLED-based displays, including large-scale Lighting Ltd, presented a talk entitled Can about growing epilayers on 4-inch or 6-inch
deposition methods and automation, should a major semiconductor player accelerate the substrates, then transferring the GaN-based
benefit the OLED lighting market. Some of LED cost-reduction curve? TSMC is the epilayers to 8-inch wafers using wafer bond-

____________

________

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strategies in light | MANUFACTURING


ing. Then, fi nal processing including metallization, passivation, phosphor coating
and lens molding can be performed, followed by wafer dicing and testing. In terms
of process and equipment control, mainstays of the semiconductor process control
world, including run-to-run control, data
mining and equipment tracking, can be
applied to LED manufacturing.
Beyond these steps, Tarn suggested that
perhaps optics can be developed for multiple LED emitters, and that control functions might be integrated at the LED chip
or package level.
Raja Parvez, CEO of Rubicon Technology,
then talked about the advantages of progressing to larger-diameter sapphire substrates as well as recent industry trends.
He said that there are essentially five major
producers of sapphire wafers, who all added
capacity in the last year, leading to significant price reduction. However, he contends
that few manufacturers can provide high-

in brightness and color of


LEDs. To date, Rubicon
has shipped over 230,000
6-inch polished sapphire
wafers.

Relative manufacturing cost


1.0
0.

Optics
Assembly

0.8

Driver

0.
0.6

Tool productivity

Mechanical/Thermal

0.5
0.4
0.3

LED packages

0.2
0.1
0.0

Source: DOE

TRACK

2010

2012

FIG. 3. LED luminaire roadmap targets.

quality large-diameter substrate material


and that at the wafer level, flatness and
defect-free manufacturing are much more
difficult to achieve. Improved wafer flatness
has been correlated with more consistent
lithographic results and greater consistency

Thomas Uhrmann of EV
Group cited lithographic
patterning as a key costreduction area for LED
manufacturers. Some
of the parameters that
2015
2020
affect patterning yield
include warpage and
poor visibility of alignment marks due to the
light-scattering properties of LED wafers.
In this area, 1 steppers compete with proximity aligners.
In LED fabs with different wafer sizes,
tools must be capable of handling different wafer sizes with minimal changeover

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strategies in light | MANUFACTURING

TRACK

time. In evaluating equipment purchases,


Uhrmann advised that users should evaluate not only the cost of ownership of the tool
(in $ per wafer) but also its footprint efficiency (wafers per hour per square meter).
Many LED manufacturers are now pursing vertical LED structures, which may be
capable of higher light-extraction efficiency
than lateral designs, while providing good
heat conduction to the submount assembly or package, according to Uhrmann. For
these structures, EV Group has developed
a variety of eutectic bonding and transient
liquid-phase bonding processes capable of
withstanding high temperature cycling in
the latter process steps.

Defect and yield management


Abdul Lateef, CEO of Plasma-Therm, a
maker of plasma-enhanced CVD (PECVD)
tools, discussed the demand for better data
management from LED manufacturers. He
provided an example of how in-situ metrology is helping to automate the process. We
have equipped our PECVD tools with optical emission interferometry which uses the
light from the plasma to monitor film thickness, he said.
Mike Plisinski of Rudolph Technologies also discussed the theme of metrology
and yield management methods. He said
Epi engineers have little visibility into
the impact of epi on downstream LED processes. Plisinski suggested a concentration
of process-control resources at the epitaxial process level. Fig. 4 shows that LED yield
and light output have the greatest impact
on overall epi cost reduction.
LED manufacturers can use automatic
defect classification to classify defects into
type and cross-reference this data with
yield management to separate harmful
from nuisance defects. Weve seen cases
where certain defect types, regardless of
size, always impact yield, whereas other
types do not, said Plisinski. He said that
inspection recipes can then be tuned to
detect the critical defects. He also emphasized that the investment in process-control tools should scale with production
capacity.
Next, Dan Scharpf of Labsphere talked
about optical testing of LEDs. He said that

30

MARCH 2012

one of the challenges in LED manufacturing


is identifying which process steps impart
the greatest variation in lumen output and
color of the LED. He also said that more LED
manufacturers are interested in performing
LED testing at elevated temperatures. He
stated that thermal control is a challenge,
whether the test is performed at the wafer,
die or module level. Scharpf added that testing at elevated temperatures will increase
test times because an equilibrium condition
must be achieved. He further warned that

higher temperatures than the prevailing material used today, a polycarbonate.


Finally, thermal-interface materials made
of silicone can be screen printed and cut
to virtually any shape to provide stress
relief, shock dampening and/or heat transfer in a variety of LED lamp and luminaire
applications.

Packaging cost

Ilkan Cokgor of Everlight Electronics


focused his talk on processes for plastic
leaded chip carEpi cost reduction
Cumulative
rier (PLCC) packper unit area (%)
impact (%)
ages. PLCCs are
low-cost sur30
120
face-mount pack25
100
ages that have not
developed a repu20
80
tation for reliabil15
60
ity in LED packaging until recently.
10
40
These packages
5
20
distribute heat and
light through spa0
0
tially distributed
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
5
5
3X
.5
.5
.8
.5
.5
.8
.5
) 1 ) 1.2 ) 1.2 rs) 0 2) 0 yr) 0 F) 1 yr) 0 s) 1 2) 1.
n
i
LEDs.
n
B
/
/
b
T
/W /$M e (h
($
r/m
/cm hrs
(ru
m
2n ss (lm 2/hr tim ies ($ ost ( lity (M sum. rval m2/h
(
Cokgor pointed
bi
rc
ery
on
nte
ilit
(cm
. (c
eld ne
Yi ght eff. ecov d ut rato Relia nd c PM i . eff
to
several recent
i
e
n
R
Source:
rsp
sa
Br apex
Op
sa
loo
are
Rudolph
Technologies
C
Ga
F
p
improvements
in
S
PLCC packages.
FIG. 4. Contributors to epi cost reduction.
These include a
modified primary
if an LED undergoes self-heating, operating optic; a new alloy nitridation process that
wavelength is likely to shift and measured improves the crystal structure of the phosflux can change significantly.
phor material and improves brightness;
and new sidewall etching and patternedsapphire-substrate processes on the chips.
Thermal management
Geoff Gardner of Dow Corning talked The PLCC also uses a die-attach material
about innovations in silicone technology with higher thermal conductivity (0.8 W/
as applied to LEDs. Silicone is perhaps best mK) and a higher efficiency reflector.
Ravi Bhatkal of Cookson Electronics
known for its use as an LED chip encapsulant. Garner said the company has devel- discussed some of the thermal challenges
oped silicone with a higher refractive index associated with using package, submount
specifically for high-power LEDs. Any LED and board materials that all have differabove 0.5 watt is going to require a higher- ent coefficients of thermal expansion. Fast
refractive-index material capable of with- temperature changes induce more thermal
standing high operating temperatures, stress and can lead to creep failures. He
suggested a combination of relevant matehe said.
Silicone is also used for injection-molded rial stack design, thermal modeling and
secondary optics such as total-internal- advanced thermal cycling tests to provide a
reflection lenses. In the case of remote- mapping function between accelerated test
phosphor optics, silicone can withstand results and estimated useful lifetime.

LEDsmagazine.com

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Namdang-Port, South Korea(2011)

Light up your life !

Genuine hybrid controller (YHC-500)


Input : 600W(Wind), 500W(Solar)
Output : 5channels, each 20A_max
Real-time system control
DC/DC Conevert imbedded
Electronic brake included
System Configuration

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LED Street Light : 50W~140W
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Key Features
Grid-off system that can be easily installed anywhere
Solar and wind generated clean energy
Smart dimming function
Lights up to 3~5 days (10 hours/day) without primary energy source
Over discharge protection & On/Off time controller

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strategies in light | MARKET TRACK

LED market adoption


continues to grow
The HB-LED Market track at Strategies in Light 2012 offered a view from Seoul, advice on how
to cross the market-adoption chasm, insights on how to make GaN LEDs on GaN substrates, and
much more, as TIM WHITAKER reports.

s usual, Strategies in Light opened


with a review of the HB-LED market and a forecast for the years to
come, provided by market-research company Strategies Unlimited. Th is years presentation by Ella Shum, LED practice director and conference co-chair, provided the
biggest talking point of the whole three-day
event, when it was revealed that the overall market for packaged LED components is
likely to stay roughly flat from 2012 through
2016. The strong growth in lighting applications for LEDs will be offset by the decline in
revenue from the backlighting segment, said
Shum. Further details can be found on page
21. Shums talk opened the plenary session
of the HB-LED Markets track, one of three
parallel tracks at Strategies in Light. The
LEDs in Lighting track is discussed on page
39, while the LED Manufacturing track (new
this year) is covered on page 27.

GaN-on-GaN LEDs
Soraa, a stealthy start-up, chose Strategies
in Light to make its fi rst public appearance. CEO Eric Kim revealed the companys fi rst products: a series of MR16 LED
lamps designed to replace 40W or 50W halogens (Fig. 1). However, the companys core
innovation is to develop GaN-on-GaN LEDs,
and Kim said that Soraas fab in Fremont,
California, is in full production mode.
Because the LED material has a 1000-fold
reduction in dislocation density, the GaNon-GaN LEDs can be driven much harder
(250 A/cm) than traditional LEDs, while

32

MARCH 2012

suffering much less relative droop (the dropoff in efficiency at higher current densities).
There are a whole range of ways in which the
GaN-on-GaN LEDs are different from more
conventional devices, not least the triangular chip-shape that Soraa is using. But a
number of observers were skeptical that the
MR16 lamps could be offered at a competitive price, due to the high cost of the GaN
starting material. For more on Soraa, see
www.ledsmagazine.com/news/9/2/18.

