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Linear Programming: The Simplex Method l CHAPTER 9

TRUE/FALSE
9.1

A basic feasible solution is a solution to a linear programming problem that corresponds to a


corner point of the feasible region.

*9.2

A surplus variable is added to a constraint in order to create an equality, and represents a


quantity of unused resource.

9.3

A surplus variable is added to an constraint in order to utilize the simplex algorithm.

9.4

If all of a resource represented by a slack variable is used, that slack variable will not be in the
production mix column of a linear programming simplex tableau.

9.5

Even if an LP problem involves many variables, an optimal solution will always be found at a
corner point of the n-dimensional polyhedron forming the feasible region.

9.6

A correctly formulated linear program, when solved with the simplex algorithm, will always yield a
single optimal solution.

*9.7

Unlike the Solver algorithm, Simplex will only produce a single solution even if multiple solutions
exist.

*9.8

Surplus variables, like slack variables, carry a zero cost.

9.9

The constraint 5X1 + 6X2 30, when converted to an = constraint for use in the simplex algorithm,
will be 5 X1 + 6 X2 S + A = 30.

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Linear Programming: The Simplex Method l CHAPTER 9

9.10

The constraint 5 X1 + 6 X2 30, when converted to an = constraint for use in the simplex
algorithm, will be 5 X1 + 6 X2 S = 30.

9.11

The constraint 5 X1 + 6 X2 = 30, when converted to an = constraint for use in the simplex
algorithm, will be 5 X1 + 6 X2 + M = 30.

9.12

Linear programming has few applications in the real world due to the assumption of certainty in
the data and relationships of a problem.

9.13

Typically, real world applications of linear programming are solved with a computer program that
utilizes the simplex algorithm.

9.14

The basic process of the simplex algorithm is to find solutions to a set of simultaneous equations
where we have more variables than equations.

9.15

It is possible for an equation in the simplex table to have both a slack and a surplus variable at the
same time.

9.16

In the simplex table, a coefficient of zero in a constraint implies that the variable with the zero
coefficient has no influence on the solution for that iteration.

9.17

The simplex method considers both feasible and infeasible solutions.

9.18

The simplex method finds a solution by solving for the intersection of two constraints.

9.19

When the optimal solution is found, all slack and surplus variables have a value of zero.

9.20

The numbers in the body of the simplex table may be thought of as the solutions.

9.21

If there are seven less-than-or-equal constraints in a problem, the simplex table contains seven
slack variables.

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Linear Programming: The Simplex Method l CHAPTER 9

9.22

For a maximization problem, the Zj values in the body of the simplex table represent the gross
profit given up by adding one unit of this variable into the current solution.

9.23

In a maximization problem, the Cj - Zj row gives the net loss from introducing one unit of each
variable into the solution.

9.24

The first step in the simplex solution process is to determine the variable(s) that leave the solution.

9.25

In the simplex process, the new pivot row is found by dividing the pivot number by each number in
the row.

9.26

If a variable is part of the solution, its column in the body of the simplex table will have a single
nonzero coefficient.

9.27

The Cj - Zj row in the simplex table tells us whether the current solution is optimal, and if it is not,
what variable will be in the optimal solution.

9.28

If a linear programming problem has only two decision variables, the optimal solution will be
found in the second simplex tableau.

9.29

In a maximization problem, if a variable is to enter the solution, it must have a positive coefficient
in the Cj - Zj row.

9.30

All variables in a linear programming problem (real, slack, surplus, or artificial) must be
nonnegative.

9.31

Artificial variables can be used in both maximization and minimization problems.

9.32

Artificial variables are most often used in minimization problems.

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Linear Programming: The Simplex Method l CHAPTER 9

9.33

In any linear programming problem, if a variable is to enter the solution, it must have a positive
coefficient in the Cj - Zj row.

9.34

We can solve a minimization problem by maximizing the negative of the minimization problem's
objective function.

9.35

An infeasible solution is indicated when all the Cj - Zj row entries are of the proper sign to imply
optimality, but an artificial variable remains in the solution.

9.36

If all the numbers in the pivot column are negative, this implies that the solution is unbounded.

9.37

As we are doing the ratio calculations for a simplex iteration, if there is a tie for the smallest ratio,
the problem is degenerate.

9.38

If, at an optimal solution, the Cj - Zj value for a real variable that is not in the solution mix has a
value of one, there are multiple optimal solutions.

9.39

A major limitation of the simplex method is that it cannot be used to perform sensitivity analysis.

9.40

In a maximization problem, the solution is optimal so long as all Cj - Zj 0.

9.41

Sensitivity testing of basic variables involves reworking the initial simplex tableau.

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Linear Programming: The Simplex Method l CHAPTER 9

9.42

The shadow price is the value of one additional unit of a scarce resource.

9.43

Shadow prices are the negatives of the numbers in the Cj - Zj row's slack variable columns.

