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KICK

KICK WARNING
WARNING SIGNS
SIGNS

1

WHAT IS A KICK WARNING
SIGN?
A WARNING SIGN TELLS YOU:THE WELL MAY BE GOING

“UNDERBALANCED”

OR
YOUR SAFETY MARGIN IS GETTING LESS.

2

Warning Signs
Mud Weight 10.0 ppg

Formation Pressure 9.0ppg

What is happening?
Drilling normally
pressured shale
Overbalance

3

Warning Signs
Mud Weight 10.0 ppg

Formation Pressure 9.0ppg

Pressure
and
Porosity
Increasing

Formation Pressure 10.0ppg

What is happening?
As the formation
pressure gets closer to
the mud weight, we
will observe changes
in;
ROP
Hole condition
Gas levels
Cuttings properties
Mud properties
4

Warning Signs
Mud Weight 10.0 ppg

Increased drilling rate
9850’
Formation Pressure 9.0ppg

Pressure

9.00
Increasing
Drill Rate
(ROP)

9.15

and
Porosity
Increasing

9855’

9.30

9860’
GEOLOGRAPH CHART

Formation Pressure 10.0ppg

5

Warning Signs
Increased drill string
torque and drag

Mud Weight 10.0 ppg

Formation Pressure 9.0ppg

Pressure
and
Porosity
Increasing

Formation Pressure 10.0ppg

BIT

6

Warning Signs Cuttings size & shape Mud Weight 10.0ppg Pressure and Porosity Increasing Formation Pressure 10.0ppg Temperature Increase 8 .0ppg Pressure Normal Pressure and Porosity Abnormal Pressure Increasing Formation Pressure 10.0ppg Cavings 7 Warning Signs Flowline temperature Mud Weight 10.0 ppg Formation Pressure 9.0 ppg Drilled cuttings Formation Pressure 9.

00 5.00 4.00 2.00 6.00 2.00 5% 10%15% BACKGROUND GAS CONNECTION GAS 10 .00 Hours 1.0ppg Hours 1.0 ppg Formation Pressure 9.00 4.0ppg 9500’ Pressure and Porosity Increasing Formation Pressure 10.0ppg Pressure and Porosity Increasing Formation Pressure 10.0ppg 9600’ 9700’ 9800’ 9900’ 10000’ 10100’ 10200’ Sand Normal Pressure Shale Sand Shale Sand Increasing Formation Fluid Pressure Increasing Shale Density 9 Warning Signs Background & connection gas Mud Weight 10.Warning Signs Shale density Mud Weight 10.00 3.00 5.00 6.0 ppg Normal Trend Line Shale Formation Pressure 9.00 3.

Pressure Losses Where does Pump Pressure come from?? 11 Total Pump Pressure = Surface Line friction PSI PSI = Drillstring friction Total Pump Pressure PSI = Bit (jet nozzle) friction PSI = Annulus friction PSI 12 .

What Affects Pressure Loss 30 SPM PSI PSI 50 SPM 13 What Affects Pressure Loss 30 SPM PSI PSI 30 SPM 10 ppg 15 ppg 14 .

15 What Affects Pressure Loss 50 SPM PSI 50 SPM Large nozzle PSI Smell nozzle 16 . High Vis.What Affects Pressure Loss PSI PSI Low Vis.

hole size and pipe size. 18 . • 50 -300 psi • This pressure acts on hole wall and bottom • Increases with depth.What Affects Pressure Loss PSI PSI Hole size 17 Annulus Pressure Loss PSI 30 SPM • Annulus pressure loss can be quite small. pump speed.

Effect on Bottom Hole Pressure PSI 90 SPM • • • • If Annulus friction = 150 psi. Subsea BOP RKB 1800’ • Using APL = 75psi. Mud Weight = 11 ppg TVD = 8700 ft What is the pressure on the bottom of the hole? = (11 x . RKB 2500 3500 ft 10. wellbore fluids as shown on drawing. calculate the circulating BHP.8 ppg mud • Gas at choke line.0 ppg mud APL 75 psi RKB 6000’ • What is about to happen to the casing pressure? 2000 ft 12.0 ppg kill mud Pf = 5000 psi BHP 5000 psi RKB 8000’ 20 .052 x 8700) + 150 = 5126 psi 19 Bottom Hole Circulating Pressure 800 psi 667 psi 600 psi0 0 RKB 0 CL FL 200psi (dynamic) 1800 ft 10.