Chinas LED industry


Following Shums talk, the HB-LED Market
track continued with presentations on the
LED industry in China and in Korea. Wu
Ling, general secretary of the China SolidState Lighting Alliance (CSA), spoke about
the continued development and expansion
of Chinas SSL industry, which she said had
revenues of RMB156 billion ($24.8 bn) in 2011,
and grew by 30% year-on-year. This was split
into RMB6.5 bn ($1 bn) for epitaxial wafers
and chips, RMB28.5 bn ($4.5 bn) for packaged
LEDs, and RMB121 bn ($19 bn) for end products. General lighting and landscape lighting were the biggest application areas, at
25% and 24% of the total respectively, followed by backlighting (18%) and display
screens (14%).
As is often the case with China, many
of the numbers quoted by Wu were vast:
for example, she said that newly-built
residential areas will create demand for
1.2-1.5 million street lights every year
for the next 20-30 years.

China has set various targets for 2015,


by when it aims to be one of the leading
nations for SSL, said Wu. These targets
include LED efficiency of 150 lm/W in mass
production and 200 lm/W in R&D, with a
price of 30 RMB/klm (under $5/klm). The
Chinese government is investing heavily
to develop and strengthen the SSL supply
chain, enhance public awareness of SSL, and
launch a national SSL standards committee.
Also, the 10 cities, 10,000 LED products
demonstration project will be extended
to 37 cities.
Wu said that the Chinese LED industry is maturing rapidly,
and there is plenty
of work being
done to build

LEDs
LED
LEDsmagazine.com
smagazi
zine
ne.co
com
___________

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a portfolio of standards, improve the intellectual-property situation, and stimulate


international cooperation.

A view from Seoul


Chung Hoon Lee, the CEO of Korea-based LED
maker Seoul Semiconductor, spoke about the
factors that saw his company join Samsung
LED and LG Innotek in the top five of
LED suppliers for 2011 (page 22). This
was driven by backlight-unit (BLU)
demand; a strong local semiconductor infrastructure with secure
supply-chain management; and
the geopolitical advantage of a
strong BLU market in countries
around Korea, namely Japan,
Taiwan and Korea, he said. Now,
LED makers must react rapidly,
targeting the lighting market.
Seoul already has a much larger
proportion of its revenue from the
lighting market than its Korean
rivals, said Lee.
He also discussed Acrich, the
companys AC-LED product, saying that this could allow LED-lamp makers
to eliminate a lot of the junk inside the
lamp needed to drive the LED (particularly
the AC-DC converter). For more, see page 9.
Lee spoke about cost and efficiency, and
said he believed that progress will be much
more rapid than predicted in the US DOE
roadmap. This forecasts that LED package pricing will hit $1/klm around 2020,
when efficacy exceeds 200 lm/W. However,
Lee said he expected this pricing level to be
reached in 3-5 years time. Lighting companies havent driven costs down, because
volumes are not high enough, he said. However, he said that for retrofit LED lamps,
pricing in the $10 range could drive mass
adoption within 2 years.
In the future, Lee said that LED lighting
will evolve from a functional role to providing light-quality improvements, and
then additional and intelligent
FIG. 1. LED-based MR16
lamp from Soraa Inc, built
using the companys GaNon-GaN LEDs.
LEDsmagazine.com
LEDsmagazine.c
___________

Source: Ned Tozun, d.light

THE WORLDS NEWSSTAND

FIG. 2. Solar-powered LED lighting can enhance

the productivity of businesses that lack access to


electricity. Inset: a d.light S1 study light.

functionality. If light can give us happiness and pleasure, thats fantastic, he said.
Lee ended with a dig at some of Seoul Semioconductors more vertically-integrated
rivals. He said that customers should ask:
Who is your competitor now, and who will
be your competitor in the future?

But the potential benefits are vast, said


Tozun. Children can live in a kerosene-free
home and increase their study time, he said.
Rural health clinics can give better care,
and people can save money and increase
their income because their businesses can
be more productive (Fig. 2).

Phosphors
Off-grid lighting
Globally, 1.6 billion people do not have access
to electricity, said Ned Tozun, president of
d.light Design, a company that is using LEDbased lighting to help such people who live at
the bottom of the pyramid. Tozun said that
solar and LED technologies can be used to
radically improve the lives of off-grid families. The goal is to replace technologies such
as lead-acid batteries, battery-powered LEDs
and in particular kerosene, which is very
expensive and creates huge health issues.
We can make kerosene lamps history, said
Tozun. However, there are challenges, which
include marketing and distribution in areas
with poorly-developed infrastructure, and the
ability to pay the upfront cost of the solar-LED
product or system (even though the ongoing
cost is then effectively zero). Also, some governments distort the market with significant
subsidies for kerosene.

A session on phosphors included a presentation by Seth Coe-Sullivan of QD Vision,


on quantum-dot technology. Recent results
show significant improvements in reliability,
in terms of flux and temperature tolerances.
However, Coe-Sullivan acknowledged that
quantum dots for down-conversion of LEDs
can only be used in a remote configuration.
On-chip coating of the LED would result in
a temperature and flux that was far too high
for the quantum dots to tolerate.
Rene Wegh of Philips Lighting further discussed remote-phosphor (RP) configurations,
stating that the main benefit is enhanced system efficacy. For warm-white LEDs at 2700K,
the benefit can easily amount to a 30%
enhancement. Also, the LEDs are not affected
by the heat energy generated within the phosphor when down-conversion takes place, so
they remain cooler, and can be driven harder.
Philips has made extensive use of remote
MARCH 2012

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strategies in light | MARKET

TRACK

phosphors in its LED lamps and also its Fortimo modules. Another advantage of the RP
approach is flexibility; for example, modules
can be built in which the RP component can
be exchanged but everything else is the same,
so that a range of color temperatures and/or
CRIs can be realized.

Automotive headlights
A small numbers of car and even motorbikes
now have full-LED headlamps (Fig. 3), but
Dirk Vanderhaeghen of Philips Lumileds
predicted that penetration will increase in
the next few years. He said that 2013 would
see the fi rst headlights requiring a single
LED module per headlight for a low-beam
solution. This will reduce both cost and system complexity, and will open the way for
penetration of LED headlights in mainstream, rather than just high-end, vehicles.
He predicted that the number of cars with
LED headlights would grow from 1.5 million
in 2013 to 5.0 million in 2015, and the value
of the LED components used in this application would grow from $130 million to $300
million. The market value will not continue
to grow as rapidly as the number of vehicles
adopting LED headlights, since the number
of LEDs per headlight unit will fall.
So why use LEDs in headlights? LEDs use
less fuel, said Vanderhaeghen, but can also
be used to express a strong brand identity.
There are design advantages of using LED
systems that typically have a depth of about
5 cm, compared with 10-15 cm for halogen
projectors. And then there is the smart functionality aspect of using an LED matrix to
implement intelligent lighting that can illuminate around corners, for example.
The target for LED lighting is to be able to
match the performance of xenon lamps and
provide about 1000 lm on the road, which for
LEDs translates to about 2000 hot source
lumens (i.e. an LED-module output of 2000 lm
with a case temperature of 85C). But there is
also the need to move towards cost-effective,
single-LED sources to enable mass adoption.
Most systems today use fans for cooling, said
Vanderhaeghen. But this is not sustainable
for OEMs to translate into mass-market vehicles. He pointed out that LEDs rated at a maximum case temperature of 130C, rather than
110C, would allow the use of much smaller
heatsinks for the same output.

34

MARCH 2012

FIG. 3. LED headlights on the Audi S7 featured in a vampire-themed TV ad that aired

during the 2012 Super Bowl, two days before SIL began (www.ledsmagazine.com/
news/9/2/4).
________ The vampires didnt enjoy the daylight created by the 5500K LEDs.
Backlighting
Paul Semenza of DisplaySearch, a marketresearch company, said that LCD-TV backlights will dominate LED demand through
2013, but lighting will take over in 2014.
While LED chip and package prices have
fallen dramatically, they still represent a
large proportion of the bill-of-materials cost
for displays. However, the cost structure for
displays is less dependent on the LED cost
than is the case for lighting. LEDs represent
about 25% of the cost of an LED-backlit unit
(BLU) obviously this varies by TV size and
the backlight design but less than 5% of the
whole TV cost. For LED lamps, the LED cost
can easily exceed 50% of the total.
DisplaySearch estimates that the total
global LED chip capacity, normalized for
500500-m devices, will reach almost 95
bn units in 2012, compared with around 82
bn in 2011. Taiwan is now slightly ahead of
Korea in terms of unit volume, with these
two countries accounting for 74% of the
total. The top three LED-chip suppliers by
volume Samsung LED, LG Innotek and
Epistar are all very close to LCD backlight makers, said Semenza, and obviously
the fi rst two are vertically integrated with
major TV makers.
The share of LEDs in backlights is above
50% for all large-area LCD applications

(mobile PCs, desktop monitors and LCD TVs,


with screen sizes of 9-in and above). Mobile
PCs are essentially saturated, but the other
categories lag behind. LED penetration in
LCD TVs has been slower than expected,
but is continuing said Semenza. While the
number of LCDs with LED backlights will
increase through 2013, the average number
of LEDs per backlight will peak in 2012 at
12 (Fig. 4), and will then fall due to efficacy
improvements and new designs such as lowcost direct backlights. In the LCD-TV segment, chip demand will also peak in 2012 at
around 24 bn units (normalized for 500500m chips) and then will start to fall.
The low-cost, direct backlight schemes
use fewer LEDs than conventional direct
backlighting, but the LEDs are larger and
have lenses to direct the light. Th is helps to
eliminate certain optical fi lms within the
backlight, but means that thin panels cannot be built. Th is trend towards so-called
chubby TVs is ironic given the association
in recent years of LEDs with thin TVs, said
Semenza. Also, he said, as LED unit pricing
decreases, the driving force gets weaker for
reducing the number of LEDs per unit.