9.44

Dual variables represent the potential value of resources.

9.45

The dual problem formulation can be solved using the same simplex process used for the primal
formulation.

*9.46

A change in the objective function coefficient of a basic variable can affect the Cj Zj values of all
basic variables.

*9.47

The basic process of the simplex algorithm is to find solutions to a set of simultaneous equations
where we have fewer variables than equations.

*9.48

In a maximization problem, if a variable is to enter the solution, it must have a negative coefficient
in the Cj - Zj row.

*9.49

As we are doing the ratio calculations for a simplex iteration, if there is a tie for the largest ratio,
the problem is degenerate.

*9.50

Slack and surplus variables are used in Simplex only for the solution of maximization problems.

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Linear Programming: The Simplex Method l CHAPTER 9

MULTIPLE CHOICE
9.51

The Cj Zj row of a simplex tableau gives


(a) the number of units of each basic variable that must be removed from the solution if a new
variable is entered.
(b) the gross profit or loss given up by adding one unit of a variable into the solution.
(c) the net profit or loss that will result from introducing one unit of the variable indicated in that
column into the solution.
(d) the maximal value a variable can take on and still have all the constraints satisfied.
(e) none of the above

9.52

The substitution rates give


(a) the number of units of each basic variable that must be removed from the solution if a new
variable is entered.
(b) the gross profit or loss given up by adding one unit of a variable into the solution.
(c) the net profit or loss that will result from introducing one unit of the variable indicated in that
column into the solution.
(d) the maximal value a variable can take on and still have all the constraints satisfied.
(e) none of the above

9.53

The contribution rate, Cj, gives


(a) the number of units of each basic variable that must be removed from the solution if a new
variable is entered.
(b) the gross profit or loss given up by adding one unit of a variable into the solution.
(c) the net profit or loss that will result from introducing one unit of the variable indicated in that
column into the solution.
(d) the maximal value a variable can take on and still have all the constraints satisfied.
(e) none of the above

9.54

In applying the simplex solution procedure to a maximization problem to determine which variable
enters the solution mix
(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)
(e)

9.55

pick the one with the smallest Cj Zj.


pick the one with the largest Cj Zj.
pick the one with the largest Cj.
pick the one with the smallest Zj.
pick the smallest nonnegative number formed by dividing each amount in the quantity column
by the appropriate column at the exiting variable.

The number 2 in the X2 column and X1 row of a simplex tableau implies that
(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)
(e)

if 1 unit of X2 is added to the solution, X1 will decrease by 2.


if 1 unit of X1 is added to the solution, X2 will decrease by 2.
if 1 unit of X2 is added to the solution, X1 will increase by 2.
if 1 unit of X1 is added to the solution, X2 will increase by 2.
none of the above
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Linear Programming: The Simplex Method l CHAPTER 9

9.56

Which of the following is not true of artificial variables:


(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)
(e)

9.57

If, in the optimal tableau of a linear programming problem, an artificial variable is present in the
solution mix, this implies
(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)
(e)

9.58

They are used to convert constraint inequalities to equations.


They represent unused resources.
They require the addition of an artificial variable.
They may represent machine time, labor hours, or warehouse space.
They yield no profit.

Basic variables in the simplex method of linear programming are


(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)
(e)

9.61

feasibility.
unboundedness.
degeneracy.
alternate optimal solutions.
none of the above

Which of the following is not true about slack variables in a simplex tableau?
(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)
(e)

9.60

infeasibility.
unboundedness.
degeneracy.
alternate optimal solutions.
a finite optimal solution.

If, in the final optimal simplex tableau, the Cj Zj value for a basic variable is zero, this implies
(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)
(e)

9.59

They have no meaning in a physical sense nothing more than a computational tool.
In all linear programs, they appear in the objective function with a very low cost ($M).
They are usually used with constraints.
They are usually used with = constraints.
none of the above

variables in the solution mix.


variables not in the solution mix.
the real variables in the initial solution.
the slack variables in the optimum solution.
always the slack, surplus, and artificial variables.

The following is not true for the net profit row of the simplex method for linear programming:
(a) It contains shadow prices.

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Linear Programming: The Simplex Method l CHAPTER 9

(b) The values under the slack columns may be viewed as the potential increase in profit if one
more unit of that resource was made available.
(c) An optimum solution has been reached when there are no positive numbers.
(d) It may indicate the existence of more than one optimal solution.
(e) Initially, the values under the slack values columns will be positive numbers.
9.62

In solving a linear programming minimization problem using the simplex method,


(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)
(e)

9.63

every time an artificial variable is added, a surplus variable must also be added.
every time an artificial variable is added, a surplus variable must be subtracted.
every time a surplus variable is added, an artificial variable must be added.
every time a surplus variable is added, an artificial variable must be subtracted.
none of the above

In using the simplex method for minimization linear programming problems,


(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)
(e)

an optimal solution is reached when the Cj Zj row values are negative.


