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CHAPTE R III

3.1. ADVANTAGES The advantages AND DISADVANTAGES OF EMPLOYING

ATMOSPHERIC DISPERSION of employing atmospheric dispersion as an ultimate disposal method of waste gases are listed below: 1. Dispersion of the waste gases leads to the dilution of the pollutants in the atmosphere. Self-purification mechanisms of atmospheric air also assists the process. 2. Tall stacks emit gas into the upper layer of the atmosphere and lower the ground concentration of the pollutants. 3. The method is commonly used, cheap and easily applicable. 4. By selecting the proper location of stacks through the use of different models for dispersion, it is possible to significantly reduce the concentration of waste gases in the atmosphere. The disadvantages of employing atmospheric dispersion as an ultimate disposal method of waste gases are: 1. Any particulate matter contained in the dispersed gases have a tendency to settle down to the ground level. 2. The location of the industrial source may prohibit dispersion as an option. 3. Plume rise can significantly vary with ambient temperature, stability conditions, molecular weight, and exit velocity of the stack gases. 4. The models of atmospheric dispersion are rarely accurate. They should only be used for estimation and comparative analysis. 3.2. PLUME RISE Several plume rise equations are available. Briggs used the following equations to calculate the plume rise:

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Where

Δh = plume rise, m

F = buoyancy flux, m4/s3 = 3.7 x 10-5QH u = wind speed, m/s x* = downward distance, m Xf = distance of transition from first stage of rise to the second stage of rise, m QH = heat emission rate, kcal/s If the term QH is not available, the term F may be estimated by F = (g/π)q(Ts - T)/Ts where g = gravity term 9.8 m/s2

q= stack gas volumetric flowrate, m3/s (actual conditions) Ts,T = stack gas and ambient air temperature, K, respectively Many more plume rise equations may be found in the literature. The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is mandated to use Brigg's equations to calculate plume rise. In past years, industry has often chosen to use the Holland or Davidson-Bryant equation. The Holland equation is

where

d= inside stack diameter, m

vs = stack exit velocity, m/s u = wind speed, m/s P = atmospheric pressure, mbar Ts,T = stack gas and ambient temperature, respectively, K ΔT=Ts - T

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Δh = plume rise, m The Davidson-Bryant equation is

reader should also note that the "plume rise" may be negative in some instances due to surrounding structures, topography, etc. 3.3. 3.3.1. POWER PLANT EMISSION and PLUME RISE MODEL OF The Short-Term Dispersion Model Equations

DISPERSION The Short Term model provides options to model emissions from a wide range of sources that might be present at a typical industrial source complex. The basis of the model is the straight-line,steady-state Gaussian plume equation, which is used with some modifications to model simple point source emissions from stacks, emissions from stacks that experience the effects of aerodynamic downwash. The point source algorithms are described in bellow. The Short Term model accepts hourly meteorological data records to define the conditions for plume rise, transport, diffusion, and deposition. The model estimates the concentration or deposition value for each source and receptor combination for each hour of input meteorology, and calculates user-selected short-term averages. 3.3.2. Point Source Emissions

The Short Term model uses a steady-state Gaussian plume equation to model emissions from point sources, such as stacks. This section describes the Gaussian point source model, including the basic Gaussian equation, the plume rise formulas, and the formulas used for determining dispersion parameters.

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3.3.3.

The Gaussian Equation

The short term model for stacks uses the steady-state Gaussian plume equation for a continuous elevated source. For each source and each hour, the origin of the source's coordinate system is placed at the ground surface at the base of the stack. The x axis is positive in the downwind direction, the y axis is crosswind (normal) to the x axis and the z axis extends vertically. The fixed receptor locations are converted to each source's coordinate system for each hourly concentration calculation. The hourly concentrations calculated for each source at each receptor are summed to obtain the total concentration produced at each receptor by the combined source emissions. For a steady-state Gaussian plume, the hourly concentration at downwind distance x (meters) and crosswind distance y (meters) is given by:

where: Q = pollutant emission rate (mass per unit time) K = a scaling coefficient to convert calculated concentrations to desired units (default value of 1 x 106 for Q in g/s and concentration in μg/m3) V = vertical term (See Section 1.1.6) D = decay term (See Section 1.1.7) σy , σz = standard deviation of lateral and vertical concentration distribution (m) (See Section 1.1.5) us = mean wind speed (m/s) at release height (See Section 1.1.3) Equation above includes a Vertical Term (V), a Decay Term (D), and dispersion parameters (σy and σz) as discussed below. It should be noted that the Vertical Term includes the effects of source elevation, receptor elevation, plume rise, limited mixing in the vertical, and the gravitational settling and dry deposition of particulates (with diameters greater than about 0.1 microns).

