You are on page 1of 6



First electronic part in an automobile was called an ECU (Engine control unit).
Analysts estimate that more than 80 percent of all automotive innovation now stems from electronics



1970s: Introduction of electronics for engine controls

1980s: Anti-lock braking introduced
Early 1990s: Airbags become standard
Late 1990s: Rapid expansion of body electronics seat motors (body
Computers), instrument panel lighting, auto locking systems and keyless entry
Early 2000s to date: infotainment, including sophisticated audio and video ; Signals sent via
satellite (such as the OnStar System); GPS and mapping Capabilities; satellite radio
Late 2000s: Steer-by-wire, wireless connectivity

This seminar describes automobile applications of autotronics in following domains:

Braking system
Steering system
Suspension system
Transmission system
Engine (fuel intake)
Braking system
EBS increases traffic safety through reduced stopping distance and improved brake stability.
Functions in ECB:
Anti-lock braking system (ABS):
Traction control system (TCS)
Brake lining wear control


ABS is an acronym for anti-lock braking system. First developed and patented in 1936, ABS is actually derived
from the German term "anti blockier system." Anti-lock brakes are designed to prevent skidding and help
drivers maintain steering control during an emergency stopping situation
Difference between ABS & Traction Control
ABS Manage the grip of the tires for braking maneuver
Traction Control Manage the grip of the tires for accelerating maneuver
The self-alignment estimation control uses both the EPS sensor information and internally programmed EPS
Speed sensitive steering system:
Speed sensitive steering system is used to control the power steering pump pressure in relation to vehicle
speed. Below 10mph (16km/h) the computer operates the steering. This action reduces the steering effort during
low speed maneuver and parking.

Electrically powered steering uses an electric motor to drive either the power steering hydraulic pump or the
steering directly.
Steering sensor" is located on the input shaft where it enters the gearbox housing.
An interface circuit that same housing converts the signals from the torque sensor and rotation sensor into
The vehicle motion estimation control uses the steering angular velocity information internally programmed in
the EPS system.
This control helps improve yaw damping of the vehicle at higher speeds on the road.

Accelerating sensor, displacement sensors, Steering wheel position

Suspension systems in most vehicles on the road today are passive.
Shock absorbers help to dissipate the energy applied to the springs and damp the oscillations.
Active Roll Control Systems:
Vehicles lean when cornering due to the weight transfer imposed by lateral acceleration. Factors contributing to
the roll angle of the vehicle include vehicle height and suspension stiffness.
ARC system uses hydraulic and electronic technology to the vehicle roll angle in cornering, which improves
The active roll control system contains
Control module, Accelerometer, Speed sensor, Fluid reservoir, Electro hydraulic pump, Pressure control valve,
Directional control valve.
A hydraulic actuator in both the front and rear stabilizer bars

Mainly it controls the shifting process of the gears.
Electronically controlled transmissions were introduced on BMW products in 1986 on 5 and7 series vehicles.
The TCM also adapts to changing conditions within the transmission by monitoring slip ratios.
The TCM controls the operation of the Lock-Up Torque Converter which further increases economy.
Increased fuel economy
Improved shift comfort
Increased driving safety

Electronic Fuel Injection

EFI system electronically meters the fuel so that the exact amount needed is provided to the engine.
EFI uses to fuel to power the engine by pumping it forcibly by using high pressure through a small nozzle or
A high-pressure fuel pump that produces high fuel pressures (5 to 12 MPa)


It automatically adjusts the vehicle speed and distance to that of a target vehicle.
ACC uses a long range radar sensor to detect a target vehicle up to 200 meters in front of vehicle.
As per standard cruise control the driver can override the system at any time.
Another advantage of this system is that the driver will not exceed the speed limit on the highway.

The air bag technology is based on electronic sensors that measure the amount of quick deceleration through an
The new calculations will take into account the position of the seats, the use of a seat belt and the weight of the

Latest research
Active bumper system,
Active hood lift system,
Vehicle to vehicle communication
Camber thrust in F 1 vehicles
Global Positioning System
Rain sensing wipers
Adaptive light system