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# EEU104/3: Electrical Technology

AC CIRCUIT ANALYSIS
Dr Haidi Ibrahim
Semester 2, 2010/2011 Session

Main Reference
EEU104/3:
Electrical
Technology
Dr Haidi Ibrahim
AC CIRCUIT ANALYSIS
Main reference
Expected outcomes
Revisions:
-- Complex number
-- Sinusoidal waveform
Basic AC component
-- Power sources
-- Resistance
-- Reactance
-- Impedance
-- Power calculation

Circuit Analysis

## Edward Hughes, Hughes Electrical and

Electronic Technology, 10th Edition,
Pearson Prentice Hall, 2008

## Chapter 9: Alternating Voltage and Current

Chapter 10: Single-phase Series Circuits
Chapter 11: Single-phase Parallel Networks
Chapter 12: Power in AC Circuits
Chapter 13: Complex Notation
Chapter 14: Resonance in AC Circuits
Chapter 15: Network Theorem Applied to AC
Networks

Expected Outcomes
EEU104/3:
Electrical
Technology
Dr Haidi Ibrahim
AC CIRCUIT ANALYSIS
Main reference
Expected outcomes
Revisions:
-- Complex number
-- Sinusoidal waveform
Basic AC component
-- Power sources
-- Resistance
-- Reactance
-- Impedance
-- Power calculation

Circuit Analysis

## After this lesson, the students

should be able to analyze one-phase
AC circuit.
Using complex number and phasor
Sinusoidal and cosine waveform (i.e.
v(t), i(t), p(t))
Calculate the average and r.m.s values

Complex Number
EEU104/3:
Electrical
Technology
Dr Haidi Ibrahim
AC CIRCUIT ANALYSIS
Main reference
Expected outcomes
Revisions:
-- Complex number
-- Sinusoidal waveform
Basic AC component
-- Power sources
-- Resistance
-- Reactance
-- Impedance
-- Power calculation

Circuit Analysis

imaginary part.
a jb

## Here, a presents the real part, and jb

presents the imaginary part.
j 1
j 1
2

Complex Number
EEU104/3:
Electrical
Technology

## If N=a+jb, its complex conjugate is:

Dr Haidi Ibrahim

N* a jb

AC CIRCUIT ANALYSIS
Main reference
Expected outcomes
Revisions:
-- Complex number
-- Sinusoidal waveform
Basic AC component
-- Power sources
-- Resistance
-- Reactance
-- Impedance
-- Power calculation

Circuit Analysis

Then,
NN* a 2 b 2

Complex Number
EEU104/3:
Electrical
Technology
Dr Haidi Ibrahim
AC CIRCUIT ANALYSIS
Main reference
Expected outcomes
Revisions:
-- Complex number
-- Sinusoidal waveform
Basic AC component
-- Power sources
-- Resistance
-- Reactance
-- Impedance
-- Power calculation

Circuit Analysis

## If N1=a+jb, and N2=c+jd

N1 N2 a jb c jd a c j b d

Subtraction:

N1 N2 a jb c jd a c j b d

Multiplication:

N1N2 a jb c jd ac bd j bc ad

Division:

N1 N1 N*2 ac bd j bc ad
*

N2 N2 N2
c2 d 2

EEU104/3:
Electrical
Technology
Dr Haidi Ibrahim
AC CIRCUIT ANALYSIS
Main reference
Expected outcomes
Revisions:
-- Complex number
-- Sinusoidal waveform
Basic AC component
-- Power sources
-- Resistance
-- Reactance
-- Impedance
-- Power calculation

Circuit Analysis

Exercise 1.1:
If N1= -0.6753 + j0.3425, and
N2= 1.4322 - j0.2155, in within 3
minutes, find the followings:
a)
b)
c)
d)

N1+N2
N1-N2
N1N2
N1/N2

EEU104/3:
Electrical
Technology

## TIPS: Casio fx-570MS

Dr Haidi Ibrahim
AC CIRCUIT ANALYSIS

## STEP 1: Set the calculator into CMPLX mode

ON

MODE

Main reference
Expected outcomes
Revisions:
-- Complex number
-- Sinusoidal waveform

## STEP 2: Store N1 into memory A

(-)
SHIFT

Basic AC component
-- Power sources
-- Resistance
-- Reactance
-- Impedance
-- Power calculation

Circuit Analysis

STO

1
SHIFT

4
STO

2
B

EEU104/3:
Electrical
Technology

## TIPS: Casio fx-570MS

Dr Haidi Ibrahim
AC CIRCUIT ANALYSIS

STEP 4: Solve N1 + N2
ALPHA

Main reference
Expected outcomes
Revisions:
-- Complex number
-- Sinusoidal waveform
Basic AC component
-- Power sources
-- Resistance
-- Reactance
-- Impedance
-- Power calculation

Circuit Analysis

Use

A
SHIFT

ALPHA

ReIm

## STEP 5: Use similar operation as STEP 4 to solve N1 - N2, N1 N2,

and N1 /N2.