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The coordinate system used in making atmospheric dispersion estimates of gaseous pollutants, as suggested by Pasquill and modified by Gifford, is described below. The origin is at ground level or beneath the point of emission, with the x axis extending horizontally in the direction of the mean wind. The y axis is in the horizontal plane perpendicular to the x axis, and the z axis extends vertically. The plume travels along or parallel to the x axis (in the mean wind direction). The concentration, C, of gas or aerosol at (x,y, z) from a continuous source with an effective height, He, is given by:

where

He = effective height of emission (sum of the

physical stack height, Hs and the plume rise, Δh), m u = mean wind speed affecting the plume, m/s m = emission rate of pollutants, g/s σy , σz = dispersion coefficients or stability parameters, m C = concentration of gas, g/m3 x,y,z = coordinates, m The assumptions made in the development of the above equation are: (1)the plume spread has a Gaussian (normal) distribution in both the horizontal and vertical planes, with standard deviations of plume concentration distribution in the horizontal and vertical directions of av, and oz, respectively; (2)uniform emission rate of pollutants, m; (3)total reflection of the plume at ground z = 0 conditions; and (4)the plume moves downstream (horizontally in the x direction) with mean wind spead, u. Although any consistent set of units may be used, the cgs system is preferred. For concentrations calculated at ground level (z = 0), the equation simplifies to

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If the concentration is to be calculated along the centerline of the plume (y = 0), further simplification gives

In the case of a ground-level source with no effective plume rise (He = 0), the equation reduces to

It is important to note that the two dispersion coefficients are the product of a long history of field experiments, empirical judgments, and extrapolations of the data from those experiments. There are few knowledgeable practitioners in the dispersion modeling field who would dispute that the coefficients could easily have an inherent uncertainty of ±25%. 3.3.4. Case of Meteorogical Conditions The plume rise model examines a range of stability classes and wind speeds to identify the "worst case" meteorological conditions, i.e., the combination of wind speed and stability that results in the maximum ground level concentrations. The wind speed and stability class combinations used are given as bellow. The six applicable stability categories for these coefficients are shown in the following table:

Table 3.1 Stability Categories

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Note that A, B, C refer to daytime with unstable conditions; D refers to overcast or neutral conditions at night or during the day; E and F refer to night time stable conditions and are based on the amount of cloud cover. "Strong" incoming solar radiation corresponds to a solar altitude greater than 60 o with clear skies (e.g., sunny midday in midsummer); “slight” insolation (rate of radiation from the sun received per unit of Earth’s surface) corresponds to a solar altitude from 15 o to 35 o with clear skies (e.g., sunny midday in midwinter). Equations that approximately fit the Pasquill-Gifford curves (Turner, 1970) are used to calculate Fy and Fz (in meters) for the rural mode. The equations used to calculate Fy are of the form:

where:

In Equations the downwind distance x is in kilometers, and the coefficients c and d are listed in Table. The equation used to calculate Fz is of the form:

where the downwind distance x is in kilometers and Fz is in meters. The coefficients c,d, a and b are given in Table 3-2 and Table 3-3. Table 3.2 Parameters Used To Calculate Pasquill-Gifford Fy 3-7

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Table 3.3 Parameters Used To Calculate Pasquill-Gifford Fz

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* If the calculated value of Fz exceed 5000 m, Fz is set to 5000 m. ** Fz is equal to 5000 m. For the A-B, B-C, and C-D stability categories, one should use the average of the A and B values, B and C values, and C and D values, respectively. Figure 1 and 2 provide the variation of σy and σz with stability categories and distances.

Figure 3.1 Dispersion coefficients, y direction.

