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HISTOLOGY

(BLOOD)
Class of 2016 Section C

CELL TYPES

ERYTHROCYTES (RBC)
biconcave shape
center often look
lighter than their
periphery

LEUCOCYTES
(WBC)
Granulocytes
(Neutrophil, Eosinophil, Basophil)

GENERAL CHARACTERISTICS
Polymorphonucleated with a two to eight lobed
nucleus.
Lobes of the nucleus are connected by thin
strands of chromatin.
Cytoplasm is acidophilic and contains specific
granules. These granules have a size and stain
affinity which allows the granulocytes to be
placed into categories.
Also referred to as myeloid cells due to their
exclusive origin from the bone marrow.

NEUTROPHIL

Barr body

Highly lobulated nucleus


(3 to 8 lobes)
Granules are pale staining
(neutral)
12 to 14 um in diameter.
Most common: 60% of
the circulating leukocytes.
A phagocyte, it plays a
primary role in
inflammation

NEUTROPHIL
3 types of granules:
o Primary granules
(azurophilic granules)
o Secondary granules
(specific for
neutrophils)
o Tertiary granules
(contain enzymes(

EOSINOPHIL
Have a bilobed nucleus
The granules are richly
eosinophilic (acidophilic).
About 12 to 17um in
diameter.
Rare circulating leukocyte
(1-6%)
Their functions are
associated with allergic
reactions and parasitic
infections.

EOSINOPHIL

BASOPHIL
2-3 nuclear lobes (not well defined)
Specific granules of basophils are
stained deeply bluish or reddishviolet
About 12 to 15 um in diameter.
Less than 1% of the circulating
leukocytes
They have a purely secretory
function. The contents of their
granules function in inflammatory,
immune and hypersensitivity
reactions
Contains heparin, histamine,
lysosomal enzymes and
leukotrienes

BASOPHIL

LEUCOCYTES
(WBC)
Agranulocytes
(Lymphocytes, Monocytes)

GENERAL CHARACTERISTICS
Mononuclear leucocytes (non-lobulated
nuclei)
Cytoplasmic granules were not readily seen
with early microscopic methods (give the
erroneous impression that these cells are
devoid of cytoplasmic granules)

LYMPHOCYTE
Nucleus is round and surrounded
by a narrow rim of cytoplasm
Second most numerous leukocyte
in the circulation (25%).
Smallest cells in WBC series
Functionally, the lymphocytes fall
into two categories:
o B lymphocytes responsible
for antibody formation
o T lymphocytes - responsible
for contact destruction of
foreign tissues,
hypersensitivity reactions and
cancer cell detection and
destruction.

LYMPHOCYTE

MONOCYTE
Large cells, about 20 um in
diameter.
Nucleus is off center and
indented, C-shaped, or
kidney-shaped.
Voracious phagocytes and
become highly activated
after making contact with
foreign antigen.
About 2-10% of the
circulating leukocytes
Plays a crucial role in
inflammatory and immune
responses.

MONOCYTE

HAEMOPOIESIS
Erythropoiesis
Granulopoiesis
Thrombopoiesis

Monopoiesis
Lymphopoiesis

ERYTHROPOIESIS
Red Blood Cell Formation

PROERYTHROBLAST
Pronormoblast
Cytoplasm
o Abundant RER
o Light blue to deep
clumps in pale grayish
blue background
Nucleus
o 80% of cell; spherical,
center
o Fine chromatin network
o Burgundly red nucleus
with nucleoli

BASOPHILIC NORMOBLAST
Basophilic Normoblast or Early
Normoblast
Has chromatin, clock-face pattern
Hb already synthesized but
cytoplasm is still blue
Cytoplasm:
o Highly basophilic
o Bluish clumps in pale blue
cytoplasm
Nucleus:
o 75%
o Coarse chromatin; Clock-face
pattern

POLYCHROMATIC NORMOBLAST
Intermediate Normoblast
Cytoplasm
o significant
Hemoglobin ->
grayish pink
Nucleus
o 50% - Checkerboard
chromatin; no
nucleulos

ORTHOCHROMATIC NORMOBLAST
Late normoblast
Low nucleus-cytoplasmic
ratio: 25%
Cytoplasm
o Pinkish with a slight
tinge of blue
o Paucity of degenerating
organelles
Nucleus
o Eccentric, pyknotic
(heterochromatic)
o In process of being
extruded