EEU104/3:
Electrical
Technology
Dr Haidi Ibrahim
AC CIRCUIT ANALYSIS
Main reference
Expected outcomes
Revisions:
-- Complex number
-- Sinusoidal waveform
Basic AC component
-- Power sources
-- Resistance
-- Reactance
-- Impedance
-- Power calculation

Circuit Analysis

Exercise 1.1:
If N1= -0.6753 + j0.3425, and
N2= 1.4322 - j0.2155, in within 3
minutes, find the followings:
a)
b)
c)
d)

N1+N2 = 0.7569+j0.1270
N1-N2 = -2.1075+j0.5580
N1N2 = -0.8934+j0.6361
N1/N2 = -0.4963+j0.1645

EEU104/3:
Electrical
Technology
Dr Haidi Ibrahim
AC CIRCUIT ANALYSIS
Main reference
Expected outcomes
Revisions:
-- Complex number
-- Sinusoidal waveform
Basic AC component
-- Power sources
-- Resistance
-- Reactance
-- Impedance
-- Power calculation

Circuit Analysis

## There are three common ways of

representing complex number:
1. Rectangular or Cartesian notation

A a jb

2. Polar notation

A A
3. Trigonometric notation

A Acos j sin

EEU104/3:
Electrical
Technology
Dr Haidi Ibrahim

## If given: A a jb, in Cartesian

space:

AC CIRCUIT ANALYSIS
Main reference

Im

Expected outcomes
Revisions:
-- Complex number
-- Sinusoidal waveform
Basic AC component
-- Power sources
-- Resistance
-- Reactance
-- Impedance
-- Power calculation

Re

Circuit Analysis

Horizontal axis for real part, vertical axis for imaginary part

EEU104/3:
Electrical
Technology
Dr Haidi Ibrahim

## If given: A a jb, in Cartesian

space:

AC CIRCUIT ANALYSIS
Main reference

Im

Expected outcomes
Revisions:
-- Complex number
-- Sinusoidal waveform

A a jb

Basic AC component
-- Power sources
-- Resistance
-- Reactance
-- Impedance
-- Power calculation

aa

Circuit Analysis

Treating as vector

b jb
Re

EEU104/3:
Electrical
Technology
Dr Haidi Ibrahim

## If given: A a jb, in Cartesian

space:

AC CIRCUIT ANALYSIS
Main reference

Im

Expected outcomes
Revisions:
-- Complex number
-- Sinusoidal waveform

A a jb

Basic AC component
-- Power sources
-- Resistance
-- Reactance
-- Impedance
-- Power calculation

aa

Circuit Analysis

Treating as vector

b jb
Re

EEU104/3:
Electrical
Technology
Dr Haidi Ibrahim
AC CIRCUIT ANALYSIS

## Using Pythagoras theorem:

A a 2 b2

Main reference
Expected outcomes
Revisions:
-- Complex number
-- Sinusoidal waveform

Basic AC component
-- Power sources
-- Resistance
-- Reactance
-- Impedance
-- Power calculation

Circuit Analysis

A ab

Aa

Ab

EEU104/3:
Electrical
Technology
Dr Haidi Ibrahim
AC CIRCUIT ANALYSIS
Main reference

## Using trigonometry theories:

b
arctan
a

Expected outcomes
Revisions:
-- Complex number
-- Sinusoidal waveform
Basic AC component
-- Power sources
-- Resistance
-- Reactance
-- Impedance
-- Power calculation

Circuit Analysis

EEU104/3:
Electrical
Technology
Dr Haidi Ibrahim
AC CIRCUIT ANALYSIS
Main reference

## Therefore, rectangular notation can

be changed into polar form:
a jb A

Expected outcomes
Revisions:
-- Complex number
-- Sinusoidal waveform
Basic AC component
-- Power sources
-- Resistance
-- Reactance
-- Impedance
-- Power calculation

Circuit Analysis

EEU104/3:
Electrical
Technology
Dr Haidi Ibrahim
AC CIRCUIT ANALYSIS
Main reference

## Using trigonometry theories:

a A cos
b A sin

Expected outcomes
Revisions:
-- Complex number
-- Sinusoidal waveform
Basic AC component
-- Power sources
-- Resistance
-- Reactance
-- Impedance
-- Power calculation

Circuit Analysis

EEU104/3:
Electrical
Technology
Dr Haidi Ibrahim
AC CIRCUIT ANALYSIS
Main reference

## Thus, polar notation can be changed

into trigonometric or rectangular
notation.

Expected outcomes
Revisions:
-- Complex number
-- Sinusoidal waveform
Basic AC component
-- Power sources
-- Resistance
-- Reactance
-- Impedance
-- Power calculation

Circuit Analysis

EEU104/3:
Electrical
Technology
Dr Haidi Ibrahim
AC CIRCUIT ANALYSIS
Main reference
Expected outcomes
Revisions:
-- Complex number
-- Sinusoidal waveform
Basic AC component
-- Power sources
-- Resistance
-- Reactance
-- Impedance
-- Power calculation

Circuit Analysis

Exercise 1.2:
If A= -3- j4, presents it in polar
notation and trigonometric notation.

EEU104/3:
Electrical
Technology

## TIPS: Casio fx-570MS

Dr Haidi Ibrahim
AC CIRCUIT ANALYSIS

## STEP 1: Set the calculator into CMPLX and Deg mode

ON

MODE

MODE

MODE

MODE

MODE

Main reference
Expected outcomes
Revisions:
-- Complex number
-- Sinusoidal waveform
Basic AC component
-- Power sources
-- Resistance
-- Reactance
-- Impedance
-- Power calculation

Circuit Analysis

(-)

SHIFT

Use to

SHIFT

ReIm

## toggle between magnitude and angle

EEU104/3:
Electrical
Technology
Dr Haidi Ibrahim
AC CIRCUIT ANALYSIS
Main reference

Exercise 1.2:
If A= -3- j4, presents it in polar
notation and trigonometric notation.

