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INTRODUCTION

A water tank is used to store water to tide over the daily requirements. In general,

water tanks can be classified under three heads : (i) tanks resting on ground (ii) elevated

tanks supported on staging, and (iii) underground tanks. From the shape point of view,

water tanks may be of several types, such as (i) circular tanks (ii) rectangular tanks (iii)

spherical tanks (iv) Intze tanks and (v) circular tanks with conical bottoms.

In the construction of concrete structures for the storage of water and other liquids,

the imperviousness of concrete is most essential. The permeability of any uniform and

thoroughly compacted concrete of given mix proportions is mainly dependent on the

water-cement ratio.

The increase in water-cement ratio results in increase in the permeability. The decrease

in water-cement ratio will therefore be desirable to decrease the permeability, but very

much reduced water-cement ratio may cause compaction difficulties and prove to be

harmful also.

For a given mix made with particular materials, there is a lower limit to the water-cement

ratio which can be used economically on any job. It is essential to select a richness of

mix compatible with available aggregates, whose particle shape and grading have an

important bearing on workability, which must be suited to the means of compaction

selected. Efficient compaction preferably by vibration is essential. It .is desirable to

specify cement content sufficiently high to ensure that thorough compaction is obtainable

while maintaining a sufficiently low water-cement ratio. The quantity of cement should

not be less than 330 kg/m3 of concrete. It should also be less than 530 kg/m3 of concrete

to keep the shrinkage low.

In thicker sections, where a reduction in cement content might be desirable to restrict the

temperature rise due to cement hydration, a lower cement content is usual\;' permissible.

It is usual to use rich mix like M 30 grade in most of the water tanks.

Design of liquid retaining structure has to be based on the avoidance of cracking

in the concrete having regard to its tensile strength. It has to be ensured in its design

that concrete does not crack on its water face. Cracking may also result from the restraint

to shrinkage, free expansion and contraction of concrete due to temperature and

shrinkage and swelling due to moisture effects. Correct placing of reinforcement, use of

small sized bars and use of deformed bars lead to a diffused distribution of cracks. The

risk of cracking due to overall temperature and shrinkage effects may be minimized by

limiting the changes in moisture content and temperature to which the structure as a

whole is subjected. Cracks can be prevented by avoiding the use of thick timber

shuttering which prevent the easy escape of heat of hydration from the concrete mass.

The risk of cracking can also be minimized by reducing the restraints on the free

expansion or contraction of the structure.

For long walls or slabs founded at or below the ground level, restraints can be minimized

by founding the structure on a flat layer of concrete with interposition of slidhlg layer

of some material to break the bond and facilitate movement. However, it should be

recognized that common and more serious causes of leakage in practice, other than

cracking, are defects such as segregation and honey combing and in particular all joidts

are potential source of leakage.

CODE OF PRACTICE (IS: 3370 - Part IT, 1965)

1. Plain Concrete Stmctures : Plain concrete members of reinfored concrete liquid

structures may be designed against structural failure by allowing tension in plain concrete

as per the permissible limits for tension in bending specified in IS : 456 - 2000 (i. e.,

permissible stress in tension in bending may be taken to be the same as permissible stress

in shear, q measured as inclined tension). This will automatically take care of failure due

to

cracking. However, nominal reinforcement in accordance with the requirements of IS :

456

shall be provided for plain concrete structural members.

2. Permissible Stresses in concrete

(a) For resistance to cracking: Indian Standard Code IS: 456-2000 does not specify

the permissible stresses in concrete for its resistance to cracking. However, its earlier

version

(IS : 456-1964) included the permissible stresses in direct tension, bending tension and

shear. These values are given in Table below. The permissible tensile stresses due to

bending

apply to the face of the member in contact with the liquid. In members with thickness

less than 225 mm and in contact with the liquid on one side, these permissible stresses

PERMISSIBLE CONCRETE STRESSES IN CALCULATIONS RELATING

TO RESISTANCE TO CRACKING

(b) For strength calculations : In strength calculations the usual permissible stresses,

in accordance with IS : 456-2000 are used. Where the calculated shear stress

in concrete above exceeds the permissible value, reinforcement acting in conjunction

with diagonal compression in concrete shall be provided to take the whole of the shear.

3. Permissible Stresses in Steel Reinforcement

(a) For resistance to cracking: When steel and concrete are assumed to act

together for checking the tensile stresses in concrete for avoidance of cracking the tensile

stresses in steel will be limited by the requirement that the permissible tensile stress in

concrete is not exceeded so that tensile stresses in steel shall be 'equal to the product

of modular ratio of steel and concrete, and the corresponding allowable tensile stress

in concrete.