RETICULOCYTE
Prematurely enters
blood & complete cycle
Cytoplasm
o Bluish reticulum is
evident (due to rER)
o Looks like RBC but
have different
colors, with the
presence of dots
Nucleus: Absent

REMEMBER!
Cell size can aid in the
identification of the
different stages of
erythropoiesis.
P - Proerythroblast
B - Basophilic
Erythroblast
L - Polychromatic
Erythroblast
O - Orthochromatic
Erythroblast
E - Erythrocyte

GRANULOPOEISIS
Granulocyte Formation

For the sake of completeness, all stages


indicated in this diagram would be
discussed in this Laboratory Transcription.
However, not all stages were discussed in
the Lecture Transcription and some
references state that they dont even
exist. Kayo na bahala sa gusto niyong
aralin. Hahaha. <3

A reference that supports the absence of


band forms in eosinophil and basophil.

MYELOBLAST
Earliest recognizable stage
Pre-cursor of all granulocyte
lineage
Cytoplasm
o Scanty; moderately basophilic
o NO GRANULES
o no ducts
o small blue clumps in lt. blue
background
o cytoplasmic blebs
Nucleus
o Round, reddish blue
o Lumped & coarser chromatin
o Capable of mitosis

NEUTROPHIL LINEAGE

NEUTROPHILIC PROMYELOCYTE
Cytoplasm
o contains azurophilic
granules
Nucleus
o slight chromatin
condensation
o less prominent nucleoli
Normally, they are not present
in the peripheral blood.

This stage was not included in Dr. Tolentinos


lecture based on the upper batch transcription.

NEUTROPHILIC MYELOCYTE
Cytoplasm
o More abundant
o Contains secondary granules
o Denser Azurophilic granules
o More granules seen at the
periphery
Nucleus
o Round-oval, often flattened
on one side
o Cromatin: clumping, coarse;
no indistinct nucleolus
Normally, they are not present in
the peripheral blood.

NEUTROPHILIC METAMYELOCYTE
Same size as neutrophil
Cytoplasm
o Fewer azurophilic granules
o Many secondary granules
Nucleus
o Kidney-shaped
o Relatively dense chromatin
specially along the nuclear
membrain

Zero to one percent of the


peripheral blood white cells
may be metamyelocytes
(juveniles).

NEUTROPHILIC STAB CELL


Also known as Neutrophilic Band
Form
Cytoplasm
o Pink violet; acidophilic
cytoplasm
o Secondary granules outnumber
azurophilic granules
Nucleus
o S or U-shaped
o Opposite sides of lobes are
roughly equal size or diameter

Neutrophil
Neutrophilic
Stab Cell

Neutrophilic
Metamyelocyte
Neutrophilic
Myelocyte

EOSINOPHILIC LINEAGE

There are stages na wala kong mahanap na description. And medyo sabog ung
Eosinophilic and Basophilic Lineage. Sorry. Yan lang ung inabot ng time and
research powers ko. :\ Godbless sa pag-aaral ng part na to.

EOSINOPHILIC PROMYELOCYTE

This stage was not included in Dr. Tolentinos lecture based on the upper batch transcription.

EOSINOPHILIC MYELOCYTE
Cytoplasm
o With spherical eosinophilic
granules that are larger
compared to those of neutrophils
o Eosinophil granules pack the
cytoplasm and stain reddishorange
o May have some granules with
basophilic staining characteristics
Nucleus
o Oval and sometimes has a slight
indentation in one side
Not typically seen in peripheral blood

EOSINOPHILIC METAMYELOCYTE
Neutrophil Band Form

Cytoplasm
o Granulated
Nucleus
o Forms lobes

EOSINOPHILIC STAB CELL

This stage was not included in Dr. Tolentinos lecture based on the upper batch transcription. In
addition, based on the transcription Eosinophilic lineage does not have a stab cell/band form stage.

BASOPHILIC LINEAGE

BASOPHILIC PROMYELOCYTE

This stage was not included in Dr. Tolentinos lecture based on the upper batch transcription.