Expected outcomes
Revisions:
-- Complex number
-- Sinusoidal waveform
Basic AC component
-- Power sources
-- Resistance
-- Reactance
-- Impedance
-- Power calculation

Circuit Analysis

In polar notation:
A 5 126.8699

In trigonometric notation:

## A 5 cos 126.8699 j sin 126.8699

EEU104/3:
Electrical
Technology
Dr Haidi Ibrahim
AC CIRCUIT ANALYSIS
Main reference
Expected outcomes
Revisions:
-- Complex number
-- Sinusoidal waveform
Basic AC component
-- Power sources
-- Resistance
-- Reactance
-- Impedance
-- Power calculation

Circuit Analysis

Exercise 1.3:
If A= -3- j4, and B= 7 5 calculate
C=A+B.

EEU104/3:
Electrical
Technology

## TIPS: Casio fx-570MS

Dr Haidi Ibrahim
AC CIRCUIT ANALYSIS

## STEP 1: Set the calculator into CMPLX and Deg mode

ON

MODE

MODE

MODE

MODE

MODE

Main reference
Expected outcomes
Revisions:
-- Complex number
-- Sinusoidal waveform
Basic AC component
-- Power sources
-- Resistance
-- Reactance
-- Impedance
-- Power calculation

Circuit Analysis

STEP2:
(-)

+
7
=

SHIFT

## Input B in polar form

Result

EEU104/3:
Electrical
Technology
Dr Haidi Ibrahim
AC CIRCUIT ANALYSIS
Main reference

Exercise 1.3:
If A= -3- j4, and B= 7 5 calculate
C=A+B.

Expected outcomes
Revisions:
-- Complex number
-- Sinusoidal waveform
Basic AC component
-- Power sources
-- Resistance
-- Reactance
-- Impedance
-- Power calculation

Circuit Analysis

C 3.9734 j3.3899
5.2229 40.4694

EEU104/3:
Electrical
Technology
Dr Haidi Ibrahim
AC CIRCUIT ANALYSIS
Main reference
Expected outcomes
Revisions:
-- Complex number
-- Sinusoidal waveform
Basic AC component
-- Power sources
-- Resistance
-- Reactance
-- Impedance
-- Power calculation

Circuit Analysis

Exercise 1.4:
If A= -3- j4, and B= 7 5 calculate
C=A+B.

EEU104/3:
Electrical
Technology

## TIPS: Casio fx-570MS

Dr Haidi Ibrahim
AC CIRCUIT ANALYSIS

## STEP 1: Set the calculator into CMPLX and Rad mode

ON

MODE

MODE

MODE

MODE

MODE

Main reference
Expected outcomes
Revisions:
-- Complex number
-- Sinusoidal waveform
Basic AC component
-- Power sources
-- Resistance
-- Reactance
-- Impedance
-- Power calculation

Circuit Analysis

STEP2:
(-)

+
7
=

SHIFT

## Input B in polar form

Result

EEU104/3:
Electrical
Technology
Dr Haidi Ibrahim
AC CIRCUIT ANALYSIS
Main reference

Exercise 1.4:
If A= -3- j4, and B= 7 5 calculate
C=A+B.

Expected outcomes
Revisions:
-- Complex number
-- Sinusoidal waveform
Basic AC component
-- Power sources
-- Resistance
-- Reactance
-- Impedance
-- Power calculation

C 1.0144 j10.7125
10.7604 1.6652

Circuit Analysis

* Unit is important!!!

EEU104/3:
Electrical
Technology
Dr Haidi Ibrahim
AC CIRCUIT ANALYSIS
Main reference
Expected outcomes
Revisions:
-- Complex number
-- Sinusoidal waveform
Basic AC component
-- Power sources
-- Resistance
-- Reactance
-- Impedance
-- Power calculation

Circuit Analysis

Exercise 1.5:
If A= 3 4, and B= 5 6 calculate
C=A+B.

EEU104/3:
Electrical
Technology

## TIPS: Casio fx-570MS

Dr Haidi Ibrahim
AC CIRCUIT ANALYSIS

## STEP 1: Set the calculator into CMPLX and Deg mode

ON

MODE

MODE

MODE

MODE

MODE

Main reference
Expected outcomes
Revisions:
-- Complex number
-- Sinusoidal waveform
Basic AC component
-- Power sources
-- Resistance
-- Reactance
-- Impedance
-- Power calculation

Circuit Analysis

STEP2:
3

SHIFT

## Input A in polar form (degree)

+
5
=

SHIFT

SHIFT

DRG

Result

Convert B to degree

EEU104/3:
Electrical
Technology
Dr Haidi Ibrahim
AC CIRCUIT ANALYSIS
Main reference

Exercise 1.5:
If A= 3 4, and B= 5 6 calculate
C=A+B.