the pivot column is selected by the smallest positive number in the Cj Zj row.
the pivot column is selected by the most negative number in the Cj Zj row.
the pivot column is selected by the smallest negative number in the Zj row.
none of the above

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Linear Programming: The Simplex Method l CHAPTER 9

9.64

The following are constraints which have had slack variables added.
X1 + 2 X2 + S1 = 12
2 X1 + 3 X2 + S2 = 30
If X1 = 2 and X2 = 4, what are the values for S1 and S2?
(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)
(e)

9.65

The following are constraints which have had slack variables added.
2 X1 + 4 X2 + S1 = 20
6 X1 + 4 X2 + S2 = 36
If X1 = 2 and X2 = 2, what are the values for S1 and S2?
(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)
(e)

9.66

S1 = 20, S2 = 36
S1 = 16, S2 = 32
S1 = 8, S2 = 16
S1 = 0, S2 = 0
none of the above

A solved LP problem indicated that the optimal solution was X 1 =10 and X2 =20. One of the
constraints was 4 X1 +2 X2 80. This constraint has
(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)
(e)

9.67

S1 = 12, S2 = 30
S1 = 6, S2 = 24
S1 = 2, S2 = 14
S1 = 0, S2 = 0
none of the above

surplus greater than zero.


slack greater than zero.
surplus equal to zero.
slack equal to zero.
none of the above

Consider the following linear programming problem.


Maximize 40 X1 + 30 X2 + 60X3
Subject to:
X1 +
X2 + X3 90
12 X1 + 8 X2 + 10 X3 1500
X1 , X2 , X3 0
How many slack, surplus, and artificial variables would be necessary if the simplex were used to
solve this problem?

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Linear Programming: The Simplex Method l CHAPTER 9

(a) 3 slack, 3 surplus, and 3 artificial


(b) 1 slack, 1 surplus, and 1 artificial
(c) 1 slack, 4 surplus, and 4 artificial
(d) 1 slack, 1 surplus, and 1 artificial
(e) none of the above
9.68

Consider the following linear programming problem.


Maximize
40 X1 + 30 X2 + 60 X3
Subject to:
X1 + X2 + X3 90
12 X1 + 8 X2 + 10 X3 1500
X1 = 20
X3 100
X1 , X2 , X3 0
How many slack, surplus, and artificial variables would be necessary if the simplex algorithm were
used to solve this problem?
(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)
(e)

9.69

Sensitivity analysis in linear programming


(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)

9.70

3 slack, 6 surplus, and 6 artificial


2 slack, 1 surplus, and 2 artificial
1 slack, 2 surplus, and 2 artificial
1 slack, 2 surplus, and 1 artificial
none of the above

centers around applications of computer routines to solve LP problems.


concerns studies of the extra information associated with the dual LP.
concerns changes in the data used to build the LP model and the effects on the optimal solution.
all of the above

If one changes the contribution rates in the objective function of an LP problem,


(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)
(e)

the feasible region will change.


the slope of the iso-profit or iso-cost line will change.
the optimal solution to the LP will no longer be optimal.
all of the above
none of the above

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Linear Programming: The Simplex Method l CHAPTER 9

9.71

If one changes a nonbasic objective function coefficient, the optimal solution of a maximization
problem will remain optimal if
(a) the increase in the coefficient does not exceed the value of the Zj associated with that nonbasic
variable.
(b) the increase in the coefficient does not exceed the values of the Zjs of every basic variable.
(c) the decrease in the coefficient does not exceed the value of the Zj associated with the nonbasic
variable.
(d) the new Cj Zj associated with nonbasic variable remains positive.
(e) none of the above

9.72

Changes in the resources or right hand-side values of a linear programming problem


(a) will change the slope of the iso-profit or iso-cost line.
(b) result in no changes in the feasible region.
(c) are investigated by examining the ratios of the original LP solution and the slack column of the
simplex tableau that is associated with the resource.
(d) all of the above

9.73

The solution to the dual LP problem


(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)

9.74

presents the marginal profits of each additional unit of a resource.


can always be derived by examining the Zj row of the primal's optimal simplex tableau.
is better than the solution to the primal.
all of the above

Shadow prices
(a) can be derived from the coefficients of the slack variables in Cj Zj row of an optimal simplex
tableau.
(b) represent the value of one additional unit of a resource.
(c) are found in the solution to the dual LP.
(d) all of the above
(e) none of the above

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Linear Programming: The Simplex Method l CHAPTER 9

9.75

Sensitivity analyses are used to examine the effects of changes in


(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)

9.76

Sensitivity analysis may be used to


(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)
(e)

9.77

experiment with possible future changes in the firm that may affect profits.
determine whether a corner point of the feasible region actually yields optimal profit.
replace the simplex method.
reduce the number of variables in a complex LP problem.
solve LP problems that require solutions only in whole numbers.