Driving SSL adoption


Crees Mike Watson was refreshingly controversial for the first talk on Thursday
LEDsmagazine.com

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Sharp has extended its LED portfolio to include three high-luminosity

temperature of up to 90 C. Such qualities mean they are not just

modules: the 15W, 25W and 50W MegaZENI LEDs. These LED arrays

the intelligent alternative to individual LEDs but also first choice for

are compact, light and extremely bright with a shiningly high light

indoor and outdoor lighting applications. MegaZENI LEDs are Energy

quality. Sharps MegaZENI LEDs give product developers and design-

Star and ANSI-compliant, combine maximum energy efficiency with

ers the chance to achieve the best possible colour reproduction in

minimum thermal dissipation, and come in various colour tempera-

surroundings where ultra-high luminance is essential, e.g. spotlights

tures from warm to cool white.

or downlights. These new arrays stand out from the crowd with a

Our Service Team will be glad to supply you with any enginee-

luminous flux of up to 6,700lm, a luminous efficacy of up to 105lm/W,

ring samples and advice you need. E-Mail: info.sme@sharp.eu;

a CRI of up to 93 and a lifetime of up to 40,000 hours at an operating

Phone: +49 (0)180 507 35 07; www.sharpleds.eu

Visit us at the Light+Building 2012


from 1520 April in Frankfurt am Main: Hall 4.2, Booth J71.

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strategies in light | MARKET

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morning. He described Zhaga as an SSL version of the old model,


i.e. the lamp-ballast-socket paradigm, and asked: Why are we wasting time with A-lamps? His discussion was entitled Beyond the
LED and looked at why the industry needs to focus on new business models to deliver SSL value.
Drawing parallels with transitions to solid-state technology in
other industries, Watson said that such changes always improved
core function and value, and provided well-defined benefits. However, the transitions also involved hardware changes, and this was
feared by consumers. To overcome this roadblock, said Watson, new
adoption models became as important as technology to drive market acceptance.
According to Watson, the lighting industry likes the modular approach (e.g. replacement lamps, or modules based on Zhaga
specifications) because its what they know and what they can do.
But, he said, the lamp-ballast-socket approach always compromises
total system cost compared with a bottom-up LED-based design that
makes the most of the core benefits provided by SSL.
The industry has hit a chasm between product development and
mass adoption, said Watson, and the challenge for 2012 is to cross
that gap (Fig. 5). Rather than using a landfi ll of replacement lamps
and Zhaga products to cross the chasm, Watson said that the industry should use adoption factors based on performance, cost/optimi-

Backlight LED shipments


(Billions, 500 500 m size)

Number
of LEDs

60
50
40
30
20
10
0

2008

2009

2010

2011

2012

2013

2014

2015

18
16
14
12
10
8
6
4
2
0

Source: DisplaySearch Quarterly LED Supply/Demand Report

FIG. 4. Forecast for the total number of LEDs used in


backlights, and the average number of LEDs per backlight.

zation, quality/acceptance, and scale. All these focus on delivering


core SSL value. In conclusion, Watson said that parts of the ecosystem resist even slow change and added if youre SSL only, the
world looks different.

Addressing challenges
The LED industry faces a number of challenges, said Ulrich
Steegmueller, chief technology officer of Osram Opto
Semiconductors, among which are LED price erosion, and the
fact that economical limits for efficacy will be reached within this
decade. To address such challenges, Osram Opto is focusing on innovation, cost, quality and fit (i.e. using the characteristics of LEDs to
enable completely new applications). Steegmueller said that Osram
Optos leading market position is underpinned by deep customer
relationships and technical know-how.
As examples of new applications and approaches, Steegmueller
mentioned automotive headlights as well as biolight systems, i.e. the
use of LEDs in horticultural applications. Addressing cost, he discussed Osram Optos recent results for GaN-on-silicon LEDs (www.
___
ledsmagazine.com/news/9/1/19). On the subject of quality, he said it
___________________
is important to leverage lessons from demanding applications, such as
automotive; for example, it can be important to conduct accelerated
testing against humidity, temperature cycling and corrosive gases.

LED package options

______________

36

MARCH 2012

Although it has a relatively low profi le, Japan-based Nichia is easily


the worlds largest LED maker, according to Strategies Unlimited,
and is also the worlds largest phosphor manufacturer (although it
does not just serve the LED market). Dan Doxsee of Nichia America
Corporation said that cool-white, power LEDs have reached 150
lm/W in production, and LED lighting technology is ready for mass
adoption. No application is out of reach for LEDs, he said. And,
with rapid cost reductions, the cost of light is becoming ever-more
affordable, he added.
One feature of the LED lighting market is that there are multiple package solutions for every application. A lamp might utilize a
single large chip-on-board array, or several single-die packages, or
multiple smaller die. There is no one-size-fits-all, said Doxsee. In
LEDsmagazine.com

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Products

Chasm

Demand

Create

Enable

Value

multi-small-die approach also provides better thermals due to distributed heat dissipation; the same droop as large single die; better
color consistency; and the flexibility to build high-voltage arrays.

LED manufacturing capacity

Deliver
Scale
Acceptance

Performance
Optimized cost

TRACK

Ado
ptio
n

strategies in light | MARKET

Time

2012

FIG. 5. To cross the chasm in 2012 and enable widescale

SSL adoption, the industry needs to focus on various adoption


factors: performance, optimization and cost, quality and
acceptance, and scale (source: Cree).
general, the single-large-die approach is best suited where there are
specific optical requirements, for example directional luminaires or
outdoor lighting. But, said Doxsee, the multi-small-chip approach
is usually better if optics allow. Also, the different-sized chips have
the same manufacturing process, but small die have better yield. The

Jed Dorsheimer of Canaccord Genuity, an investment bank, discussed the economics of LED manufacturing. He said that the recent
second cycle of the LED market, driven by backlighting demand,
resulted in a 4 increase in global LED manufacturing capacity.
However, this massive capacity is being used inefficiently.
Although LED unit demand will continue to increase, as lighting becomes the dominant application, Dorsheimer does not expect
to see a similar third cycle of manufacturing where the focus
is on scale. Instead, he said that a change in the yield vs. scale
debate may be anticipated, as manufacturers devote more of their
capital expenditure into increasing the productivity and yield of
their existing manufacturing equipment, in order to increase their
return on investment.
In conclusion, Dorsheimer said that LED will be the hidden gem
of the cleantech/sustainability movement. Because upstream investments have already been made, this should allow for costs to come
down exponentially, he said. LEDs will begin as an energy-efficiency
story, but will become more about utility: users can do more.

_________________

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YOUR
SOURCE FOR
LED & LED

LIGHTING
COMPONENTS
A world of 10,000 LED lighting components and design solutions
LEDs, Power and Thermal management, Interconnect and Optic
products available
Global portfolio of industry leading manufacturers

farnell.com/lighting

A Premier Farnell Company

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strategies in light | LIGHTING TRACK

SSL must still clear hurdles to enable


mass adoption of LED lighting
LEDs are doing quite well in general-illumination applications, but speakers in the LEDs in Lighting
track at SIL addressed obstacles and solutions that will ultimately determine when widespread SSL
deployment occurs, reports MAURY WRIGHT.

diverse set of speakers ranging from


lighting designers to research scientists to executives from LED and
lighting manufacturers took the stage in
the LEDs in Lighting track at Strategies
in Light. The central theme was obstacles
to broader deployment of solid-state lighting (SSL) and potential solutions that can
drive such deployment. The track included
success stories as well, but the overriding
theme was unmistakably focused on how
LEDs can eventually dominate the generallighting market.
Conference co-chair and Strategies
Unlimited director of LED lighting research
Vrinda Bhandarkar started the track with a
market report on LED lighting (page 21). Ted
Ferreira, principal at CD+M Lighting Design
Group followed with a keynote presentation
that set the obstacle/solution tone.
Ferreira discussed some of the challenges
that still stand in the way of broader adoption of LED lighting. He asked the audience to remember the number sequence
15, 3, 15. The fi rst two numbers represent
the life expectancy, in years, of LED and
CFL lamps respectively, based on 9 hours of
operation per day. The third number represents the average time, in years, that a person lives in the same home. Ferreira said,
Most LED bulbs will outlast the average US
homeowner.

Residential obstacles
The point that Ferreira was making is that
buying an LED lamp remains an unlikely
choice for the typical consumer. He said that
MAURY WRIGHT is a Senior Technical Editor
with LEDs Magazine.