(b) For strength calculations : Though the Indian Standard Code IS : 456 had

its fourth revision in 2000, the corresponding Codes IS : 3370 (Part I, II, III and IV)

for concrete structures for the storage of liquids have not been revised since 1965. The

main Code on concrete-IS: 456 is in SI units. However, the fourth reprint (May 1982)

of IS : 3370 (Part 11)-1965 incorporates the amendment regarding the permissible

stresses in steel reinforcement. The revised values of permissible stresses are given in

Table. Converted into SI units, using the approximation 10 kg/cm2

= 1 N/mm2

Note. Stress limitations for liquid retammg faces shall also apply to the following:

(a) Other faces within 225 mm of the liquid retaining face.

(b) Outside or external faces of structures away from the liquid but placed in waterlogged soils upto the level of highest subsoil water.

4. Stresses due to drying shrinkage or temperature change

Stresses due to drying shrinkage or temperature change may be ignored provided

(a) The permissible stresses specified for concrete and steel

Respectively are not exceeded.

(b) Adequate precautions are taken to avoid cracking of concrete during the construction

period and until the reservoir is put into use.

(c) The recommendations as regards the provision of joint and for suitable sliding

layer (see 21.3) are complied with, or the reservoir is to be used only for the storage

of water or aqueous liquids at or near ambient temperature and the circumstances are

such that the concrete will never dry out.

(ii) Shrinkage stresses may, however, be required to be calculated in special case,

when a shrinkage coefficient of 300 x 10-6 may be assumed.

(iii) When the shrinkage stresses are allowed, the permissible stresses, tensile stresses

in concrete (direct and bending) as given in Table 21.1 may be increased by 33 ~ percent.

(iv) Where reservoirs are protected with an internal impermeable lining, consideration

should be given to the possibility of concrete eventually drying out. Unless it is

established

on the basis of tests or experience that the lining has adequate crack bridging properties,

allowance for the increased effect of drying shrinkage should be made in the design.

S. Steel Reinforcement

(a) Minimum reinforcement : (i) The minimum reinforcement in walls, floors and

roofs in each of the two directions at right angles shall have an area of 0.3 percent

of the concrete section in that direction for sections upto 100 mm thickness. For sections

of thickness greater than 100 mm and less than 450 mm the minimum reinforcement in

each of the two directions shall be linearly reduced from 0.3 percent for 100 mm thick

section to 0.2 percent for 450 mm, minimum reinforcement in each of the two directions

shall be kept at 0.2 percent. In concrete sections of thickness 225 mm or greater, two

layers of reinforcing bars shall be placed one near each face of the section to make up

the minimum reinforcement specified above.

(ii) In special circumstances, floor slabs resting directly on the ground may be constructed

with percentage of reinforcement less than that specified above. In no case the percentage

of reinforcement in any member be less than 0.15 % of the concrete section.

(b) Minimum cover to reinforcement : (i) For liquid faces of parts of members

either in contact with the liquid or enclosing the space above the liquid (such as inner

faces of slab), the minimum cover to all reinforcement should be 25 mm or the diameter

of the main bar, whichever is greater. In the presence of sea water and soils and water

of corrosive character the cover should be increased by 12 mm but this additional cover

shall not be taken into account for design calculations.

(ii) For faces away from the liquid and for parts of the structure neither in contact

with the liquid on any face nor enclosing the face above the liquid, the cover should

be the same as provided for other reinforced concrete sections.

21.3. JOINTS IN WATER TANKS

The various types of joints may be categorized under three heads :

(a) Movement joints (b) Constructions joints (c) Temporary open joints.

(a) Movement joints : These require the incorporation of special materials in order

to maintain water-tightness while accommodating relative movement between the side of

the joints. All movement joints are essentially flexible joints. Movement joints are of

three types

(l) Contraction joint (ii) Expansion joint (iii) Sliding joint.

(I) Contraction joint : A contraction joint is a typical movement joint which

accommodates the contraction of the concrete. The joint may be either a complete

contraction joint in which there is discontinuity of both concrete and steel, or it may be

partial contraction joint in which there is discontinuity of concrete but the reinforcements

run through the joint . In both cases, no initial gap is kept at the joint, but only

discontinuity is given during construction. In the former type, a water bar is inserted

while in the later type, the mouth of the joint is filled with joint sealing compound and

then strip painted. A water bar is a pre-formed strip of impermeable material (such as a

metal,

polyvinyl chloride or rubber). Joint sealing compounds are unpermeable initial gap

ductile materials which are required to provide a water-tight seal by adhesion

to the concrete throughout the range of joint movement. The commonly used materials

are based on asphalt, bitumen, or coal tar pitch with or without fillers such as limestone

or slate dust, asbestos fibre, chopped hemp, rubber or other suitable material. These are

usually applied after construction or just before the reservoir is put into service by

pouring in the hot or cold state, by trowelling or gunning or as preformed strips ironed

into position.