Expected outcomes
Revisions:
-- Complex number
-- Sinusoidal waveform
Basic AC component
-- Power sources
-- Resistance
-- Reactance
-- Impedance
-- Power calculation

Circuit Analysis

C 7.7935 j1.1878
7.8835 8.6657
7.8835 0.1512

EEU104/3:
Electrical
Technology
Dr Haidi Ibrahim
AC CIRCUIT ANALYSIS
Main reference
Expected outcomes
Revisions:
-- Complex number
-- Sinusoidal waveform
Basic AC component
-- Power sources
-- Resistance
-- Reactance
-- Impedance
-- Power calculation

Circuit Analysis

Exercise 1.6:
If A= 4 4, and B= 2 176 calculate
C=AB.

EEU104/3:
Electrical
Technology
Dr Haidi Ibrahim
AC CIRCUIT ANALYSIS
Main reference

Exercise 1.6:
If A= 4 4, and B= 2 176 calculate
C=AB.

Expected outcomes
Revisions:
-- Complex number
-- Sinusoidal waveform
Basic AC component
-- Power sources
-- Resistance
-- Reactance
-- Impedance
-- Power calculation

Circuit Analysis

C 44 2176

(4 2) 4 176
8180
8

EEU104/3:
Electrical
Technology
Dr Haidi Ibrahim
AC CIRCUIT ANALYSIS
Main reference
Expected outcomes
Revisions:
-- Complex number
-- Sinusoidal waveform
Basic AC component
-- Power sources
-- Resistance
-- Reactance
-- Impedance
-- Power calculation

Circuit Analysis

Exercise 1.7:
If A= 4 4, and B= 2 176 calculate
C=A/B.

EEU104/3:
Electrical
Technology
Dr Haidi Ibrahim
AC CIRCUIT ANALYSIS
Main reference

Exercise 1.7:
If A= 4 4, and B= 2 176 calculate
C=A/B.

Expected outcomes
Revisions:
-- Complex number
-- Sinusoidal waveform
Basic AC component
-- Power sources
-- Resistance
-- Reactance
-- Impedance
-- Power calculation

Circuit Analysis

(4 / 2)4

176

C 44 / 2176

2 172

EEU104/3:
Electrical
Technology
Dr Haidi Ibrahim
AC CIRCUIT ANALYSIS
Main reference
Expected outcomes
Revisions:
-- Complex number
-- Sinusoidal waveform
Basic AC component
-- Power sources
-- Resistance
-- Reactance
-- Impedance
-- Power calculation

Circuit Analysis

Exercise 1.8:
If A= 4 4, and B= -5 184
calculate C=A+B.

EEU104/3:
Electrical
Technology
Dr Haidi Ibrahim
AC CIRCUIT ANALYSIS
Main reference
Expected outcomes
Revisions:
-- Complex number
-- Sinusoidal waveform

Exercise 1.8:
If A= 4 4, and B= -5 184
calculate C=A+B.
C 44 (5)184

44 (1)5184

Basic AC component
-- Power sources
-- Resistance
-- Reactance
-- Impedance
-- Power calculation

44 1 180 5184

Circuit Analysis

94

44 54

EEU104/3:
Electrical
Technology
Dr Haidi Ibrahim
AC CIRCUIT ANALYSIS
Main reference
Expected outcomes
Revisions:
-- Complex number
-- Sinusoidal waveform
Basic AC component
-- Power sources
-- Resistance
-- Reactance
-- Impedance
-- Power calculation

Circuit Analysis

Exercise 1.9:
If A= 4 4, and B= -5 184
calculate C=(A-1+B-1)-1.

EEU104/3:
Electrical
Technology
Dr Haidi Ibrahim
AC CIRCUIT ANALYSIS
Main reference
Expected outcomes
Revisions:
-- Complex number
-- Sinusoidal waveform
Basic AC component
-- Power sources
-- Resistance
-- Reactance
-- Impedance
-- Power calculation

Circuit Analysis

Exercise 1.9:
If A= 4 4, and B= -5 184
calculate C=(A-1+B-1)-1.
1

44 (5)184
1
1

44 5184
using calculator
2.22224

EEU104/3:
Electrical
Technology
Dr Haidi Ibrahim
AC CIRCUIT ANALYSIS
Main reference
Expected outcomes
Revisions:
-- Complex number
-- Sinusoidal waveform
Basic AC component
-- Power sources
-- Resistance
-- Reactance
-- Impedance
-- Power calculation

Circuit Analysis

Exercise 1.20:
If A= 4+3j, and B= 11-12j calculate
C=(A-1+B-1)-1.

EEU104/3:
Electrical
Technology
Dr Haidi Ibrahim
AC CIRCUIT ANALYSIS
Main reference

Exercise 1.20:
If A= 4+3j, and B= 11-12j calculate
C=(A-1+B-1)-1.

Expected outcomes
Revisions:
-- Complex number
-- Sinusoidal waveform
Basic AC component
-- Power sources
-- Resistance
-- Reactance
-- Impedance
-- Power calculation

Circuit Analysis

1
1

4 j 3 11 j12
using calculator
4.653020.3441

Sinusoidal Waveform
EEU104/3:
Electrical
Technology
Dr Haidi Ibrahim

## The cosine or sinusoidal waveform is a

common type of alternating current (ac)
and alternating voltage.