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Figure 3.2 Dispersion Coefficient, z direction Throughout the model, with the exception of the Schulman-Scire downwash algorithm, the dispersion parameters, σy follows: and σz, are adjusted to account for the effects of buoyancy induced dispersion as

where Δh is the distance-dependent plume rise. (Note that for inversion break-up and shoreline fumigation, distances are always beyond the distance to final rise, and therefore Δh = final plume rise). The model uses either a polar or a Cartesian receptor network as specified by the user. The model allows for the use of both types of receptors and for multiple networks in a single run. All receptor points are converted to cartesian (X,Y) coordinates prior to performing the dispersion calculations. In the Cartesian coordinate system, the X axis is positive to the east of the user-specified origin and the Y axis is positive to the north. For either type of receptor network, the user must define the location of each source with respect to the origin of the grid using Cartesian coordinates. In the polar coordinate system, assuming the X( R ) = rsinθ - Xo 3-10

Flue Gas Dispersion Model Study

Y( R ) = rcosθ - Yo origin is at X = Xo, Y = Yo, the X and Y coordinates of a receptor at the point (r, θ). The downwind distance is used in calculating the distance-dependent plume rise and the dispersion parameters. The wind power law is used to adjust the observed wind speed, uref, from a reference measurement height, zref, to the stack or release height, hs. The stack height wind speed, s, is used in the Gaussian plume equation, and in the plume rise formulas. The power law equation is of the form:

where p is the wind profile exponent. Values of p may be provided by the user as a function of stability category and wind speed class. Default values are as follows: Stability Category A B C D E F Rural Exponent 0.07 0.07 0.10 0.15 0.35 0.55 Urban Exponent 0.15 0.15 0.20 0.25 0.30 0.30

The stack height wind speed, us, is not allowed to be less than 1.0 m/s.

The mixing height used for neutral and unstable conditions (classes A-D) is based on an estimate of the mechanically driven

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mixing height. The mechanical mixing height, zm (m), is calculated (Randerson, 1984) as zm = 0.3 u*/f where: f u* = friction velocity (m/s)

= Coriolis parameter (9.374 x 10-5 s-1 at 40 (latitude)

Using a log-linear profile of the wind speed, and assuming a surface roughness length of about 0.3m, u* is estimated from the 10meter wind speed, u10, as u* = 0.1 u10 Substituting for u* in Equation 2 we have zm = 320 u10. The mechanical mixing height is taken to be the minimum daytime mixing height. To be conservative for limited mixing calculations, if the value of zm from Equation is less than the plume height, he, then the mixing height used in calculating the concentration is set equal to he + 1. For stable conditions, the mixing height is set equal to 10,000m to represent unlimited mixing. Wind speed at elevation from known wind speed and elevation

where

u = wind speed at height h, (m/s) u0 = wind speed at anemometer level h0, (m/s) n = coefficient, approximately 1/7 3-12

Flue Gas Dispersion Model Study

3.4. STACK DESIGN RECOMMENDATIONS As experience in designing stacks has accumulated over the years, several guidelines have evolved. 1. Stack heights should be at least 2.5 times the height of any surrounding buildings or obstacles so that significant turbulence is not introduced by these factors. 2. The stack gas exit velocity should be greater than 60 ft/s so that stack gases will escape the turbulent wake of the stack. In many cases, it is good practice to have the gas exit velocity on the order of 90 or 100 ft/s. 3. A stack located on a building should be set in a position that will assure that the exhaust escapes the wakes of nearby structures. 4. Gases from the stacks with diameters less than 5 ft and heights less than 200 ft will hit the ground part of the time, and the ground concentration will be excessive. In this case, the plume becomes unpredictable. 5. The maximum ground concentration of stack gases subjected to atmospheric dispersion occurs about 5-10 effective stack heights downwind from the point of emission. 6. When stack gases are subjected to atmospheric diffusion and building turbulence is not a factor, ground-level concentrations on the order of 0.001-1% of the stack concentration are possible for a properly designed stack. 7. Ground concentrations can be reduced by the use of higher stacks; the ground concentration varies inversely as the square of the effective stack height. 8. Average concentrations of a contaminant downwind from a stack are directly proportional to the discharge rate; an increase in the discharge rate by a given factor increases ground-level concentrations at all points by the same factor. 9. In general, increasing the dilution of stack gases by the addition of excess air in the stack does not affect ground-level

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concentrations appreciably. Practical stack dilutions are usually insignificant in comparison to the later atmospheric dilution by plume diffusion. Addition of diluting will increase the effective stack height, however, by increasing the stack exit velocity. This effect may be important at low wind speeds. On the other hand if the stack temperature is decreased appreciably by the dilution, the effective stack height may be reduced. 10. Stack dilution has an appreciable effect on the concentration in the plume close to the stack. These 10 guidelines represent the basic design elements of a stack "pollution control" system. An engineering approach suggests that each element be evaluated independently and as part of the whole control system. However, the engineering design and evaluation must be an integrated part of the complete pollution control program.

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