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CHAPTER 12: THERMODYNAMICS: FORMULAE


1.

Give expression for the first law of thermodynamics.


Q = U + W
where,
Q is the heat supplied to the system by the surroundings
W is the work done by the system on its surroundings
U is the change in internal energy of the system

2.

For an isothermal process, what does the First Law of


Thermodynamics reduce to?
Q = W
i.e., the heat supplied to the system is used up entirely by the system in
doing work on the environment.

3.

Give expression for the work done at constant pressure. How does
the First Law of Thermodynamics translate for a process
performed at constant pressure?
W = PV
Therefore, we have:
Q = U + PV

4.

Give expression for the internal energy of a mole of solid in which


the atoms are vibrating about their mean positions.
U = 3RT

5.

Give expression for the molar specific heat of a solid. (This is the
Dulong and Petits Law)
C = 3R

6.

Give the relationship between molar specific heat capacities at


constant pressure and at constant volume.
Cp Cv = R

7.

In the equation for the First Law of Thermodynamics, the


quantities on both the sides are extensive. The product of an
intensive variable like P and an extensive quantity V is extensive.
Q = U + PV

8.

Give expression for the work done by a gas in an isothermal


process.
W = nRT ln (V2/V1)
OR
W = nRT ln (P1/P2)

9.

Give expression for the work done in an isobaric process.


W = nR (T2 T1)

10.

Define the efficiency of a heat engine ().


= W/Q1
where, Q1 is the heat input or the heat absorbed by the system in one
complete cycle.

11.

In a cycle, a certain amount of heat (Q2) may also be rejected by the


system to the surroundings. In such circumstances, what is the
efficiency of the heat engine?
= 1 Q2/Q1

12.

Give expression for the coefficient of performance () of a


refrigerator.
= Q2/W
where,
Q2 is the heat extracted from the cold reservoir
W is the work done on the system, i.e. the refrigerant

13.

Give expression for the coefficient of performance of a refrigerator

in terms of the heat extracted from the cold reservoir and the heat
pumped to the surroundings.

14.

Give expression for the coefficient of performance of a heat pump.


= Q1/W

15.

Give expression for the efficiency of a Carnot engine.


= 1 T2/T1

16.

Give the relationship between Q1 and Q2 for a Carnot engine.

17.

The water equivalent of a body is the mass of water having the


same thermal capacity as body.
water equivalent = mass of body x specific heat of the material of body

18.

Give expression for the heat absorbed/released during phase


change.
Q=mL
where L is the latent heat
m is the mass of the body

19.

Give expression for increase in internal energy of a gas.

20.

What is the slope of an isothermal curve?


(dP/dV)isothermal = (P/V)

21.

Give the expression for the work done in an adiabatic process on an


ideal gas.

22.

Give the relationship between the slope of adiabatic and isothermal


curves.
Slopeadiabatic = Slopeisothermal

23.

Give expression for work done in a Carnot cycle.


W = nR (T1 T2) ln (V2/V1)

24.

Give expression for change in entropy during phase transition.


S = mL/T
where L is the latent heat

25.

Give expression for the change in entropy of an ideal gas in terms

of Cv.
S = n[Cv ln (Tf/Ti) + R ln (Vf/Vi)
26.

Give expression for the change in entropy of an ideal gas in terms


of Cp.
S = n[Cp ln (Tf/Ti) R ln (Pf/Pi)

27.

Give expression for the change in entropy of an ideal gas in terms


of Cp and Cv.
S = n[Cv ln (Pf/Pi) + Cp ln (Vf/Vi)

28.

Give the Clausius Clapeyrons equation.