AC CIRCUIT ANALYSIS
Main reference
Expected outcomes
Revisions:
-- Complex number
-- Sinusoidal waveform

1.5

1
0.5

Basic AC component
-- Power sources
-- Resistance
-- Reactance
-- Impedance
-- Power calculation

-0.5

Circuit Analysis

-1.5

-1

Sinusoidal Waveform
EEU104/3:
Electrical
Technology
Dr Haidi Ibrahim
AC CIRCUIT ANALYSIS
Main reference
Expected outcomes
Revisions:
-- Complex number
-- Sinusoidal waveform
Basic AC component
-- Power sources
-- Resistance
-- Reactance
-- Impedance
-- Power calculation

Circuit Analysis

## The cosine waveform is expressed

as:
i (t ) I p cos(t )
v(t ) V p cos(t )
p (t ) Pp cos(t )

## Ip, Vp, and Pp are the peak values

(capital letters present constant)
Small letters present values that
change over time

EEU104/3:
Electrical
Technology
Dr Haidi Ibrahim
AC CIRCUIT ANALYSIS
Main reference
Expected outcomes
Revisions:
-- Complex number
-- Sinusoidal waveform

2f 360 f

## Frequency, f, is given as 1/T, where T

is a period of one cycle.
Peak value
1.5
1

Basic AC component
-- Power sources
-- Resistance
-- Reactance
-- Impedance
-- Power calculation

0.5
0
-0.5

Circuit Analysis
-1
-1.5

EEU104/3:
Electrical
Technology
Dr Haidi Ibrahim
AC CIRCUIT ANALYSIS
Main reference
Expected outcomes
Revisions:
-- Complex number
-- Sinusoidal waveform
Basic AC component
-- Power sources
-- Resistance
-- Reactance
-- Impedance
-- Power calculation

Circuit Analysis

## Phase angle, , can be in radian or

degree (thus, unit is important)
Similarly, unit is important to the
angular velocity too.

EEU104/3:
Electrical
Technology
Dr Haidi Ibrahim
AC CIRCUIT ANALYSIS
Main reference
Expected outcomes
Revisions:
-- Complex number
-- Sinusoidal waveform
Basic AC component
-- Power sources
-- Resistance
-- Reactance
-- Impedance
-- Power calculation

Circuit Analysis

Exercise 1.11
Find the voltage at t=0.1s, if this ac
voltage is given by:
v(t ) 0.75 cos(34t 34 )V

EEU104/3:
Electrical
Technology
Dr Haidi Ibrahim
AC CIRCUIT ANALYSIS
Main reference
Expected outcomes

Exercise 1.11
Find the voltage at t=0.1s, if this ac
voltage is given by:
v(t ) 0.75 cos(34t 34 )V

Revisions:
-- Complex number
-- Sinusoidal waveform
Basic AC component
-- Power sources
-- Resistance
-- Reactance
-- Impedance
-- Power calculation

Circuit Analysis

v(0.1s) 0.4940V

EEU104/3:
Electrical
Technology
Dr Haidi Ibrahim
AC CIRCUIT ANALYSIS
Main reference
Expected outcomes
Revisions:
-- Complex number
-- Sinusoidal waveform
Basic AC component
-- Power sources
-- Resistance
-- Reactance
-- Impedance
-- Power calculation

Circuit Analysis

Exercise 1.12
Find the current at t=1s, if this ac
current is given by:
i(t ) cos(34 t 56 )A

EEU104/3:
Electrical
Technology
Dr Haidi Ibrahim
AC CIRCUIT ANALYSIS
Main reference
Expected outcomes

Exercise 1.12
Find the current at t=1s, if this ac
current is given by:
i(t ) cos(34 t 56 )A

Revisions:
-- Complex number
-- Sinusoidal waveform
Basic AC component
-- Power sources
-- Resistance
-- Reactance
-- Impedance
-- Power calculation

Circuit Analysis

i(1s) 0A

EEU104/3:
Electrical
Technology
Dr Haidi Ibrahim
AC CIRCUIT ANALYSIS
Main reference
Expected outcomes
Revisions:
-- Complex number
-- Sinusoidal waveform
Basic AC component
-- Power sources
-- Resistance
-- Reactance
-- Impedance
-- Power calculation

Circuit Analysis

Exercise 1.13
Find the power at t=1s, t=1.1s and
t=2s if this ac power is given by:
p(t ) 10 cos(t 3) W

EEU104/3:
Electrical
Technology
Dr Haidi Ibrahim
AC CIRCUIT ANALYSIS
Main reference
Expected outcomes

Exercise 1.13
Find the power at t=1s, t=1.1s and
t=2s if this ac power is given by:
p(t ) 10 cos(t 3) W

Revisions:
-- Complex number
-- Sinusoidal waveform
Basic AC component
-- Power sources
-- Resistance
-- Reactance
-- Impedance
-- Power calculation

Circuit Analysis

p(1s) -6.5364W
p(1.1s) -5.7482W
p(2s) 2.8366W

EEU104/3:
Electrical
Technology
Dr Haidi Ibrahim
AC CIRCUIT ANALYSIS
Main reference
Expected outcomes
Revisions:
-- Complex number
-- Sinusoidal waveform
Basic AC component
-- Power sources
-- Resistance
-- Reactance
-- Impedance
-- Power calculation

Circuit Analysis

Exercise 1.14
For the following waveform,
determine its peak value, angular
velocity, frequency, period, and
phase angle.
p(t ) 10 cos(t 3) W

EEU104/3:
Electrical
Technology

## p(t ) 10 cos(t 3)W

Dr Haidi Ibrahim
AC CIRCUIT ANALYSIS
Main reference
Expected outcomes
Revisions:
-- Complex number
-- Sinusoidal waveform
Basic AC component
-- Power sources
-- Resistance
-- Reactance
-- Impedance
-- Power calculation

