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Future Indian grid with 765kV and

above
A.K.Tripathy
Advisor Silicon Institute of
Technology NWET 2013

Towards a strong grid

Large grid does not mean a strong grid.


Grid is as weak as the weakest interconnection is.
Distant nodes have larger phase angle difference
Islanding is difficult with high level inter connection
Possibility of un-damped oscillation is higher
Consequences of grid failure in a large grid can be more
damaging.
This has to be weighed against higher reliability, better
trading opportunity, optimal utilization of network.
Is there a limit to the size of a grid from above
considerations

Question
Overlaying a higher voltage network
stabilizes the grid.
Major issues are reactive power management,
and contingency management,
Intangible benefits are
research and development, new generation of
products, lesser right of way

Peak demand in
India is expected
to increase
to more than
500,000 MW by
2027 for which
installed
generation
capacity
of
about 700,000
MW is required.
.

Pushing Technological Frontiers in Transmission


800 kV HVDC

1200kV UHVAC

765kV AC
500 kV HVDC

400 kV

1977

1990

2000

2011

2012/13

Changing philosophy in expanding the


Indian grid
Regional self sufficiency
Asynchronous inter regional connection by HVDC
B2B links
Synchronous north, north east , eastern and
western regions
And southern region joined asynchronously.
One Nation , one grid
A 765kV backbone and introduction of UHV AC
and DC

A large grid propagates disturbance


wider and farther
1. Different mix of generators respond differently.
The faster ones take the onus and slower ones do
not participate
2. Protection settings are fixed and not adaptive,
and therefore ,no survival effort
3. Larger fault currents stress equipments and
faster protection reduces fault ride through
capability

Indian Power Network is one


of the biggest

Transmission Grid Comprises:


765kV/400kV Lines - 95,500 ckt. km
220/132kV Lines - 114,600 ckt. km
HVDC bipoles - 4 nos.

HVDC back-to-back - 7 nos.


FSC 18 nos.; TCSC 9 nos.
NER, ER, NR & WR operating as single grid of 95,000MW

Inter-regional capacity : 27,600 MW

NORTH EAST-AGRA 3000


MW
ADANI 2500 MW
CHAMPA HVDC ARECA

Perspective Hybrid Grid by 2022 & beyond


765kV/1200kV AC and
800kV, 6000MW HVDC
Hybrid Grid

KISHENPUR

MOGA

TEHRI

MEERUT

MUNDKA

BAREILLY

AGRA
LUCKNOW

JAIPUR

SILIGURI
BALIA

GWALIOR
KOTA

PURNEA
GAYA

FATEHPUR
SASARAM
SASAN
BINA

NKSTPP

SATNA

INDORE
ITARSI

RANCHI
SEONI

SIPAT
RAIPUR

DHULE
IB VALLEY
WARDHA
AURANGABAD

JEYPORE

PUNE
SOLAPUR

HYDERABAD

VIJAYAWADA

LEGEND

RAICHUR

1200KV UHVAC LINES


765KV EHVAC LINES
800kV HVDC BIPOLE
KARNOOL

NER
POOLING
POINT

800kV AC

LINE VOLTAGE
765 KV
HIGHEST SYSTEM VOLTAGE
800 KV
RATED CURRENT
2000 A
SYSTEM NEUTRAL
EFFECTIVELY EARTHED
SHORT CKT CURRENT
40 KA for 1sec
BIL
1950 KVp for transformer and
reactors and 2100 KVp for
S/S AND 2400Kvp for line
SIWL
1550 KVp
POWER FREQ
830 KV rms
RIV at 508 KV rms
<500 micro volts

CONSULTANT :

ESCOM of South africa

Progress in 765 kV
First 765 kV line Sipat-Seoni approved in 2000 and
commissioned in 2008
Western pooling stations and LILO of D/C line
completed.
Under various stages:Anpara-Unao, Seoni-Bina, Seoni-Wardha, BaraFatehpur, Bara-Mainpuri, Gaya-Balia, Gaya-Baranasi,
Sasaram-Fatehpur, Barh-Gorakhpur, Auria-Gwalior,
Agra-Gwalior, Gwalior-Jaipur, Raichur-Sholapur,
Narendra-Kolhapur, Gwalior-Bina, Sasaram-North
Karampura, North Karampura-Sipat

ISSUES AT UHV LEVEL

Prominent Ferranti Effect


Higher Corona losses
Prolonged secondary arc extinction time
Higher slow front O/V on ground faults
High breaker TRV peak
Severe VFTO due to geometry and Topology