LEDsmagazine.com

FIG. 1. CD+M Lighting Design Group and Lighting Science Group used a range of LED

lighting to create the Garden Lights, Holiday Nights display at the Atlanta Botanical
Garden. RGB LEDs lit color-changing objects in the 16-acre display.
a high-quality 60W-equivalent CFL lamp
costs a little more than $5 today, while the
Philips EnduraLED 60W-equivalent lamp
costs around $32. Ferreira said that the
return on investment (ROI) of the two lamps
is similar but the ROI calculation for LEDs is
based on their much longer life. Most people dont make a [buying] decision based on
a 15-year lifespan with the possible exception of their home, he said
An energy-efficiency theme pervaded Ferreiras talk, but he clearly believes that the
LED lighting industry must do more than
cut energy use to fully succeed. He discussed
what he called the five simple steps that
can accelerate the adoption of SSL in both

the consumer and professional markets:


always innovate; tell the story; create an
audience; establish rules; and start early.
Innovation was a widely-used word at
SIL and Ferreira, among others, suggested
rethinking lighting products. He stressed
that there is nothing sacred about the
socket and used a table task lamp with an
integrated LED light engine and driver as
an example.
Telling the story is perhaps the most
important of Ferreiras steps. People must
be aware of what they are seeing for it to
impact future buying decisions. For example, CD+M partnered with Lighting Science Group on an LED-lighting display at
MARCH 2012

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the Atlanta Botanical Garden


that was open to the public over
the holiday season in December
and January (Fig. 1). The inaugural event cost $1 million to produce and covered 16 acres. The
entire display consumed only the
power that would be needed to
power six residential homes.
But Ferreira was disappointed in an exchange he overheard while visiting the display.
A visitor asked a garden volunteer about the lighting, and the
volunteer said, I dont exactly
know how it works. I think they
are using colored party bulbs.
The project could not have been
realized without efficient RGB
LEDs and Ferreira said, I would
describe that as a missed opportunity meaning a chance to educate public on LED technology.

TRACK

Courtesy: Juan Pablo Lira

strategies in light | LIGHTING

FIG. 2. An LED lighting retrofit of a Times Square Starbucks store by Focus Lighting and LED

Source was described by keynote speaker Ferreira as "retail theater."

Retail theater
Ferreira used new LED lighting in a
Starbucks store in New York Citys Times
Square as an example of creating an audience. LED Source supplied the LED lighting
products and Focus Lighting handled the
lighting design and used the surrounding
theater district as a theme (Fig. 2). Ferreira
said, Its almost like Broadway. Its retail
theater. It can be a poster child for LED success. Such retrofits are part of Starbucks
goal to reduce energy use by 25% by 2015
across 17,000 stores. But Ferreiras point is
that such projects will win the hearts of the
public in terms of recognizing the potential
of SSL and driving adoption.
Rules are needed to ensure SSL success
according to Ferreira. He didnt mention the
new US Department of Energy (DOE) lampefficiency guidelines (www.ledsmagazine.
com/news/8/7/12), but suggested that the
government should provide incentives such
as tax breaks for the SSL industry. He said
rules are key to ensuring that the lighting
industry doesnt go backwards.
Finally Ferreira suggested that we should
start early in educating our children about
good energy habits. He said children are
open to technology and innovation and arent
intimidated by technology such as lighting

40

MARCH 2012

control systems and smartphone-like apps.


For lighting companies, Ferreira said the
choices are simple innovate or perish.

CRI and CCT


A number of presentations in the LEDs in
Lighting track focused on color quality, and
the hurdles that still face the industry in that
area. Jean Paul Freyssinier, research scientist at the Lighting Research Center (LRC)
at Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, targeted
both measures of color rendering and color
temperature in his presentation entitled
Class A lighting.
Addressing color rendering index (CRI),
correlated color temperature (CCT) and
other metrics, Freyssinier said, None of the
metrics that we use are perfectly predictive
of peoples perception or assessment of light
sources. He explained that the metrics are
meant to describe the physical characteristics of a light source i.e. the stimulus to a
person, but not the perception of the person.
Focusing specifically on color rendering, Freyssinier said that the lighting industry now accepts that no single metric can
characterize color rendering. He said that
there are too many dimensions to color rendering including color fidelity, saturation,

and discrimination of hues to capture in


a single metric (www.ledsmagazine.com/
features/9/2/11).
__________
Whether Freyssinier is right about an
industry-wide opinion on color rendering
or not, he used the SIL platform to advocate
the LRCs gamut area index (GAI) metric that
is meant to be used in combination with
CRI (www.ledsmagazine.com/news/7/6/8.)
Freyssinier said that people prefer a light
source that enhances color without distortion or making the object look unnatural.
And he said that light sources with high CRI
and GAI will consistently outperform light
sources that rate high in only one of these
two metrics.

Chromaticity variances
The bulk of Freyssinier's presentation, however, was focused on CCT and perhaps a misguided perception of the accepted definition
of a white light source. Freyssinier said, By
definition CCT is a line in the color space,
not a single point. Two light sources can
have the same CCT and still be quite different in terms of chromaticity in the CIE 1931
color space.
The industry widely accepts that the
black-body locus thats plotted in the color
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strategies in light | LIGHTING

TRACK

space represents a white source at varying


CCT values. But the LRC performed a study
to seek the answer to Freyssiniers question,
Is there a difference in terms of perception
or preference for end users?
The study utilized a viewing box with
multiple light sources. Computer control
allowed the researchers to produce light at
specific CCT, chromaticity and brightness
levels. Testers were shown light at six CCTs
ranging from 2700-6500K. At each CCT, the
testers were asked to judge light at seven
different chromaticity values along the CCT
line with the values ranging well above and
below the black-body locus.
The testers were asked to respond immediately after seeing each light source and after
an adaption period of 45 seconds. The testers
judged the hue of the light source responding to whether they perceived the source to be
green/yellow in nature or purple/violet. The
testers were also asked to rate the hue relative
to their perception of pure white.
The details of the research are lengthy in
nature, but Fig. 3 shows a surprising result.
Only at around 4100K did the perception of
the testers align with the black-body locus.
At cooler CCTs the testers preferred chromaticity slightly above the locus. More importantly, at warmer CCTs the testers preferred
chromaticity significantly below the locus.

black-body locus and the


Time 0 = 3 SDCM box
preferred white point
Time 6khr = 5 SDCM move
is equal to a 13-15-step
MacAdam ellipse (also
referred to as a SDCM
or standard deviation of
color matching ellipse).
3000K
Freyssinier said that the
ANSI-NEMA
difference in terms of
perception between the
black-body locus and the
Replacement
preferred white point
at 2700K is greater than
the perceived difference
between the three white
points at 3500K, 3000K,
Vertical grid lines: CCT in 20K increments
and 2700K despite the fact
Horizontal grid lines: Duv 0.001 increments
that those white points are
more spread out on the
FIG. 4. LED color shift over time becomes especially
color-space graph.
problematic
if one or more of a group of LED sources must
Closing the loop around
be
replaced.
color rendering, CCT, and
chromaticity, Freyssinier
addressed the title of his presentation. He Maybe one of the reasons it hasnt hapdefi nes a Class A light source as one that pened is because its ugly.
has CRI above 80, GAI between 80 and 100,
and chromaticity located along the white Color variance
line in the color space identified by the Steen used a screen to project light with different characteristics to demonstrate the
LRCs study.
Ron Steen, VP business development potential problems that the LED industry
at Xicato, also addressed color quality still faces in terms of color consistency.
and focused on the lack of standards that First he compared two 3000K sources side
Chromaticity white points
specify color deviation and the problem of by side that were within the 7-step SDCM
At 2700K, Freyssinier said that the differ- changes in color over time of LED sources. bounds of the ANSI binning scheme for
ence in terms of perception between the Steen said that SSL deployment is happen- LEDs. The lights had only a 19K difference
ing, but not as quickly as some in CCT. The difference was noticeable but
Hue-choice, immediately after exposure
industry proponents believe it perhaps not unacceptable. He then showed
Hue-magnitude, immediately after exposure
should. He said that the LED two sources that fell within a 4-step SDCM
Hue-choice, after 45-second exposure
industry focus has been on effi- ellipse. But in this case he used sources
Hue-magnitude, after 45-second exposure
Blackbody locus
cacy and that great progress that were 39K apart albeit much closer in
0.50
Daylight locus
has been made in that area. But chromaticity. The difference was signifi0.48
3000K 2700K
he asked, With 150 lm/W, why cant and Steen concluded that it would be
0.46
isnt [mass adoption of SSL] hap- problematic in most lighting applications.
4100K 3500K
0.44
pening? Steen answered saying He said that the industry needs LEDs that
5000K
0.42
are within a 1-step SDCM ellipse in terms
0.40
FIG.
3.
LRC
research
has
of chromaticity and a 2-step SDCM ellipse
6500K
y
shown that, at warm color
in terms of CCT.
0.38
temperatures,
people
generally
Steen also demonstrated issues with CRI
0.36
perceive
that
pure
white
using
a saturated red color patch and light
0.34
light sources have lower
sources with different spectral power dis0.32
chromaticity than the blacktributions. Color rendering is one area in
0.30
body locus that has long been
which he laments the lack of a usable stan0.28
accepted
as
the
defi
nition
of
dard. Differing with Freyssinier, Steen
0.28 0.30 0.32 0.34 0.36 0.38 0.40 0.42 0.44 0.46 0.48 0.50
white light.
x
spoke positively about color quality scale

42

MARCH 2012

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______________

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strategies in light | LIGHTING

TRACK

FIG. 5. Type A Productions installed more than 5000 LED downlights in the Indianapolis

JW Marriott hotel, mostly in the guest rooms.