A shadow price is
(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)
(e)

9.78

contribution rates for each variable.


technological coefficients.
available resources.
all of the above

the coefficient of a constraint.


the value over standard cost of one additional unit of a resource that becomes available.
the coefficients that are deleted when transposing a matrix from a primal to a dual.
any negative value in the Zj row.
the smallest result obtained when basic variable values in a column are divided into their
respective row quantities.

Right hand-side ranging


(a) tells us the number of units of a constraint that may be added or subtracted without changing
the profit (objective function value).
(b) is a method to find the range over which shadow prices remain constant.
(c) requires computation of the dual before being accomplished.
(d) all of the above

9.79

For every primal


(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)
(e)

9.80

that is a maximization problem, the dual is a minimization problem.


the right hand-side quantities become the dual's objective function coefficients.
constraint inequality signs are reversed in the dual.
the transpose of the constraint coefficients become the dual's constraint coefficients.
all of the above

Solving linear programming problems by computer


(a) is practical only for small programs.
(b) can be done only on QM for Windows.
(c) can solve enormous programs.

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Linear Programming: The Simplex Method l CHAPTER 9

(d) is useful, but doesn't include sensitivity analysis.


(e) requires expert programmers.
9.81

The dual of a linear programming problem


(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)
(e)

9.82

always exists.
may be easier to solve.
may contain economic information useful to management.
while equivalent, is derived through an alternative procedure.
all of the above

Consider the following general form of a linear programming problem:


Maximize Profit
Subject to: Amount of resource A used 100 units
Amount of resource B used 240 units
Amount of resource B used 150 units
The shadow price for S1 is 25, for S2 is 0, and for S3 is 40. If the right-hand side of constraint 1
were changed from 100 to 101, what would happen to maximum possible profit?
(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)
(e)

9.83

It would not change.


It would increase by 25.
It would decrease by 25.
It would increase by 40.
It would decrease by 40.

Consider the following general form of a linear programming problem:


Maximize Profit
Subject to: Amount of resource A used 100 units
Amount of resource B used 240 units
Amount of resource B used 150 units
The shadow price for S1 is 25, for S2 is 0, and for S3 is 40. If the right-hand side of 2 were changed
from 240 to 241, what would happen to maximum possible profit?

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Linear Programming: The Simplex Method l CHAPTER 9

(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)
(e)
9.84

A primal linear programming problem has four variables and three constraints. The dual of this
will have
(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)
(e)

9.85

It would not change.


It would increase by 25.
It would decrease by 25.
It would increase by 40.
It would decrease by 40.

four variables and three constraints.


three variables and four constraints.
four variables and seven constraints.
seven variables and four constraints.
none of the above

According to Table 9-1, which is a simplex tableau after at least one iteration, which column would
be selected as the pivot column?
(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)
(e)

X1
X2
X3
S2
none of the above

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Linear Programming: The Simplex Method l CHAPTER 9

9.86

According to Table 9-1, which is a simplex tableau after at least one iteration, which row would be
selected as the pivot row?
(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)

9.87

According to Table 9-1, which is a simplex tableau after at least one iteration, which variable
should enter the solution at the next iteration?
(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)
(e)

9.88

first
second
third
none of the above

X1
X2
X3
S1
none of the above

According to Table 9-1, which is a simplex tableau after at least one iteration, how many units of
the variable entering the solution next will be in the basis in the next tableau?
(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)
(e)

1.5
6.67
10
6
none of the above

9.89
According to Table 9-2, which is a final simplex tableau, this is an example of what
special case with a linear programming problem?
(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)
(e)
9.90

According to Table 9-2, the 0.500 in the X1 column means that


(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)
(e)

9.91

no feasible solution
multiple optimal solutions
degeneracy
unbounded solution
none of the above

to produce 1 unit of X1, 0.5 units of X2 must be given up.


to produce 1 unit of X2, 0.5 units of X1 must be given up.
if 1 unit of X1 is produced, profits on X2 will decrease by 0.500.
if 1 unit of X1 is produced, profits on X2 will increase by 0.500.
none of the above

According to Table 9-2, which is the final simplex tableau for a problem with two variables and
two constraints, what can be said about the optimal solution and the constraints?
(a) There is slack remaining in the first constraint.
(b) There is slack remaining in the second constraint.
(c) There is slack remaining in both constraints.

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Linear Programming: The Simplex Method l CHAPTER 9

(d) There is no slack remaining in either constraint.