National Grid by 2012


Inter-regional capacity : 30,700
MW
NR
FATEHPUR

GORAKHPUR

AURAIYA
KANKROLI
RAPP

BALIA
MUZAFFARPUR

AGRA

PATNA

KOTA

MALANPUR
ZERDA
NAGDA

GWALIOR
UJJAIN

SAHU
PURI
500
MW

VINDHYACHAL
KORBA
WR POOLING

WR

SIPAT
RAIPUR
CHANDRAPUR

KOLHAPUR
PONDA

1000
MW

1000
MW

NARENDRAU.SILERU
BELGAUM
NAGJHARI

SR

BIRPARA

SILIGURI
BARH
B'SHARIFF
NABINAGAR
GAYA
MALDA
SASARAM

ER

DEHRI
BUDHIPADAR
RANCHI
ROURKELA
TALCHER

BALIMELA

1000
MW
GAZUWAKA

NER
SALAKATI
BONGAIGAON

+800kV HVDC Systems


+500kV HVDC experience from Rihand Delhi &
Chandrapur Padge
+600kV HVDC experience from Foz-du-Iguasu
to Sao Paulo
Specifications of + 800kV Systems are under
preparation by POWERGRID, CHINA, SOUTH
AFRICA, BRAZIL, EPRI and other consultants.

1200 kV introduced
1200kV test line commissioned at Bina and
handed over to Nation
Deol near Wardha will be the first 1200 kV
commercial line
Deol Aurangabad line will be second
400/1200kV substations are planned at Deol
and Aurangabad

UHV Transmission: India and


China

Development of a 1200 KV UHV AC system, the


highest AC system in the world, is an Indian dream to
tackle the ever growing power demand which is
expected to be over 400 GW by 2020. Although many
countries in the world like USSR, Japan, America &
Italy have made great progress in the research of
1200KV ultra high voltage AC transmission system
only China has recently established the commercial
1100 kV system successfully.

NORMAL
AND
COMPACT
TOWERS
AT 800 kV

Corona cage is used to


study
the
corona
characteristics
and
environmental aspects of
the UHV
overhead
transmission line, such as
:
radio interference
audible noise and
corona loss.
The corona cage consists of
a single test conductor or
conductor bundle placed
concentrically inside a
metallic cylinder with a
much larger radius.

A 400 km long line


generates 2400 MVR
Shunt MVAR to be
handled will be 2400
MVAR
Dynamic compensation
Instead of fixed and
switched
shunt
reactors,
matching
dynamically controlled
shunt reactor will be
required

Dynamic compensation
system

Air Insulation Studies For 1200 kV UHVAC


Transmission Line:
The study is to optimize conductor tower
air insulation clearances for adoption in
1200 kV AC transmission lines. Eight
Bersimis conductor bundle was used for the
study.
The critical wave shape was used for
determining the optimum clearance required
for withstand voltage of 1800 kVp
corresponding to 1200 kV transmission lines.

India's First 1200 KV Power Product

Crompton Grieve
and BHEL supply the 1200 kV
CVT

1200KV single V suspension


string for 8 bundle ACSR MOOSE
(OCTAGONAL)

1200kv double tension insulator


string suitable for 8 x ACSR
bundle
T-connector and BPI
connector

1200kv single suspension insulator

for 8 x ACSR

CVT and CT

CVT,CT and Surge arrester

Transformer

The rated voltage of surge


arrester is 850 kV and Lightning
Impulse Protective Level (LIPL)
and
Switching
Impulse
Protective Level (SIPL) as 1700
kV (at 20 kA) and 1500 kV (at 2
kA) respectively. Few more
examples of such equipment
successfully
developed
are
Transformer,Circuit
breakers,Isolators,insulators both
procelain
and
polymers,Transmission
Line
Towers,Line
Hardware and
conductors etc.
.

800kV HVDC CONVERTER TRF.


BUSHING (20.6 m)

800kV Ultra HVDC


Impressions from Transformer Transport

View of 1200kV Trf. Vijai electricals


make

CGL MAKE Trf.

BHEL make Transformer

Bina 1200 kV Subtations

Another view

1200kV double ckt. towers

1200 kV single ckt. Transmission line

Evening shadows on the substation

Cooler bank transformers

View of switchyard

765kV CTs

765kV Transformer Yard

765kV Circuit Breakers

765kV Tower

765kV Transformer Yard

Need for a National Reliability Council

IN USA MODEL
The best managed grids in the world can fail.
Important thing is to analyse failure and learn.
Claiming high PLF and Transmission availability is not all.
The acid test is reliability of the supply chain.

We need a neutral National level reliability council.


Public at large have a right to information.

Conclusion

Research provides knowledge.


Knowledge provides courage
Courage allows risk.
No Risk, there is No gain.

Research therefore is always justified