(CQS) as an accurate metric. Steen said I
hope the industry actually adopts it so that
we can try to get down to one metric.
Still, Steens larger concern is the need for
standards that defi ne color shift over time
(and obviously LEDs that would meet such
standards). He said, It might not be lumen
depreciation that defi nes lifetime of LEDs.
It may indeed be color that defines the lifetime of a source.
The LM-80 standard used to specify LED
lifetime does not really address color, said
Steen. It does require an LED maker to disclose color shift over 6000 hours, but doesnt
set limits on acceptable shift. Steen said that
Energy Star requires luminaires to maintain
color within a range of 0.007 relative to the
CIE 1976 color space. But that delta, according to Steen, is in the range of a 7-step SDCM
ellipse. CELMA has even less rigorous guidelines in Europe.
_____________
______________
__________________________
__________________________

44

MARCH 2012

Accepted quality levels


Steen understands the difficulty faced by
the standards bodies. He said Statisticians
do not know how to statistically extrapolate color movement over time. Steen said

the industry has mistakenly accepted that


color consistency is assured by LEDs that fall
within a 3-step SDCM ellipse out of the box,
and in the worst case, those LEDs should
shift a maximum of 5 additional steps over
time. In general the industry is managing to
live with such performance, in part according to Steen because all of the LEDs in an
installation typically shift in the same direction over time.
But Steen presented the scenario depicted
in Fig. 4 that shows a huge potential problem. The point in the upper left corner of the
red box represents an LED at the 3-step line
out of the box. Over time, that LED shifts
in color up and to the left out to the range
of an 8-step SDCM ellipse. Say one lamp or
LED module in a group of sources fails and
has to be replaced. The replacement meets
the 3-step limit for a new component but
is actually at the low, right corner of the
ellipse in Fig. 4. The result is an 11-step difference in installed sources, and that could
be unsightly.
As a solution, Steen proposed a colormaintenance curve that is modeled after the
commonly used lumen-maintenance curve
LEDsmagazine.com

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RELY ON UL

As lighting technology evolves, so does UL. In addition to product safety


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environmental programs and robust training initiatives.
UL is widely known for our dedication to quality, technical expertise and
being a symbol of trust. From code authorities to speciers and consumers
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When you rely on UL for your lighting product needs, your future is bright.

VISIT WWW.UL.COM/BRIGHT
___________________

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strategies in light | LIGHTING

TRACK

and specs such as hours to L70. He proposed


holding LED color maintenance to the 1-step
chromaticity and 2-step CCT limits that he
discussed earlier.

Modular products
Getting back to the subject of innovation,
a number of SIL speakers lauded the fact
that LEDs will free product designers from
accepted lighting form factors including
linear troffers, downlights, and even bulbs.
Still, we havent yet witnessed a lot of innovation in form factor. Ironically a company
called Nualight, which is focused on retail
lighting for food displays, was the lone company that addressed the need for customizable form in the LEDs in Lighting track.
Vincent Guenebaut, head of product
innovation at Nualight, said We are not
limited anymore by the size and shape of
fluorescent tubes. Instead Nualight is taking a modular approach by offering configurable SSL systems that can fit in refrigerated display cases and above display
counters that hold items such as produce.
Guenebaut said, The luminaire becomes
the main attribute of a case.
While Nualight does offer modular
products, Guenebaut said the companys
approach to product design is to define
interfaces rather than modules. The description sounds much like the approach of the

Zhaga consortium (www.ledsmagazine.


com/features/8/11/11). The interfaces are
mechanical, thermal and electrical, and ultimately allow LED modules to be packaged in
custom forms.
Guenebaut warned that the approach has
risk in that you can end up with too many
modules if you are not careful. He also said
that modules can in some cases lead to compromises in terms of performance relative
to a luminaire designed specifically for an
application. But there are positives as well.
Guenebaut said that because its modules
are used across many different products,
the company can spend more time and
effort optimizing the performance in terms
of parameters such as efficacy.

Success stories
There were other SSL success stories were
also discussed in the lighting track. Michael
Royer, lighting engineer at the DOEs Pacific
Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), presented results from the labs latest round of
tests of LED-based retrofit lamps (www.leds_______
magazine.com/news/9/2/16). The results
__________________
were much improved over the prior round
especially in the case of A-lamps with most
delivering efficacy in the 60 lm/W range and
CRI around 80.
Sarena McComas and Jennifer Rueth,
partners at lighting design firm Type A Pro-

ductions, presented a case study of an LED


lighting project at the JW Marriott hotel in
Indianapolis, Indiana. The project included
the installation of more than 5000 LED
downlights, mostly in guest rooms. The
result has been 25-30% energy savings over
what legacy sources would have required,
and a similar reduction in the size of emergency generators required.
The project faced numerous obstacles
including issues with contractors that were
hesitant about SSL, and with lighting manufacturers' representatives that failed to
produce a suitable product. Ultimately the
team found a single downlight that met their
requirements including a relatively-tight
mounting space.
When asked, McComas said that the chosen downlight had a CCT of 3000K and a CRI
of 79. But McComas said, CRI has nothing
to do with LEDs. Its not a valuable metric. It doesnt even work for incandescent.
Apparently the team couldnt correlate CRI
scores with light that looked good in the
application.

Museum lighting
Naomi Miller, senior lighting engineer with
PNNL, presented a number of examples of
LED lighting in museums. One reason that
LED lighting is attractive to museums is
that SSL does not emit energy in the IR or

___________________________________

46

MARCH 2012

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www.exleds.com
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strategies in light | LIGHTING

TRACK

UV bands and both are known as harmful. But Miller said that is a misconception
that only UV and IR damage art. She said
that paintings can fade due to exposure to
visible light as well, and that some energy
bands are especially damaging. There is the
potential with LEDs to precisely control the
spectral power distribution.
Miller cited one example of successful SSL
deployment in the Brooker Gallery at The
Field Museum in Chicago, Illinois. She said
the LED lighting cut energy use by 63% due
both to more-efficient lighting and a reduction in HVAC (heating, ventilation, and air
conditioning) energy use. Miller said that
relative to halogen lights, the payback for
LED lighting is 2.4 years when the HVAC
expense is included in the analysis.
Several speakers in the track discussed
controls including Redwood Systems a
company that specializes in networked
lighting for office spaces (www.ledsmaga__________
zine.com/news/7/3/7).
Redwood
chief mar_____________

keting officer Sam Klepper covered


the familiar ground of saving energy via dimming
lights and turning lights
off based on occupancy
sensors. And he described
other benefits of having
occupancy sensors throughout an office. He said Redwood
customers are using the lighting system to detect the availably of conference
rooms dynamically and even to enhance
security by detecting the presence of people in areas that should be unoccupied.
The lone speaker from an LED manufacturer was Mark McClear, global director of
applications engineering at Cree. McClear
insisted that the best is yet to come in
LEDs. He described Crees newest products, the XLamp XT-E family (Fig. 6), as
a third-generation LED (www.ledsmag_________
azine.com/news/9/2/7).
He
said second_______________
generation LEDs are running out of gas in

FIG. 6. Third-generation, lighting class


LEDs, such as the XLamp XT-E, will reach
the 200 lm/W efficacy level, according
to Crees Mark McClear.

terms of efficacy gains, but that the thirdgeneration designs will get the industry to
200 lm/W. He expects Cree and other makers of lighting-class LEDs such as Nichia,
Philips Lumileds, and Osram Opto Semiconductors to all deliver third-generation
families soon and said Cree was already in
high volume already with its newest LEDs.
McClear clearly sees LEDs as the primary
source for general lighting going forward. He
addressed OLED lighting and the fact that
some projections have OLEDs achieving
fluorescent-T8 efficacy and brightness levels by 2017. But he said that in 2017, OLED
will be competing with LEDs as the incumbent technology rather than with T8s. He
said, Can OLED enter that market and compete? I think no.
LED droop the unexplained drop in efficacy at higher drive currents was also a
target in McClears presentation, and has
been considered an obstacle to broader
SSL deployment. While droop hasnt been
solved, McClear believes efficacy gains in
general have eliminated droop as a concern. He said that at 50 lm/W droop was a
big concern, but with LED component efficacy over 100 lm/W droop is a hurdle that
has been cleared.
MORE: For detailed information on the DOE's

latest LED retrofit lamp testing that was


presented at SIL by Michael Royer of the
PNNL, review our online article at:
www.ledsmagazine.com/news/9/2/16.

48

MARCH 2012

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indoor lighting | RESTAURANTS

LED lighting highlights the food at


San Diego burger restaurant
The Hodads restaurant in downtown San Diego has achieved energy efficiency and high-quality
lighting using a mix of LED A-lamps, downlights, and T8-retrofit tubes, explains MAURY WRIGHT.

tility company San Diego Gas &


Electric (SDG&E) has partnered
with Hodads restaurant in downtown San Diego, California, to install LEDbased ambient lighting in a demonstration
of energy efficiency and high-quality lighting. The solid-state lighting installation uses
LED-based, T8-retrofit tubes in the kitchen,
LED A-lamps in the dining area, and LED
downlights in corridors. After the project,
SDG&E concluded that LED lighting can
deliver energy savings ranging from 31% to
91% in restaurant applications.
Hodads has long been a popular restaurant in the counter-culture, costal community of Ocean Beach just northwest of downtown San Diego. A visit from Food Network
star Guy Fieri of Diners, Drive-ins and
Dives extended the popularity of the restaurant to foodies visiting San Diego from
around the globe. Last year, Hodads opened
a second location in downtown San Diego on
the border of the Gaslamp Quarter. That new
restaurant serves as the site for what SDG&E
called a Restaurant ambient lighting demonstration showcase.
While the goal of the demonstration was
energy efficiency, quality of lighting was
also paramount in the restaurant application. We take lighting for granted but its
so important in my business, said Hodads
owner Mike Hardin. I always tell my customers that 90 percent of their taste buds are
in their eyeballs. Specifically, the lighting
needs to render the colors in the food well;
Fig. 1 shows one of the restaurants signature
hamburgers under an LED A-lamp mounted
in a suspended fi xture.
A remodel of the space that would become

MAURY WRIGHT is a Senior Technical Editor


with LEDs Magazine.