Bottom Hole Pressure Dynamic Static 21 Connection Gas 3000 psi PSI Mud Circulating Formation Under Control Annulus Pressure Loss = 250 psi 11 ppg mud BHP= 7114 psi 12000’ Formation Pressure = 7000 psi 22 .

Connection Gas Circulation Stopped Formation Not Under Control PSI Annulus Pressure Loss = 0 psi 11 ppg mud BHP= 6864 psi 12000’ Formation Pressure = 7000 psi 23 Connection Gas 3000 psi Mud Circulating Formation Under Control PSI Annulus Pressure Loss = 250 psi BHP= 7114 psi Formation Pressure = 7000 psi 24 .

00 4.0ppg Hours 1. 25 Warning Signs Background & connection gas Mud Weight 10.00 2.00 5% 10%15% BACKGROUND GAS CONNECTION GAS 26 . •Control drilling.00 4.00 6. BHP= 7114 psi Formation Pressure = 7000 psi •Minimize the connection time.0 ppg Formation Pressure 9.00 5.00 3.00 Hours 1.00 6.0ppg Pressure and Porosity Increasing Formation Pressure 10.Connection Gas 3000 psi PSI Annulus Pressure Loss = 250 psi Action to take •Increase mud weight.00 5.00 3.00 2.

0ppg Formation Pressure 10.1ppg What will happen? 28 .0 ppg Formation Pressure 9.Warning Signs Warning signs Tell you overbalance Mud Weight 10.0ppg Pressure and Porosity Increasing Formation Pressure 10.0ppg Pressure • The formation pressure is increasing and may lead to Underbalance and Porosity Increasing Formation Pressure 10.0 ppg What is happening? Formation Pressure 9.0ppg Major warning signs are: • • • • • • • Increasing ROP Increasing torque/drag Increased quantity/size of cuttings Increased background gas Connection gas Increasing temperature Decreasing shale density What if we ignore them? 27 Warning Signs Mud Weight 10.

1ppg 30 .0ppg Pressure and • Underbalance • Permeable formation Porosity Increasing Formation Pressure 10.1ppg Kick 29 Warning Signs What happens? Mud Weight 10.0 ppg Formation Pressure 9. Formation Pressure 10.0 ppg Formation Pressure 9. the well cannot flow so the hole will collapse and we will get stuck.Warning Signs Mud Weight 10.0ppg Formation Pressure 10.0ppg Formation Pressure 10.0ppg Pressure and Porosity Increasing • Underbalance • Stuck • As shale has very low permeability.

Warning Signs Warning signs Tell you overbalance Mud Weight 10.0ppg Major warning signs are: • • • • • • • • Increasing ROP Increasing torque/drag Increased quantity/size of cuttings Increased background gas Connection gas Increasing chlorides Increasing temperature Decreasing shale density What should we do? 31 Warning Signs Mud Weight 10.0ppg Pressure Flow Check and Porosity Increasing Formation Pressure 10.0ppg Pressure and Porosity Increasing Formation Pressure 10.0ppg Circulate Bottoms Up Raise Mud Weight 32 .0 ppg What should we do? Formation Pressure 9.0 ppg Formation Pressure 9.

KICK KICK INDICATORS INDICATORS 33 Kick Indicators GAUGE on Driller’s Console PADDLE 34 .

Kick Indicators GAUGE on Driller’s Console PADDLE 35 Kick Indicators GAUGE on Driller’s Console 36 .

Kick Indicators GAUGE on Driller’s Console 37 Trip Tank Trip Tank Level Drop in Trip Tank Level TRIP TANK PUMP No rm al Dr op in Le ve l Stands Pulled 38 .