(e) none of the above

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Linear Programming: The Simplex Method l CHAPTER 9

9.92

According to Table 9-3, which is the final simplex tableau for a problem with two variables and
two constraints, what are the values for all the variables in this solution?
(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)
(e)

9.93

X1 = 20, X2 = 40, S1 = 0, S2 = 0
X1 = 0, X2 = 40, S1 = 0, S2 = 40
X1 = 0, X2 = 20, S1 = 0, S2 = 40
X1 = 0, X2 = 0, S1 = 0, S2 = 0
none of the above

According to Table 9-3, the 0.667 in the X1 column means that


(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)
(e)

to produce 1 unit of X1, 0.667 units of X2 must be given up.


to produce 1 unit of X2, 0.667 units of X1 must be given up.
if 1 unit of X1 is produced, profits on X2 will decrease by 0.667.
if 1 unit of X1 is produced, profits on X2 will increase by 0.667.
none of the above

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Linear Programming: The Simplex Method l CHAPTER 9

9.94

According to Table 9-3, which is the final simplex tableau for a problem with two variables and
two constraints, what can be said about the optimal solution and the constraints?
(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)
(e)

9.95

According to Table 9-3, which is the final simplex tableau for a problem with two variables and
two constraints, what is the maximum possible profit (objective function value) for this problem?
(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)
(e)

9.96

Total profits would increase.


Total profits would decrease.
An infeasible solution would be found.
Another optimal solution would be found.
none of the above

According to Table 9-4, all of the resources are being used. If the amount of resource A were
changed from 64 to 65, then the maximum possible total profit would be
(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)
(e)

9.98

20
40
800
26.667
none of the above

According to Table 9-3, which is the final simplex tableau for a linear programming problem
(maximization), what would happen to profit if the X1 column were selected as the pivot column
and another iteration of the simplex algorithm were performed?
(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)
(e)

9.97

There is slack remaining in the first constraint.


There is slack remaining in the second constraint.
There is slack remaining in both constraints.
There is no slack remaining in either constraint.
none of the above

416
417
416.5
415.5
none of the above

According to Table 9-4, all of the resources are being used. If the amount of resource B were
changed from 96 to 97, then the maximum possible total profit would be
(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)
(e)

416
417
419
420
none of the above

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Linear Programming: The Simplex Method l CHAPTER 9

9.99

According to Table 9-4, it is currently profitable to produce some units of X1 and the current profit
per unit of X1 is $20. What is the lowest value that this could be to allow this variable to remain in
the basis?
(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)
(e)

9.100

According to Table 9-5, the optimal solution to a linear programming problem has been found.
What would happen to the maximum possible total profit if the profit on X1 were changed from 4
to 3?
(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)
(e)

9.101

It would increase by $1.


It would increase by $2.
It would decrease by $1.
It would decrease by $2.
It would not change.

According to Table 9-5, the optimal solution to a linear programming problem has been found.
What would happen to the maximum possible total profit if the amount of resource A were
decreased from 90 units to 60 units?
(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)
(e)

9.102

8
16
20
30
none of the above

Total profits would decrease.


Total profits would increase.
Total profits would not change.
Unable to tell from the information provided.
none of the above

According to Table 9-5, the optimal solution to a linear programming problem has been found. If
the amount of resource B were increased by 1 unit (from 60 to 61) the maximum possible total
profit would
(a) increase by $1.
(b) increase by $1.50.

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Linear Programming: The Simplex Method l CHAPTER 9

(c) decrease by 1.
(d) decrease by $1.50.
(e) not change.
9.103 According to Table 9-5, the optimal solution to a linear programming problem has been
found. While the current optimal solution calls for zero units of X1 to be produced, if the profit on
X1 were raised, it would be possible to produce X1 and still generate a profit of $90. How much
would the profit on X1 have to be raised for this to occur?
(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)
(e)
9.104

$2
$4
$8
$10
none of the above

According to Table 9-6, which is a summarized solution output from simplex analysis, the optimal
solution to this problem is
(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)
(e)

X1 = 0, X2 = 16.667, S1 = 300, S2 = 0
X1 = 0, X2 = 16.667, S1 = 0, S2 = 0
X1 = 12, X2 = 30, S1 = 0, S2 = 0.625
X1 = 12, X2 = 30, S1 = 0.625, S2 = 0
none of the above

9.105 According to Table 9-6, which is a summarized solution output from simplex analysis, if
the amount of resource A were decreased so that there were only 550 units available instead of 600,
what would happen to total profits?
(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)
(e)
9.106

They would decrease.


They would increase.
They would not change.
Unable to determine from the given information.
none of the above

In applying the simplex solution procedure to a minimization problem to determine which variable
enters the solution mix,
(a) pick the one with the most negative Cj Zj.
(b) pick the one with the positive Cj Zj.
(c) pick the one with the largest Cj.
(d) pick the one with the smallest Zj.
(e) pick the smallest nonnegative number formed by dividing each amount in the quantity column
by the appropriate column at the exiting variable.

9.107

Which of the following is true of slack variables?