LEDsmagazine.com

FIG. 1. Duracell LED A-lamps light Hodads signature burger and sides.

the new Hodads was already underway when


SDG&Es Emerging Technologies Program got
involved in the project. The contractor had
installed 4-lamp lensed fluorescent troffers
in the kitchen area spaced at 4-ft intervals
in each dimension, totaling 52 lamps. In corridors, the contractor had installed recessed
lights and planned to use 13 compact fluorescent lamps (CFLs) in those cans. A total of
42 incandescent lamps were intended for the
suspended fi xtures in the dining area.

LED lighting selection


SDG&E worked with lighting consultant
Daryl DeJean of Emerging Technologies
Associates to plan a conversion to LED
lighting. Ultimately the team chose a 9W
LED A-lamp made by Duracell, whereas the

prior plan was for 95W incandescent lamps.


Duracell is better known for batteries but
has launched a line of LED retrofit lamps
(www.duracelllighting.com). DeJean says
that the LED lamps deliver 25-30 fc (footcandle) at table level.
In the corridors, the team used a generic
LED retrofit kit purchased at Home Depot
in place of the CFL lamps. The 11W LED kits
replaced what would have been 23W CFLs.
The LED T8 tubes used in the kitchen also
came from Duracell, although the company
has yet to formally announce the products.
The companys website indicates that LED
linear lamps are due this summer. While
most LED T8s require that the fluorescent
ballast be removed from the power circuit
in the fi xture (www.ledsmagazine.com/feaMARCH 2012

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indoor lighting

| RESTAURANTS

tures/7/6/6),
________the Duracell lamps work with
any rapid-start ballast, according to DeJean.
Moreover, he added that the Duracell T8s are
on the order of 5% more efficient when used
with a ballast as opposed to being connected
directly to line power.
Fig. 2 shows a troffer fixture in the
kitchen with owner Hardin at the work
surface. The only lights in the restaurant
that arent LED based are the CFL lights
that are visible on the upper left side of the
photo over the cooking surfaces. The project
team felt that LED-based lights would not
be a good match for the heat rising from the
cooking equipment, given the need for heat
dissipation in LED lighting.
The troffers that were installed were not of
the so-called Super T8 variety that use both
more-efficient lamps and ballasts to reduce
energy. The fluorescent lamps would have
dissipated 32W, but were replaced with 22W
Duracell tubes.

Payback analysis

FIG. 2 LED-based T8 tubes light work surfaces in the kitchen, although CFLs (at upper
left) are used over hot cooking surfaces.

Table 1 summarizes the simple payback


analysis of the project and is based on the
following assumptions. The lights are on
5792 hours annually based on 16-hour days
and the 362 days/year that the restaurant
is open. The table presents a retrofit case
meaning that payback factors-in the total
cost of the LED lamps and fi xtures used to
replace the incumbent sources. In a new
construction scenario where only the incremental cost of the LED lighting is considered, the payback drops considerably for
both the downlights and T8 tubes to 1.44
and 3.88 years respectively.
But the story gets more compelling in the

case of the LED T8s used in the kitchen. Generally, the lighting industry has not judged
LED-based T8s as suitable replacements
for fluorescent tubes. For example, the US
Department of Energy (DOE) has documented LED T8 performance in a number
of evaluations (www.ledsmagazine.com/
news/8/5/22).
________ And while the LED tubes use
less energy than fluorescent lamps, they also
produce less light and arent a good match
for troffer fi xtures designed to reflect the
omnidirectional output of fluorescent tubes.
In the case of Hodads, however, the directional nature of the LEDs was a good match

Lamp

Cost/lamp
($)

Number of
lamps

Total product Energy (kWh)


cost ($)

Incandescent *

42

84

LED direct
replacement

25

42

CFL *

LED retrofit kit

to the application.
Indeed, after the LED lighting had been
installed for several weeks, Hodads workers
reported that the lights in the kitchen were
essentially too bright. SDG&E and DeJean
experimented and ultimately removed two
of the LED T8s from each troffer.
According to DeJean, the fi xtures with
four fluorescent tubes installed generated
40-50 fc at the task plane. With four LED
tubes installed, the fi xtures delivered 60
fc. With two LED tubes in each fi xture the
lighting at task level is in the 25-30-fc range
and thats appropriate for the application,

Energy cost/
kWh ($)

Annual
energy cost
($)

Annual
energy cost
savings ($)

Simple Payback
(years)

23,110

0.20

4,622

1,050

2,189

0.20

438

4,184

0.23

13

91

1,732

0.20

346

50

13

650

828

0.20

166

180

3.11

Fluorescent *

52

364

9,638

0.20

1,928

Linear LED

60

52

3,120

6,626

0.20

1,325

603

4.57

TABLE 1. Based on a retrofit scenario, with 5792 hours of annual usage, the different types of LED lighting have paybacks ranging

from about 12 weeks to 4.57 years. (*Base case for each fi xture type)

52

MARCH 2012

LEDsmagazine.com

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OV
ER

_________________

SP
AC BO
EA E O OK
R R
3,
00 LY RE EXH
B G I
0
AT IRD IST BIT
E
TE
ND RAT R FO
EE ES R
SI
N
20
11

JOIN THE BEST AND BRIGHTEST!


LED manufacturers from all over the world will gather in Las Vegas to showcase the latest LED
technology. The LED Show draws an exclusive group of buyers from every subset of this increasingly
important and burgeoning industry. Exhibitors have the opportunity to provide demonstrations, display
products, provide technical support, and inspire new design ideas to an engaged and influential
attendee audience. As a manufacturer, your customers will come with questions and interest. As an
attendee, you will have the opportunity to ask questions and dispel any myths about LED lighting.
Participants will find all the latest tools and technology to design smarter and more efficiently.

For more information visit

_______________

Director of Content
The LED Show
James Highgate
T: +1 702 475 5337
E: Jamesh@pennwell.com

To book your exhibition space or for more information on sponsorship opportunities please
contact your local sales representative:
US - West Coast
Tim Carli
+1 650 946 3163
tcarli@pennwell.com

US - East Coast
Mary Donnelly
+1 603 891 9398
maryd@pennwell.com

Europe and China


Virginia Willis
+44 0 1992 656 663
virginiaw@pennwell.com

Premium Exhibitors 2012: Chroma Systems Solutions, Inc., Emerge Lighting, Lumenor Energy Services LLC, LUMIMAX OPTOELECTRONIC
TECHNOLOGY, Philips Emergency Lighting, Sansitech USA, SinkPAD Corporation, TOROSYSTEM, Virginia Optoelectronics Inc. (As of Dec.11)

Owned and Produced by:

Presented by:

Supported by:

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indoor lighting

| RESTAURANTS

the DOEs testing is without question accurate, its also clear that
LED T8s are improving. For example, we also recently reported on a
successful LED T8 case study in an Air New Zealand facility (www.
___
ledsmagazine.com/news/9/1/2).
___________________

Delamping improves payback

FIG. 3. Suspended fi xtures host LED A-lamps in the dining area.

Payback was less than 3 moths.


said DeJean.
DeJean said that two florescent lamps would not have provided
sufficient light levels, although three lamps per fi xture probably
would have been sufficient. But he attributed the superior performance of the LED tubes in the restaurant to directionality. While

In the case of Hodads, the use of only two lamps has changed the
payback analysis originally created by SDG&E. Compared to a
4-lamp fluorescent case, the LED tubes would achieve payback in a
single year in the retrofit case and a bit sooner in new construction.
SDG&E is clearly an advocate of LED lighting. With LED technology rapidly advancing, the operating costs of current LEDs are 20
to 50 percent lower than legacy lighting systems, said Ted Reguly,
director of customer programs and assistance. Although the initial purchase cost may be significantly higher, the expected longevity and drastic energy savings associated with contemporary LEDs
are very intriguing and have merit in many applications, especially
those with long operating hours.
The project was a big win for Hodads. SDG&Es Emerging Technologies Program covered the portion of the cost of the LED lighting
that exceeded the cost of legacy lighting that met California Title 24
energy-efficiency standards. And Hodads owner Hardin said, The
new LED lighting makes my food look so good!

____________

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_____________

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REGISTE
R TODAY
Early Bird
Rates Exp
ire
March 30,
2012

22-24 MAY 2012


Shenzhen Intercontinental Hotel | Shenzhen, China
www.sil-ledchina.com

HOW TO WIN IN THE LED LIGHTING MARKET


Strategies in Light China 2012, is an international business and market-oriented conference with an
accompanying exhibit floor, involving both Chinese and foreign companies at all levels of the LED supply chain.
The 2012 conference program will discuss the directions of the LED industry including; critical challenges
and barriers to SSL adoption; regulatory issues and standards; government support and funding; technology
updates and roadmaps; and the international competitive landscape.
To understand the state of the Chinese LED industry, we have invited 3 top CEOs from upstream, midstream and
downstream to talk about their segment of the industry and the challenges they face. After the 3 talks, Dr. Jack
Zhang of GG LED will return and host a panel with the CEOs on the direction of the Chinese LED industry. Last
year, this was one of the most popular sessions, so dont miss it.

Key presentations include:



  
 !!"#
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Register today to benefit from early bird savings! Visit www.sil-ledchina.com for more information
on the program and to register online.