Kick Indicators What are the indicators that the well is flowing? • Increase in Flow Rate • Increase in Pit Level • Drop in pump pressure with an increase in spm What Action Should Be Taken? Check to see if well is flowing with the pump off. •GAS IN SOLUTION DOES NOT EXPAND UNTIL NEAR SURFACE. •GAS IS SOLUBLE IN OIL BASE MUD. 40 . DRILLER WILL SEE PIT GAIN IN WBM EASIER THAN OBM WITH THE SAME KICK SIZE. 39 KICK DETECTION IN OIL BASE MUD •OIL AND GAS ARE HYDROCARBONS. •GAS IS NOT SOLUBLE IN WATER BASE MUD.

KICK DETECTION IN OIL BASE MUD 41 Top hole drilling 42 .

Diverter Vent line Valves • Vent line valves . This pipe provides a seal capable of supporting the hydrostatic of the mud column from the base of the casing to the flow nipple outlet. Vent lines Drive Pipe or Conductor casing Large diameter drive or conductor pipe is usually installed below the mud line for spudding in an offshore location and a casing string is set and cemented at shallow depth for land locations. • Vent lines .full opening valves used to select and isolate the desired vent line. The working pressure of the diverter and vent lines is not of prime importance. 43 Shallow Gas Blowout in the Gulf of Mexico 44 .large diameter piping used to flow the fluids downwind of the rig (port and starboard).functions the diverter and automatically opens the selected vent line valve.a low pressure annular preventer used to seal the wellbore from the flowline.The diverter system includes: Flowline Bell Nipple • Diverter . The diverter system is installed on the drive or conductor casing. rather they are sized to permit high flow rate diversion of wellbore fluids while minimizing wellbore back pressure. • Hydraulic control system .

Top hole drilling Problems • Shallow gas – Can cause loss of rig due to explosion or capsizing. • Weak Formation • Losing the hole – Might require re-spudding in a slightly different location • Charged Formations • Is it series problem??? 45 SHALLOW GAS INCEDENT 46 .

SHALLOW GAS INCEDENT 47 48 .

Shallow Gas What will happen as the formation is penetrated? 49 Shallow Gas 50 .

51 52 .

Shallow gas Top hole kick prevention • • • • • • Drill pilot hole Be careful when hole opening Control drilling Keep hole clean Keep mud weights low to prevent losses Pump out of hole 53 Shut in procedures 54 .

Hard shut in while drilling Lined up with remote choke closed Pick up Shut down pumps Check flow . Record pressure 55 Soft shut in while drilling Lined up with remote choke open Pick up Shut down pumps Check flow . Close remote choke 4. Close BOP* 3. 1-Close BOP 2-Open HCR (hydraulic stack valve) 3.if flowing. Record pressure 56 . 1.if flowing. Open HCR 2.

Kicks while tripping What is different? – String is open • Valves and crossover required • Safety valves – Full opening safety valve – Non return valve 57 Full opening safety valve TIW SMF Kelly cock 58 .

Non return valve Gray valve IBOP 59 Hard shut in while tripping Lined up with remote choke closed 1. Record pressure 60 . Close BOP* 3. Open HCR 6. Close FOSV 3. Install FOSV 2.

Close FOSV 3.Close flowline/shaker valve .this will: . line up and pump water. Stop drilling (keep pumping) 2. Pump mud 5.Open vent line . 62 . Install FOSV 2. Activate Diverter With One Button.Soft shut in while tripping Lined up with remote choke open 1. Increase pump speed to maximum 4. Open HCR 4. 1. Record pressure * API soft shut in states BOP (either Ram or Annular ) 61 Diverting Should only be considered on top hole where formation is weak. If well is still flowing after mud is pumped.Close diverter 3. Close remote choke 6. Close BOP* 5.

• FLOW/PIT ALARMS NOT SET OR WORKING • DRILL TOO FAR AFTER DRILLING BREAK • LACK OF ‘SHUT IN’ TRAINING • LACK OF MAINTENANCE + TESTING • WAITING FOR INSTRUCTIONS • ACCUMULATOR UNIT NOT WORKING • NOT MONITORING TRIPS 63 .SHUT IN PRACTICES THINGS THAT DELAY SHUT IN.