Circuit Analysis

## Peak value, Pp = 10W

Frequency,
Period, T = 1/f = 2 s

EEU104/3:
Electrical
Technology
Dr Haidi Ibrahim
AC CIRCUIT ANALYSIS
Main reference
Expected outcomes
Revisions:
-- Complex number
-- Sinusoidal waveform
Basic AC component
-- Power sources
-- Resistance
-- Reactance
-- Impedance
-- Power calculation

Circuit Analysis

Exercise 1.15
For the following waveform,
determine its peak value, angular
velocity, frequency, period, and
phase angle.
v(t ) sin(45 t )V

EEU104/3:
Electrical
Technology
Dr Haidi Ibrahim
AC CIRCUIT ANALYSIS
Main reference
Expected outcomes
Revisions:
-- Complex number
-- Sinusoidal waveform
Basic AC component
-- Power sources
-- Resistance
-- Reactance
-- Impedance
-- Power calculation

Circuit Analysis

v(t ) sin(45 t )V
cos(45 t 90 )V
Peak value, Vp = 1V
Angular velocity, = 45o/s
Frequency,
f = (45o/s)/(360o) = 0.125Hz
Period, T = 1/f = 8 s
Phase angle, = -90o

EEU104/3:
Electrical
Technology
Dr Haidi Ibrahim
AC CIRCUIT ANALYSIS
Main reference
Expected outcomes
Revisions:
-- Complex number
-- Sinusoidal waveform
Basic AC component
-- Power sources
-- Resistance
-- Reactance
-- Impedance
-- Power calculation

Circuit Analysis

Exercise 1.16
For the following waveform,
determine its peak value, angular
velocity, frequency, period, and
phase angle.
v(t ) 0.754 cos( t )V

EEU104/3:
Electrical
Technology
Dr Haidi Ibrahim
AC CIRCUIT ANALYSIS
Main reference
Expected outcomes
Revisions:
-- Complex number
-- Sinusoidal waveform
Basic AC component
-- Power sources
-- Resistance
-- Reactance
-- Impedance
-- Power calculation

Circuit Analysis

## v(t ) 0.754 cos( t )V

Peak value, Vp = 0.754V
Angular velocity, = o/s
Frequency,
f = ( o/s)/(360o) = 8.7266mHz
Period, T = 1/f = 114.5916 s

EEU104/3:
Electrical
Technology
Dr Haidi Ibrahim
AC CIRCUIT ANALYSIS
Main reference
Expected outcomes
Revisions:
-- Complex number
-- Sinusoidal waveform
Basic AC component
-- Power sources
-- Resistance
-- Reactance
-- Impedance
-- Power calculation

Circuit Analysis

Exercise 1.17
For the following waveform,
determine its peak value, angular
velocity, frequency, period, and
phase angle.
i(t ) 0.754 cos( ) A

EEU104/3:
Electrical
Technology
Dr Haidi Ibrahim
AC CIRCUIT ANALYSIS
Main reference

i (t ) 0.754 cos( ) A
0.754(-1.00) A
-0.754A

Expected outcomes
Revisions:
-- Complex number
-- Sinusoidal waveform
Basic AC component
-- Power sources
-- Resistance
-- Reactance
-- Impedance
-- Power calculation

Circuit Analysis

supply

EEU104/3:
Electrical
Technology

## If angular velocity, , decreases:

Frequency, f, decreases, while period,
T, increases

Dr Haidi Ibrahim
AC CIRCUIT ANALYSIS
Main reference

1.5

Expected outcomes
Revisions:
-- Complex number
-- Sinusoidal waveform
Basic AC component
-- Power sources
-- Resistance
-- Reactance
-- Impedance
-- Power calculation

0.5

cos(0.5t)
0
0

90

180

270

360

450

-0.5
-1

Circuit Analysis

-1.5

t(degree)

540

630

720

cos(t)
cos(2t)

EEU104/3:
Electrical
Technology

## If angular velocity, , decreases:

Frequency, f, decreases, while period,
T, increases

Dr Haidi Ibrahim
AC CIRCUIT ANALYSIS
Main reference

1.5

Expected outcomes
Revisions:
-- Complex number
-- Sinusoidal waveform
Basic AC component
-- Power sources
-- Resistance
-- Reactance
-- Impedance
-- Power calculation

0.5

cos(0.5t)
0
0

90

180

270

360

450

-0.5
-1

Circuit Analysis

-1.5

t(degree)

540

630

720

cos(t)
cos(2t)

EEU104/3:
Electrical
Technology

## If angular velocity, , increases:

Frequency, f, increases, while period, T,
decreases

Dr Haidi Ibrahim
AC CIRCUIT ANALYSIS
Main reference

1.5

Expected outcomes
Revisions:
-- Complex number
-- Sinusoidal waveform
Basic AC component
-- Power sources
-- Resistance
-- Reactance
-- Impedance
-- Power calculation

0.5

cos(0.5t)
0
0

90

180

270

360

450

-0.5
-1

Circuit Analysis

-1.5

t(degree)

540

630

720

cos(t)
cos(2t)