(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)
(e)

They have no meaning in a physical sense nothing more than a computational tool.
In all linear programs, they appear in the objective function with a very low cost ($M).
They are usually used with constraints.
They are usually used with = constraints.
They are usually used with constraints.
262

Linear Programming: The Simplex Method l CHAPTER 9

9.108

If, in the optimal tableau of a linear programming problem, there is an artificial variable present in
the solution mix, this implies
(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)
(e)

9.109

infeasibility.
unboundedness.
degeneracy.
alternate optimal solutions.
a finite optimal solution.

If, in the final optimal simplex tableau, the Cj Zj values for all basic variables are zero, this
implies
(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)
(e)

feasibility.
unboundedness.
degeneracy.
alternate optimal solutions.
none of the above

263

Linear Programming: The Simplex Method l CHAPTER 9

9.110

Which of the following is true about surplus variables in a simplex tableau?


(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)
(e)

9.111

Nonbasic variables in the simplex method of linear programming are


(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)
(e)

9.112

variables in the solution mix.


variables not in the solution mix.
the real variables in the initial solution.
the slack variables in the optimum solution.
always the slack, surplus, and artificial variables.

If, in solving a linear programming minimization problem using the simplex method, a slack
variable is given a nonzero coefficient in the objective function, this implies
(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)
(e)

9.113

They are used to convert constraint inequalities to equations.


They represent unused resources.
They require the addition of an artificial variable.
They may represent machine time, labor hours, or warehouse space.
They yield a positive profit.

there is a cost for using an amount of the resource greater than that which is available.
there is no cost for using the resource.
there is a cost for failing to use the entire amount of the resource.
the resource can be substituted for another resource.
none of the above

A solved LP problem indicated that the optimal solution was X1 = 5, X2 = 10, A1 = 40. The first
constraint was: 4X1 + 2X2 80. This solution is:
(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)
(e)

indeterminant.
degenerate.
infeasible.
unbounded.
none of the above

264

Linear Programming: The Simplex Method l CHAPTER 9

9.114

If one changes the coefficient of a constraint in an LP problem,


(a) the feasible region will change.
(b) the slope of the iso-profit or iso-cost line will change.
(c) the value of the objective function will increase.
(d) the feasible region may change.
(e) none of the above

9.115

Sensitivity analysis cannot be used to examine the effects of:


(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)
(e)

changes in the contribution rates for each variable.


changes in the technological coefficients.
changes in the available resources.
the addition or deletion of a constraint.
none of the above

*9.116 In the initial basic solution, the values of the variables in the basic solution are
(a) always zero.
(b) always negative.
(c) never zero.
(d) always nonnegative.
(e) none of the above
*9.117 The range of insignificance is
(a) a range of values where the variables can be said to differ insignificantly from zero.
(b) the range of variables where the value of the artificial variables can be said to differ
insignificantly from zero.
(c) the range of values over which the coefficient of a basic variable can vary without causing a
change in the optimal solution mix.
(d) the range of values over which the coefficient of a nonbasic variable can vary without causing
a change in the optimal mix.
(e) none of the above

265

Linear Programming: The Simplex Method l CHAPTER 9

*9.118 The range of optimality is


(a) the range of values over which the coefficient of the slack variables can vary without causing a
change in the optimal mix.
(b) the range of values over which the coefficient of a basic variable can vary without causing a
change in the optimal solution mix.
(c) the range over which the coefficients of a surplus variable can vary without causing a change
in the optimal solution mix.
(d) the range of values over which the coefficient of a nonbasic variable can vary without causing
a change in the optimal mix.
(e) none of the above
*9.119 Shadow prices represent
(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)
(e)

the value of one additional unit of a basic variable.


the value of one less unit of a basic variable.
the value of one additional unit of a specific resource.
the value of one less unit of a basic variable.
none of the above

*9.120 An artificial variable has no physical interpretation but


(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)
(e)

is added to each constraint to facilitate the Simplex process.


is added to each constraint to facilitate the Simplex process.
is added to each or = constraint to facilitate the Simplex process.
is merely another manner of introducing a negative slack.
none of the above

*9.121 A slack variable


(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)
(e)

is added to each constraint to facilitate the Simplex process.


is added to each constraint to facilitate the Simplex process.
is added to each or = constraint to facilitate the Simplex process.
is added to each = constraint to facilitate the Simplex process.
none of the above

266

Linear Programming: The Simplex Method l CHAPTER 9

*9.122 Using the Simplex method, we know we have an optimal solution when
(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)
(e)

all slack variables have a zero value.


all basic variables are negative.
when all the real variables have a nonzero value.
when all the artificial variables have a positive value.
none of the above

*9.123 The substitution rates


(a) are the coefficients in the quantity column.
(b) tell us the number of units of a basic variable which must be removed from the solution in
order for another variable to enter the basis.
(c) tell the amount of one resource which can be substituted for another.
(d) tell us the amount of a resource which must be used to gain another unit of profit.
(e) none of the above

PROBLEMS
9.124

Consider the following linear program.