(il) Expansion joint : It is a movement joint with complete discontinuity

in both reinforcement and concrete, and is intended to accommodate

either expansion or contraction of the structure. In general such a joint requires the

provision of an initial gap between the adjoining parts of a structure which by closing or

opening accommodates the expansion or contraction of the structure.

The initial gap is filled with a joint filler. Joint fillers are usually compressible sheet or

strip materials used as spacers. They are fixed to the face of the first placed concrete

and against which the second placed concrete is cast. With an initial gap of 30 mm,

the maximum expansion or contraction that the filler materials may allow may be of the

order of 10 mm. Joint fillers, as at present available cannot by themselves function as

water-tight expansion joints. But they can only be relied upon as spacers to provide the

gap in an expansion joint when the gap is bridged by a water bar.

(iil) Sliding joint : Sliding joint is a movement joint with complete discontinuity in

both reinforcement and concrete at which special provision is made to facilitate relative

3 Construction joints

at which special measures are taken to achieve subsequent continuity without provision

for further relative movement. It is, therefore, a rigid joint in contrast to a movement joint

which is a flexible joint. Fig. Shows a typical construction joint between successive lifts

in a reservoir wall. The position and arrangement of all construction joints should be

predetermined by the engineer. Consideration should be given to limiting the number of

such joints and to keeping them free' from possibility of percolation in a manner similar

to contraction joints.

Temporary open joints

A temporary open joint is a gap temporarily left parts of a structure which after Initial

gap a suitable interval and before the later filled with concrete structure is put into use,

is filled with mortar or concrete completely or as provided below, with the inclusion of

suitable jointing material . In the former case the width of gap should be sufficient to

allow the sides to be prepared before filling. Where measures are taken for example, by

the inclusion of suitable joining materials to maintain the water-tightness of the concrete

subsequent to the filling of the joint, this type of joint may be regarded as being

equivalent to a contraction joint (partial or complete) as defined

When water is filled in circular tank, the hydrostatic water pressure will try to increase

its diameter at any section. However, this increase in the diameter all along the height

of the tank will depend upon the nature of the joint at the junction B of the wall and

bottom slab. If the joint at B is flexible (i.e. sliding joint), it will be free to move

outward to a position B1 The hydrostatic pressure at A is zero, and hence there will be

no change in the diameter at A. The hydrostatic pressure at B will be maximum, resulting

in the maximum increase in diameter there, and hence maximum movement at B if the

joint is'

I.S. CODE METHOD FOR CIRCULAR TANKS

Indian Standard Code IS : 3370 (Part IV)-1967, gives design Tables for moment

and hoop tension in circular tanks for various conditions of joint and various types of

loading. However, we shall describe here the case of rigid joint between the wall and

the base slab, subjected to triangular distributed water pressure. Table gives the

coefficient for tension at various height in the wall for various values of H2/DT ratio. The

tension is given by the following expression :

Tension = coefficient x w H D per metre

Table gives the coefficients for bending moment at various heights in the wall

for various values of H2/DT ratio. The moment is given by following expression :

Moment= = coefficient X wH 2 N-m/m

The shear at the base of cylindrical wall for the case of triangular

determined from the following expression :

Shear = coefficient x w H 2 kN

where the coefficient can be taken from Table

COEFFICIENTS FOR SHEAR AT THE BASE

Example determine the maximum hoop tension and its position, moment at the base and

shear at the base using /.S. Code tables. Assume thickness of wall as 160 mm.

Thickness T= 160 mmH2

Hence H2 = 42

= 10

DT

10x 0.16

0.6 H = 2.4 m from top, and coefficient may be taken as 0.608. Hence maximum tension

= 0.608 x w H D/2 = 0.608 x 9800 x 4 x 10/2= 119168 N. For exact location of

maximum tension and its magnitude, the values of tension all along the height can be

plotted by coefficients from Table. From the curve so obtained maximum value can be

found.

H2

From Table for H2/ D T = 10 , the moment coefficient for base (1.0 H) is found

to be - 0.0122 (minus sign indicating tension at the inner face).

Moment = 0.0122 x w H3 = 0.0122 x 9800 (4)3 = 7652 N-m/m.

H2

From Table , for D T = 10, the coefficient for shear is found to be 0.158.

Hence shear = 0.158 x w H2 = 0.158 x 9800 (4)2 = 24774 N (acting inward)

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