EEU104/3:
Electrical
Technology

## If angular velocity, , increases:

Frequency, f, increases, while period, T,
decreases

Dr Haidi Ibrahim
AC CIRCUIT ANALYSIS
Main reference

1.5

Expected outcomes
Revisions:
-- Complex number
-- Sinusoidal waveform
Basic AC component
-- Power sources
-- Resistance
-- Reactance
-- Impedance
-- Power calculation

0.5

cos(0.5t)
0
0

90

180

270

360

450

-0.5
-1

Circuit Analysis

-1.5

t(degree)

540

630

720

cos(t)
cos(2t)

EEU104/3:
Electrical
Technology
Dr Haidi Ibrahim
AC CIRCUIT ANALYSIS
Main reference

## Peak value, (e.g. Vp, Ip, Pp), is

proportional to the amplitude of the
waveform.
1.5

Expected outcomes
Revisions:
-- Complex number
-- Sinusoidal waveform
Basic AC component
-- Power sources
-- Resistance
-- Reactance
-- Impedance
-- Power calculation

Circuit Analysis

1
0.5

0.5cos(t)
0

90

180

270

360

450

-0.5
-1
-1.5

t(degree)

540

630

720

cos(t)
1.5cos(t)

EEU104/3:
Electrical
Technology
Dr Haidi Ibrahim

## Negative phase angle : waveform

shifted to the right (i.e. lagging).

AC CIRCUIT ANALYSIS
Main reference

1.5

Expected outcomes
Revisions:
-- Complex number
-- Sinusoidal waveform
Basic AC component
-- Power sources
-- Resistance
-- Reactance
-- Impedance
-- Power calculation

Circuit Analysis

1
0.5

cos(t-90o)
0

90

180

270

360

450

-0.5
-1
-1.5

t(degree)

540

630

720

cos(t)
cos(t+90o)

EEU104/3:
Electrical
Technology
Dr Haidi Ibrahim

## Negative phase angle : waveform

shifted to the right (i.e. lagging).

AC CIRCUIT ANALYSIS
Main reference

1.5

Expected outcomes
Revisions:
-- Complex number
-- Sinusoidal waveform
Basic AC component
-- Power sources
-- Resistance
-- Reactance
-- Impedance
-- Power calculation

Circuit Analysis

1
0.5

cos(t-90o)
0

90

180

270

360

450

-0.5
-1
-1.5

t(degree)

540

630

720

cos(t)
cos(t+90o)

EEU104/3:
Electrical
Technology
Dr Haidi Ibrahim

## Positive phase angle : waveform

shifted to the left (i.e. leading).

AC CIRCUIT ANALYSIS
Main reference

1.5

Expected outcomes
Revisions:
-- Complex number
-- Sinusoidal waveform
Basic AC component
-- Power sources
-- Resistance
-- Reactance
-- Impedance
-- Power calculation

Circuit Analysis

1
0.5

cos(t-90o)
0

90

180

270

360

450

-0.5
-1
-1.5

t(degree)

540

630

720

cos(t)
cos(t+90o)

EEU104/3:
Electrical
Technology
Dr Haidi Ibrahim

## Positive phase angle : waveform

shifted to the left (i.e. leading).

AC CIRCUIT ANALYSIS
Main reference

1.5

Expected outcomes
Revisions:
-- Complex number
-- Sinusoidal waveform
Basic AC component
-- Power sources
-- Resistance
-- Reactance
-- Impedance
-- Power calculation

Circuit Analysis

1
0.5

cos(t-90o)
0

90

180

270

360

450

-0.5
-1
-1.5

t(degree)

540

630

720

cos(t)
cos(t+90o)

EEU104/3:
Electrical
Technology

1.5

1
Dr Haidi Ibrahim
AC CIRCUIT ANALYSIS
Main reference

0.5

cos(t-90o)
0
0

Expected outcomes
Revisions:
-- Complex number
-- Sinusoidal waveform
Basic AC component
-- Power sources
-- Resistance
-- Reactance
-- Impedance
-- Power calculation

Circuit Analysis

-0.5

90

tphase

180

270

360

450

540

-1
-1.5

tphase
t(degree)

T
2 360

t phase

630

720

cos(t)
cos(t+90o)

EEU104/3:
Electrical
Technology
Dr Haidi Ibrahim
AC CIRCUIT ANALYSIS
Main reference
Expected outcomes
Revisions:
-- Complex number
-- Sinusoidal waveform

Exercise 1.18:
Find the expression to present the
following voltage waveform. Then,
find the value of x.
6
4

Basic AC component
-- Power sources
-- Resistance
-- Reactance
-- Impedance
-- Power calculation

-2 0

Circuit Analysis

-4

-6

t(seconds)

EEU104/3:
Electrical
Technology
Dr Haidi Ibrahim
AC CIRCUIT ANALYSIS
Main reference
Expected outcomes
Revisions:
-- Complex number
-- Sinusoidal waveform
Basic AC component
-- Power sources
-- Resistance
-- Reactance
-- Impedance
-- Power calculation

Circuit Analysis

TIPS: Strategy
STEP 1: Find the expression
What are needed? :
1) Peak values
2) Angular velocity
3) Phase angle
STEP 2: Find the value of x
x = v(0)

EEU104/3:
Electrical
Technology
Dr Haidi Ibrahim
AC CIRCUIT ANALYSIS
Main reference
Expected outcomes
Revisions:
-- Complex number
-- Sinusoidal waveform
Basic AC component
-- Power sources
-- Resistance
-- Reactance
-- Impedance
-- Power calculation