Maximize Z = 3 X1 + 2X2 X3
Subject to:
X1 + X2 + 2 X3 10
2 X1 X2 + X3 20
3 X1 + X2 15
X1. X2. X3 0
(a) Convert the above constraints to equalities by adding the appropriate slack variables.
(b) Set up the initial simplex tableau and solve.

267

Linear Programming: The Simplex Method l CHAPTER 9

9.125

The No-Glare Company is making two types of antique-style lamps, type #1 and type #2. There is
enough skilled labor to make either 1,000 type #1 or 2,000 type #2 lamps per day. There are only
6,000 inserts available per day, of which the type #1 requires three and the type #2 requires four.
Besides these shared constraints, there are only enough fancy switches to make 1400 of the type #2
lamps per day. Marginal profit (contribution) is $3 per type #1 and $4 per type #2 lamp. Let X1 =
the hundreds of type #1 lamps per day, etc. Solve, using the simplex method.

9.126

Solve the following minimization problem by the simplex method.


Minimize
Subject to:

9.127

4 X1 + 3 X2
1 X1 + 2 X2 = 8
3 X1 + 2 X2 = 12
X1, X2 0

Add all necessary slack, surplus, and artificial variables to the following linear programming
problem. Be sure to include these in the objective function with the appropriate coefficients.
Maximize
Subject to:

8X + 10Y
5X + 3Y
2X + 3Y =
Y
X, Y

34
24
3
0

268

Linear Programming: The Simplex Method l CHAPTER 9

9.128

Solve the following linear programming problem using the simplex method.
Maximize
Subject to:

3 X1 + 5X2
4 X1 + 3 X2 48
X1 + 2 X2 20
X1, X2 0

9.129 The following is a partial simplex tableau for a maximization problem after one iteration.
Fill out the rest of this tableau, and then develop the next simplex tableau.
Cj
Sol.Mix
S1
X3
S3

5
X1
7/2
1/2
3/2

3
X2
4/3
2/3
2/3

6
X3
0
1
0

0
S1
1
0
0

0
S2
1/6
1/6
1/6

Zj
CjZj

269

0
S3
0
0
1

Quantity
24
3
15

Linear Programming: The Simplex Method l CHAPTER 9

9.130

According to Table 9-7, the final simplex tableau for a linear programming problem is provided.
Given this table:
(a) What is the range of optimality for the contribution rate of the variable X1?
(b) Management has decided to decrease the price of product X1. The profit contribution will
decrease from $50 to $40 for each unit of X1 produced. Will the optimal produce mix change?
(c) What is the range of insignificance of the contribution rate of the variable X2?
(d) How much would you be willing to pay for one more unit of Resource A? Explain.
(e) How much would you be willing to pay for an additional unit of Resource C? Why?

9.131

According to Table 9-7, the final simplex tableau for a linear programming problem is provided.
Given this table, calculate the right hand-side range for Resource B.

9.132

According to Table 9-7, the final simplex tableau for a linear programming problem is provided.
Given this table:
(a) What is the dual to the above maximization problem?
(b) What is the optimal value of the dual program?
(c) What is the optimal solution to the dual program?

270

Linear Programming: The Simplex Method l CHAPTER 9

9.133

Upon retirement, Mr. Klaws started to make two types of childrens wooden toys in his shop.
Wuns yield a variable profit of $8 each, and Toos have a contribution margin of $9 apiece. Even
though his electric saw overheats, he can make 7 Wuns or 14 Toos each day. Since he doesn't have
equipment for drying the lacquer finish he puts on the toys, the drying operation limits him to 16
Wuns or 8 Toos per day. The final tableau for Mr. Klaws' problem would be:
Cj
8
9

Sol.Mix
X1
X2

8
X1
1
0

9
X2
0
1

0
S1
2/3
1/3

0
S2
1/3
2/3

Zj
CjZj

8
0

9
0

7/3
7/3

10/3
10/3

Quantity
4
6
86

(a) What would the value be of an additional unit of constraint #1?


(b) What would the value be of an additional unit of constraint #2?

9.134

The following is a final simplex tableau for a maximization problem. Use this to answer the
questions below.
Cj
0
0
8
10

Sol.Mix
S1
S2
X3
X2

5
X1
7/3
1/3
1/3
1/3

10
X2
0
0
0
1

8
X3
0
0
1
0

0
S1
1
0
0
0

0
S2
0
1
0
0

0
S3
4/3
1/3
2/3
1/3

0
S4
2/3
4/3
1/6
1/3

Zj
CjZj

6
1

10
0

8
0

0
0

0
0

2
2

2
2

271

Quantity
80
70
20
10
260

Linear Programming: The Simplex Method l CHAPTER 9

(a) What is the range of optimality for the contribution rate of variable X 1?
(b) What is the range of optimality for the contribution rate of variable X2?
(c) How much can the right hand-side of the second constraint be reduced without affecting the
maximum profit?
(d) How much can the right hand-side of the first constraint be reduced without affecting the
maximum profit?