BASOPHILIC MYELOCYTE
Similar to Eosinophilic
Myelocyte but
cytoplasm more
basophilic

BASOPHILIC METAMYELOCYTE

Similar to Eosinophilic
Metamyelocyte but
cytoplasm more
basophilic

THROMBOPOIESIS
MEGAKARYOPOIESIS
Platelet Formation

MEGAKARYOBLAST
Cytoplasm
o Homogenous
o Intensely basophilic due to
numerous ribosome
Nucleus
o Slightly indented
o Loose chromatin,
inconspicuous nucleoli
Undergo Endomitosis
(incomplete type of mitosis:
no cytokinesis)

MEGAKARYOCYTE
Cytoplasm
o Lesser basophilic
o With azurophilic granules
Nucleus
o Multilobulated
o Coarse Chromatin

PLATELET
Smallest particle in
the blood
Lack nuclei
Consist of basophilic
cytoplasm and tiny
azurophilic granules

MONOPOIESIS

Monocyte Formation

LYMPHOPOIESIS

Lymphocyte Formation

MONOBLAST
Decreased
Nucleus:Cytoplasm
Ratio
Scanty cytoplasm
with Azurophilic
granules
Resembles
myeloblasts but
nucleus is more
indented

PROMONOCYTE
Cytoplasm

o Paler with finer granules


o Moderately basophilic
cytoplasm which is
granulated and
vacuolated
o More prominent
azurophilic granules than
monocytes
Nucleus
o Large indented, lobulated

LYMPHOBLAST
Large cell, spherical
Nuclear: Cytoplamic Ratio: 6:1
Cytoplasm

o No azurophilic granules
Nucleus
o Large nucleus
o Visible nucleoli
o Highly dispersed chromatin

PROLYMPHOCYTE
Slightly smaller than
lymphoblast
Presence of azurophilic
granules
Denser, coarser
chromatin

ADDITIONAL PHOTOS

1. Promyelocyte
2. Metamyelocyte
3. Eosinophilic metamyelocyte
4. Monocyte

1. Promyelocyte
2. Metamyelocyte
3. Band form

1. Metamyelocyte
2. Promyelocyte

1. Myeloblast
2. Promyelocyte
3. Eosinophilic myelocyte
4. Lymphocyte

1. Plasma cell
2. Promyelocyte
3. Pronormoblast

1. Metamyelocyte
2. Orthochromatic normoblast
3. Polychromatic normoblast

3. Polychromatic normoblast
4. Plasma cell

Most of the cells from this stage are neutrophilic since neutrophils are the most
numerous type of mature granulocyte. Cells in the myelocyte stage may also have clear
halo bordering the indentation of the nucleus representative of an extensive Golgi
apparatus.

29. Neutrophilic myelocyte


30. Polychromatophilic erythroblast
31. Neutrophilic metamyelocyte or stab cell
32. Basophilic erythroblast

30. Basophilic metamyelocyte


31. Neutrophilic metamyelocyte
32. Stab cell

Book Reference
Young, B. Heath, J. (2001). Wheaters
Functional Histology (4th Ed.). USA: Churchill
Livingstone.

List of Internet Links


Mixed topics
o http://www.histology.leeds.ac.uk/blood/index.p
hp
o http://www.histology-world.com/photoalbum/
o http://www.mclno.org/webresources/kbase/cell
atlas/index.html
o http://faculty.une.edu/com/abell/histo/histolab
3a.htm
o http://www.downstate.edu/histology_lab_manu
al/06_hematopoiesis_1.html

List of Internet Links


Granulopoiesis
o http://www.meded.virginia.edu/courses/path/innes/nh/wcbmaturati
on.cfm
o http://alebda.yoo7.com/?pid=5&sid=74c931278c22
4efe4ead293a4e16b4fc
o http://www.hematologyatlas.com/maturationseq.ht
m
o http://pathy.med.nagoyau.ac.jp/atlas/doc/node7.html
o http://allaboutblood.com/2011/06/04/morphologyof-myeloid-precurssors/

List of Internet Links


RBC and WBC
o http://www.lab.anhb.uwa.edu.au/mb140/cor
epages/blood/blood.htm#Blood
o http://faculty.ucc.edu/biologypotter/blood_histology.htm
Erythropoiesis:
http://www.tau.ac.il/~inter05/eryt.htm
Thrombopoiesis
o http://www.tau.ac.il/~inter05/throm.htm

Online Quizzes
http://www.biomed.ucf.edu/histology/quizzes
/published/Quiz8b-Hematopoiesis.html
http://www.histologyworld.com/quizlinks/quizlinks11j.htm
http://www.histologyworld.com/quizlinks/quizlinks8a.htm
http://medinfo.ufl.edu/year1/histo/quiz/mh1
0.html

FIN.
Godbless everyone! :D