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Strategies Unlimited

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conferences | SSL ECOSYSTEMS

Ecosystems meeting paints future


picture of intelligent SSL systems
A recent gathering of SSL professionals provided a vision of future lighting systems that are off-grid,
LED-based, intelligent, adaptive and stable, writes LAURA PETERS.

t the inaugural Ecosystems in


Solid State Lighting Conference in
Washington, DC, last December,
Dan Ruscheinski, vice president of sales
and marketing at Carmanah, described
an almost utopian lighting system of the
future: one that is free of the grid, LEDbased, adaptive and intelligent, more cost
effective than todays lighting systems. They
are also secure and stable, environmentally
friendly, and available to a greater proportion of the worlds population.
To accomplish such goals, and with the
drive toward zero-net-energy buildings, the
robust solid-state lighting (SSL) industry
will need a solid infrastructure (or ecosystem), and several developments to build that
infrastructure are underway.
Indeed Makarand Chips Chipalkatti,
senior director of SSL & emerging market initiatives for Osram Sylvania Inc., and one of the
conference organizers, said the fulfillment of
LED technology goes beyond the use of LED
light source itself, and extends to the entire
SSL ecosystem the light source, power supply, controls, fixture, and any intelligence
built into or used with the system, which
makes SSL affordable and practical.

Intelligent office lighting


At the conference, Jim Brodrick, lighting
program manager at the US Department
of Energy (DOE), attempted to answer the
question of what might future lighting systems look like? He chose the office environment to illustrate how the unique attributes
of LED lighting might be used to save energy
and money while enhancing the user experience. Brodrick explained that people are
LAURA PETERS is a Senior Technical Editor

with LEDs Magazine.


LEDsmagazine.com

FIG. 1. Concept of a reconfigurable lighting system with adjustable, track-mounted

luminaire heads that are powered by rechargeable batteries.


frustrated with the inflexible lighting systems of today. Often, lighting is not available
when and where it is needed, and even simple lighting changes require rewiring above
the ceiling level and the hiring of electricians. Also, users often end up paying high
electricity rates when they use it the most
during the day.
Brodrick proposed a flexible lighting
approach that is designed to use less energy
than existing office lighting systems. Th is
approach (Fig. 1) could involve mobile
LED light heads on a track, which could be
reconfigured wirelessly as needed, via smart
phones or work stations. The systems onboard batteries could be recharged during
off-peak electricity hours.
The luminaires could incorporate daylight sensors and adjust light-output levels accordingly. Occupancy sensors could

enable the luminaires to be turned off automatically when work areas are empty. The
luminaires could be adjusted vertically or
rotated to provide personalized, task-level
lighting and prevent area over-lighting.
With this kind of an approach, we could
see energy savings of around 40%, said
Brodrick. The rechargeable batteries could
also eliminate the wiring along tracks and
in the ceiling as well as typical power distribution issues. Brodrick concluded by asking
attendees Can it be done? challenging
the lighting industry to think beyond the
bulb in developing tomorrows LED lighting solutions.
Fritz Morgan, chief product officer of Digital Lumens, also explored lighting control
methods but in a more static environment
the factory floor. He stated that factories
are already taking advantage of facility-wide
MARCH 2012

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conferences | SSL

ECOSYSTEMS

energy management and optimization of


lighting at the cell level. For instance, coldstorage warehouses are optimizing energy
use by incorporating networked fi xtures
and adaptive controls (www.ledsmaga__________
zine.com/news/8/3/29).
_______________ Distributed control shifts the decision making from a centralized controller to individual intelligent
luminaires, he said. In this scenario, each
luminaire is capable of sophisticated control, is fault tolerant, and is capable of being
confi gured and managed by a central control system, according to Morgan.
Morgan emphasized that luminaires can
be designed with many advanced capabilities such as integrated sensors for occupancy, daylight, temperature and energy,
as well as control technologies (Fig. 2). He
showed that smart luminaires can be used
to build intelligent buildings. For instance,
temperature sensing in real time has been
used to identify problem areas in cold-storage facilities, such as insulation failures or
excessively low or high temperatures that
should be better regulated. Right now, facility managers are mostly collecting data, but
they can provide real-time energy management with the tools we have today, he said.

Controls and dimming


Garrett Grega, senior manager of applied
LED technology at Philips, also took up the

Occupancy

Energy

RFID
Temperature

Daylight

Security

FIG. 2. Intelligent luminaires have the potential to integrate various sensors.

topic of improved lighting control, stating that lighting in general is becoming


more personal and more customizable. He
referred to the potential of SSL to deliver
addressable light, customized light and
adaptable light based on personal needs or
desired mood. In terms of wireless controls,
he said that the technology is here today, so
it is not a question of whether we will use
addressable light technology, but when. He

added that people may prefer to make lighting adjustments via gesture or voice rather
than using a mobile device.
Russ MacAdam, director of commercial
engineering development at Lutron Electronics, reviewed the challenges of dimming LED lamps and fi xtures. He stated
several of the benefits of dimming LEDs,
including energy savings, improved ambiance and safety. In addition, LED compo-

_____

58

MARCH 2012

LEDsmagazine.com

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New Market
Reviews and Forecasts
Available Now!
NEW!
Order today
Strategies Unlimited has been researching the LED
market since 1994. Find out more about our complete
market reports on the overall LED market, LEDs for
lighting, and LED lighting fixtures and more!
Market analysis and forecast reports include:
High-Brightness LEDs
LED Outdoor Area and Street Lighting
LED Driver ICs
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LED Replacement Lamps
China Upstream LED Market
...and more!

For more information contact


Tim Carli at: +1 (650) 946 3163,
or email Tim at: tcarli@strategies-u.com
www.strategies-u.com

Strategies Unlimited

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LEDs & Lighting Media Group

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conferences | SSL

ECOSYSTEMS

nent life can be lengthened by effectively


lowering the operating temperature
potentially doubling or tripling the lumenmaintenance lifetime.
MacAdam noted that not all LED products are dimmable, and whether a lamp or
luminaire is dimmable may only appear
in the fine print on a package. He added
that in the case of LED fixtures, different
drivers are often available with different
control options, including forward phase,
reverse phase, three wire, 0-10V, DALI and
DMX. The LED products signal and wiring
must match the signal and wiring on the
wall control. Lutrons website (www.lutron.
com/leds) provides a guide that matches
control types with LED products.
In addition, MacAdam noted that
another challenge involves matching the
correct number of LED lamps with the
switch load. He said that dimmers have
been designed to handle the peak inrush
current of incandescent lamps, which

a)

Current

Voltage

25A

2.25A

Turn on

FIG. 3. Dimmers must handle (a) inrush current of the LED lamps or incandescent
bulb as well as (b) repetitive peak current.

occurs when power is applied. LEDs also


experience inrush current when the LED is
turned on (Fig. 3a). The dimmer must also
support repetitive spikes in current (Fig.
3b), which MacAdam said occur 120 times a
second but can have enough energy to damage the dimmer over time. As such, a 600W
dimmer can safely support six 10-20W LED
lamps (phase-control type only), according
to MacAdam.

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60

MARCH 2012

LED current
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Incandescent current
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LED Protection & Assembly Solutions

 Silicone Encapsulants
 Thermally Conductive
Pads & Encapsulants
 Adhesives & Sealants
 Coatings
 Dispensing Systems

b)

DC microgrids
The rise of SSL, along with other DC-based
systems including solar energy panels and
wind energy, has encouraged many parties to pursue a DC-based power grid, that
eliminates inefficient DC/AC and AC/DC
power conversions that waste energy. Brian
Patterson, chairman of the EMerge Alliance,
a member-funded association that promotes
adoption of DC power distribution standards
for commercial buildings, provided an update
of the associations activities at the conference. With the new installations of solar and
wind power and ramp-up of electrical vehicles on the market, an AC/DC hybrid coupled
power network can consume up to 30% less
energy, require 15% less capital and be 200%
more reliable than existing systems, he said.
Patterson talked about the Zero-Energy
Commercial Building Consortium, which
is looking into DC microgrids; these would
eliminate AC/DC conversions at the equipment level, simplify equipment designs and
layouts, provide improved interfaces with
renewable energy sources and save energy.
Our vision is to foster more sustainable
buildings by bringing hybrid AC-DC power
architectures and DC microgrids to occupied spaces, data centers, building services,
and outdoor applications, he said.
Patterson explained that in current solarpowered facilities, the DC power generated
by the photovoltaic cells is converted to AC
at the appropriate level for use. If excess
power needs to be fed back to the grid, it
is reconverted from AC to DC. The Emerge
Alliance proposes direct integration of DC
energy sources, more efficient use of DCbased loads, and plug-and-play reconfigurability of electronics.
The benefits from the lighting perspecLEDsmagazine.com

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SO XHI
20 L BIT
10 D-O FL
& UT OO
20 IN R
1

Presented By:

Conference & Exhibition


18 - 20 September 2012
M.O.C. Event Center
Munich, Germany

BOOK PRIME EXHIBIT SPACE TODAY


Strategies in Light Europe is in its 3rd year of providing a comprehensive conference and
exhibition for the rapidly-growing LED lighting industry. The event offers a platform for the
best networking opportunities and a forum for the sharing of ideas and experiences in the
latest technologies.