9.135

The following is a final simplex tableau for a maximization problem. Use this to answer the
questions below.
Cj
12
0
9

Sol.Mix
X2
S2
X3

10
X1
1
5
0.5

12
X2
1
0
0

9
X3
0
0
1

0
S1
0.0670
0.3331
0

0
S2
0
1
0

0
S3
0.333
1.67
0.5

Zj
CjZj

16.5
6.5

12
0

9
0

0.8
0.8

0
0

0.5
0.5

Quantity
6.67
86.67
20
260

(a) What is the range of optimality for the contribution rate of variable X 1?
(b) How much can the right hand-side of the second constraint be reduced without affecting the
maximum profit?
(c) If one more unit of the second resource were obtained, what would happen to profits? Be
specific.
(d) If one more unit of the third resource were obtained, what would happen to profits? Be
specific.

272

Linear Programming: The Simplex Method l CHAPTER 9

9.136

Write the dual of the following problem.


Maximize 8X + 10Y
Subject to: 5X + 3Y
2X + 3Y
Y
X, Y

9.137

34
24
3
0

The following is a final simplex tableau for a maximization problem. All the variables are either
decision variables or slack variables. There are no surplus variables in this problem.
Cj
12
0
9

Sol.Mix
X2
S2
X3
Zj
CjZj

10
X1
1
5
0.5
16.5
6.5

12
X2
1
0
0
12
0

9
X3
0
0
1
9
0

0
S1
0.0670
0.3331
0
0.8
0.8

0
S2
0
1
0
0
0

0
S3
0.333
1.67
0.5
0.5
0.5

Quantity
6.67
86.67
20
260

The dual of this problem was formulated using variables U1, U2, and U3, which are identified with
constraints 1, 2, and 3, respectively. What are the values for each of these variables in the optimal
solution to the dual?
*9.138 Convert the following linear program into the simplex form:
Maximize

3x1 + 2x2

Subject to:
7x1 - 2x2 0
5x1 + x2 10
x1 + 7x2 12
3x1 + 3x2 = 15

*9.139 Convert the following linear program into a Simplex model form:
Maximize
Subject to:

8X + 10Y
5X + 3Y
2X + 3Y =
Y
X, Y

34
24
3
0

*9.140 Write the dual of the following linear program:


Maximize

3 X1 + 5X2

273

Linear Programming: The Simplex Method l CHAPTER 9

Subject to:

4 X1 + 3 X2 48
X1 + 2 X2 20
X1, X2 0

*9.141 Write the dual of the following linear program:


Minimize
Subject to:

Z = 12 X1 + 30 X2
32 X1 + 18 X2 600
24 X1 + 48 X2 800

*9.142 Write the dual for the following linear program:


Maximize
Subject to:

4 X1 + 8 X2 + 3 X3
5 X1 + 10 X2 90
4 X1 + 12 X2 + 2 X3 100
3 X1 + 7 X2 + 5 X3 60

274

Linear Programming: The Simplex Method l CHAPTER 9

*9.143 Given the following dual linear programming problem, write the primal program:
Maximize

50U1 + 109U2 + 25U3

Subject to:

6U1 + 4U2 + 2U3 9


8U1 + 13U2 + 11U3 7
2U1 + 3U2 + 0U3 3

*9.144 Given the following dual linear program, write the primal program:
Maximize

3U1 + 2U2

Subject to:
7U1 - 2U2 0
5U1 + U2 10
U1 +7U2 12

*9.145 Write the dual of the following linear program.


Maximize 40 X1 + 30 X2 + 60 X3
Subject to
X1 + X2 + X3 90
12 X1 + 8 X2 + 10 X3 1500
X1
20
X1
20
X3 100
X1 , X2 , X3 0

SHORT ANSWER/ESSAY
9.146

Explain what a slack variable represents in a constraint.

9.147

Explain what a surplus variable represents in a constraint.

9.148

Explain what an artificial variable represents in a constraint.

9.149

What does the Cj Zj row represent in a simplex tableau?

275

Linear Programming: The Simplex Method l CHAPTER 9

9.150

Explain what the shadow price represents in a simplex final solution.

9.151

Explain how an unbounded solution is recognized when calculating the simplex tableaus.

9.152

Explain how a multiple optimal solution is recognized when using the simplex algorithm.

9.153

Explain how no feasible solution is recognized when using the simplex algorithm.

9.154

Explain how degeneracy is recognized when using the simplex algorithm.

276

Linear Programming: The Simplex Method l CHAPTER 9

9.155

Given the following linear program to be solved manually by use of the simplex algorithm, explain
what you might do before setting up the initial tableau?
Maximize
Subject to:

4 X1 + X2
9 X1 + 100 X2 900
8 X1 + 50 X2 400
100 X1 + 100 X2 1000
100 X1 + 400 X2 800
300 X1 + 400 X2 1200
X1, X2 0

277