2011 Highlights:
 54% increase in registered attendees
 Sold out exhibition floor
 950+ attendees from 52 countries
 300+ Keynote attendees
 74% exhibition space rebooked at the event
Contact a member of our sales team today to book your exhibit space:
Worldwide Sales:
Virginia Willis
T: +44 (0) 1992 656 663
E: virginiaw@pennwell.com

USA East Coast Sales:


Mary Donnelly
T: +1 603 891 9398
E: maryd@pennwell.com

Germany/Switzerland/Austria:
Holger Gerisch
T: +49 (0) 8801 302430
E: holgerg@pennwell.com

USA West Coast Sales:


Tim Carli
T: +1 650 946 3163
E: tcarli@pennwell.com

For further information on Strategies in Light Europe visit www.sileurope.com

www.sileurope.com
Owned and Produced by:

Supported by:

Events:

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Photo courtesy of EMerge Alliance

FIG. 4. This office environment uses solar power, DC electricity and LED lighting fi xtures.

LED Modules COB Shop


Long service lifetime:

50,000 h (L90/B10),
due to ceramic PCB
Highly efcient: 106 lm/W

at tc = 65 C
Narrow colour tolerance

Visit us:

pril 2012,
15. 20. A
tand B50
Hall 4.0, S

www.vossloh-schwabe.com

tive include higher lighting-system efficacy,


a 10% improvement in driver efficiency and
improved driver reliability due to the elimination of high-voltage inductors.
The EMerge Alliance, which currently
has 80 members, is in the process of performing its fi rst microgrid beta-site demonstrations. Fig. 5 shows a reconfi gurable
office space that utilizes DC-based solar
energy to drive LED lighting and controls at
Optima Engineerings facility in Charlotte,
NC. The installation uses free-floating acoustical ceiling clouds that distribute low-voltage DC power to light fi xtures, sensors and
other electronic devices. Lighting controls,
including occupancy sensors and dimmers,
were provided by Sensor Switch, an Acuity
Brand, and Lithonia Lighting, also an Acuity Brand, provided the recessed and track
lighting. The rooms can be easily reconfigured with minimal rewiring.
Ultimately, the EMerge Alliance would
like to combine renewable energy, DC
energy storage and system intelligence to
enable net-zero-energy consumption for all
new commercial buildings by 2030 and netzero-energy consumption for all existing
commercial buildings by 2050.

Outdoor lighting
Carmanahs Ruscheinski focused his talk
on the adoption of solar-powered outdoor

62

MARCH 2012

lighting systems, both street lights and signal


lights, which his company manufactures. He
said that the trend toward distributed energy
capacity supports the adoption of solar-powered outdoor LED lighting.
Ruscheinski presented information based
on a survey of North American municipal
contractors and the reasons that non-users
gave for not purchasing solar-powered street
lights. The top reason was the uncertainty
of battery life and the maintenance related
to solar-powered lights. The second concern
was a lack of industry standards and regulations. The third reason was related to cost and
return on investment.
Ruscheinski called for continued cost
reduction of solar street lights, improved
industry education and standards work,
and lobbying of governments and utilities
for increased funding of solar-powered
lighting systems. He believes that solar
street lights offer a cost-effective alternative to grid-based street lights, particularly in developing countries where grids
are either inaccessible or unreliable. He
discussed the reliability of solar-powered
systems, highlighting a case study where
an earthquake struck Santiago, Chile, just
three months following the installation of
solar-powered street lights in a park. The
park remained illuminated while the entire
city lost grid power.
LEDsmagazine.com

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Face-to-Face with the World

July 31-Aug. 1, 2012

THE

May 22-24, 2012

Second international
event involving
both Chinese & foreign
companies at all levels
of supply chain.

LED
SHOW

Shenzhen Intercontinental Hotel


Shenzhen, China
www.sil-ledchina.com

Our newest event


focused on lighting design.
3,000 attendees and nearly
90 exhibitors.

Rio All Suite Hotel


Las Vegas, NV USA
www.theledshow.com

Sept. 18-20, 2012

Third annual event


with sell-out programs
and exhibit floor
in 2010 and 2011.

M.O.C. Event Center


Munich, Germany
www.sileurope.com

Sept. 25-27, 2012


Record-breaking
attendance 6 years running.
4,600+ attendees in 2012
the largest to date.

Record-breaking
attendance with more
than 5,000 attendees
3-years running.

Pacifico Yokohama
Yokohama, Japan
www.sil-ledjapan.com

Feb. 12-14, 2013

Santa Clara Convention Center


Santa Clara, CA USA
www.strategiesinlight.com

Meet face-to-face with thousands of the worlds most influential and motivated manufacturers,
equipment suppliers, and end-users who come to evaluate products and services and get the
information they need to conduct business within the global LED and lighting industry.
Whether you are a supplier, an LED manufacturer trying to reach new customers,
a designer looking for new product information, or a buyer exploring the latest
technologies, our events can help achieve your objectives.
For more information on exhibiting or sponsoring at ANY of our events, please contact:
United States (West Coast)
Tim Carli, Sales
+1 650 946 3163
tcarli@strategies-u.com

Europe
Virginia Willis, Sales
+44 0 1992 656 663
virginiaw@pennwell.com

Japan
Maiko Kobayashi, Sales
+81 3 3219 3642
led@ics-inc.co.jp

Mainland China
Michael Tsui, Sales
+86 755 259 88571 x1009
michaelT@actintl.com.hk

United States (East Coast)


Mary Donnelly, Sales
+1 603 891 9398
maryd@pennwell.com

Austria/Germany/Switzerland
Holger Gerisch, Sales
+49 0 8856 802 0228
holgerg@pennwell.com

Hong Kong/Asia
Mark Mak, Sales
+852 2838 6298
markm@actintl.com.hk

Singapore/Taiwan
Michael Yee, Sales
+65 9616 8080
yfyee@singnet.com.sg

Presented by:

Supported by:

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last word

ZigBee standards are ready to


support lighting-control applications
The ZigBee building- and home-automation standards support lighting, and
lighting manufacturers should move quickly to support the wireless network,
says MAURY WRIGHT.

wrote a feature article in the last issue of


LEDs Magazine on lighting controls (www.
___
ledsmagazine.com/features/9/2/6),
and
_____________________
lamented the lack of a full standard network
stack for lighting systems. Networks and controls will be very important in the continued
growth of LED-based solid-state lighting
(SSL). It turns out, however, that I was wrong
about ZigBee lacking support for lighting. The
ZigBee Alliance has recently published building- and home-automation standards that
include provisions for lighting control. There
are still a few missing pieces relative to SSL,
but there is no reason that lighting manufactures should hesitate in adding ZigBee support to their products.
The alliance completed version 1.0 of the
ZigBee Building Automation standard back
in September. Moreover, the standard has
been endorsed by the BACnet organization
the group working under ASHRAE (American
Society of Heating Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineers) that defined the BACnet
data-communication protocol for building
automation over wired networks.
My difficulty in assessing the state of ZigBee is the complex structure of the many
different standards and specifications. For
example, I had reviewed the building-automation standard and knew there were basic
capabilities for lighting such as switching a
ZigBee-enabled light on or off, or setting a
dimming level. But I found no concepts for
grouping fi xtures in zones.
I asked Ryan Maley, director of ZigBee
Certified at the alliance, about the concept of zones and groups. He immediately
replied, It is in the network layer standard.

64

MARCH 2012

The building-automation standard relies on


functions embedded in other ZigBee standards. And I knew other documents defined
the lower network layers, but I expected the
logical concept of zones in the applicationlevel automation standard.
It was Daintree Networks that called my
statements about ZigBee into question, and I
discussed some specific lighting features with
them as well. For example, I couldnt find any
mention of the ability to monitor temperature
in fi xtures in the lighting portion of the automation standards. Such measurements may
be a key to product longevity given the sensitivity of LEDs to hot environments.
Jason Choong, Daintree chief solution
architect and vice president of product management, pointed out that there is a command cluster defined in the ZigBee Cluster Library Specification that defines how to
implement temperature readings across all
product types. Likewise you wont find the
cluster used to measure device power in the
building-automation standard.
There are elements of the automation
spec that are more focused on legacy lighting than SSL. For example, there is a specific
defi nition of how to measure time since a
lamp was changed. There is not an explicit
definition of how to deal with an integrated
luminaire without a replaceable lamp where
you might want to know how many hours
the luminaire has been powered on, or how
much time has elapsed since a driver was
replaced. The defi nition of dimming in the
standard is also focused more on legacy
lighting that doesnt dim linearly, but you
can work around that issue.

Choong and Maley pointed out that you


can use manufacturer-defined commands for
special features. Moreover, the standard will
be regularly updated as deployments uncover
deficiencies in the document relative to SSL
or any issue.
I was also mistaken about the intent of
another ZigBee standard under development
called ZigBee Light Link. That standard is
focused on SSL, but its not intended for installations with robust home- or building-automation systems. Instead its targeted at simple plug-and-play connections between say a
remote control and an LED lamp or luminaire.
My second look at the status of ZigBee has
me convinced that the technology is ready
for prime time. Daintreee says that in fact
its ControlScope product family is fully ZigBee compliant.
Still as things stand now, there are missing pieces. Today you still have to use a dedicated ZigBee controller mated with an
LED luminaire to realize a workable system. What is missing is luminaires that
have native ZigBee support integrated into
the product. Actually, the lighting makers
are likely to support ZigBee with some type
of modular controller that buyers can specify as an option, and that costs extra. But
even that type of add-on is missing for now.
I will be looking closely at Zigbee technology at Lightfair. I want to see if there evidence
of support. I dont see an imminently available
alternative, so I would hope that the industry
moves to adopt ZigBee and in doing so helps
proliferate SSL. Meanwhile we hope to present
a comprehensive contributed article on applying ZigBee to lighting soon.
LEDsmagazine.com

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