Circuit Analysis

Peak value, Vp = 4V
Time for half cycle = 4s
Thus, period T = 8s
Frequency, f = 1/T = 1/(8s) = 0.125Hz
Angular frequency, = 2f = 0.25

## From figure, tphase = 7s

tphase
tphase
7
2 2 1.75

2
T
8
T

EEU104/3:
Electrical
Technology
Dr Haidi Ibrahim
AC CIRCUIT ANALYSIS
Main reference
Expected outcomes
Revisions:
-- Complex number
-- Sinusoidal waveform
Basic AC component
-- Power sources
-- Resistance
-- Reactance
-- Impedance
-- Power calculation

Circuit Analysis

## Therefore, the expression is:

v(t ) V p cos(t )V
4cos(0.25t 1.75 )V

The value of x:

x v(0)
4cos(0.25 (0) 1.75 )V
4cos(0 1.75 )V
2.8284V

EEU104/3:
Electrical
Technology
Dr Haidi Ibrahim

## Positive or negative phase angle?

AC CIRCUIT ANALYSIS
Main reference
Expected outcomes
Revisions:
-- Complex number
-- Sinusoidal waveform
Basic AC component
-- Power sources
-- Resistance
-- Reactance
-- Impedance
-- Power calculation

Circuit Analysis

v(t ) V p cos(t )V

V p cos t 2 V

V p cos t 360 V
o

EEU104/3:
Electrical
Technology

Example:
v(t ) 2 cos(t )V
i(t ) cos(t 0.75 )A

Dr Haidi Ibrahim
AC CIRCUIT ANALYSIS
Main reference
Expected outcomes

Revisions:
-- Complex number
-- Sinusoidal waveform

Basic AC component
-- Power sources
-- Resistance
-- Reactance
-- Impedance
-- Power calculation

Circuit Analysis

1
-1 0

i(t)
1

-2
-3

t(second)

i(t) lags v(t) by 0.75 radians, or 135o

v(t)

EEU104/3:
Electrical
Technology

Example:

Dr Haidi Ibrahim
AC CIRCUIT ANALYSIS
Main reference
Expected outcomes

Revisions:
-- Complex number
-- Sinusoidal waveform

Basic AC component
-- Power sources
-- Resistance
-- Reactance
-- Impedance
-- Power calculation

Circuit Analysis

v(t ) 2 cos(t )V
i (t ) cos(t 0.75 2 )A
i (t ) cos(t 1.25 )A

1
-1 0

i(t)
1

-2
-3

t(second)

## v(t) lags i(t) by 1.25 radians, or 225o

v(t)

EEU104/3:
Electrical
Technology
Dr Haidi Ibrahim
AC CIRCUIT ANALYSIS
Main reference
Expected outcomes
Revisions:
-- Complex number
-- Sinusoidal waveform
Basic AC component
-- Power sources
-- Resistance
-- Reactance
-- Impedance
-- Power calculation

Circuit Analysis

## Several ways to present waveform

numerically:
Peak value
Peak-to-peak value
Average value
Root mean square value

EEU104/3:
Electrical
Technology
Dr Haidi Ibrahim
AC CIRCUIT ANALYSIS

Peak value:
15
10

Main reference
Expected outcomes
Revisions:
-- Complex number
-- Sinusoidal waveform
Basic AC component
-- Power sources
-- Resistance
-- Reactance
-- Impedance
-- Power calculation

5
0

-5
-10
-15

Circuit Analysis

Peak value = 10

EEU104/3:
Electrical
Technology
Dr Haidi Ibrahim
AC CIRCUIT ANALYSIS

20
15

Main reference
Expected outcomes
Revisions:
-- Complex number
-- Sinusoidal waveform
Basic AC component
-- Power sources
-- Resistance
-- Reactance
-- Impedance
-- Power calculation

10
5

0
-5
-10

Circuit Analysis

## Peak value = 15 or 5?!

EEU104/3:
Electrical
Technology
Dr Haidi Ibrahim
AC CIRCUIT ANALYSIS

Peak-to-peak value:
15
10

Main reference
Expected outcomes
Revisions:
-- Complex number
-- Sinusoidal waveform
Basic AC component
-- Power sources
-- Resistance
-- Reactance
-- Impedance
-- Power calculation

5
0

-5
-10
-15

Circuit Analysis

## Peak-to-peak value = 10-(-10) = 20

EEU104/3:
Electrical
Technology
Dr Haidi Ibrahim
AC CIRCUIT ANALYSIS

Peak-to-peak value:
20
15

Main reference
Expected outcomes
Revisions:
-- Complex number
-- Sinusoidal waveform
Basic AC component
-- Power sources
-- Resistance
-- Reactance
-- Impedance
-- Power calculation

10
5

0
-5
-10

Circuit Analysis

## Peak-to-peak value = 15-(-5) = 20

EEU104/3:
Electrical
Technology
Dr Haidi Ibrahim
AC CIRCUIT ANALYSIS

20

15

15

10

10

-5

-5

-10

-10

-15

Main reference
Expected outcomes
Revisions:
-- Complex number
-- Sinusoidal waveform
Basic AC component
-- Power sources
-- Resistance
-- Reactance
-- Impedance
-- Power calculation

Circuit Analysis

## Both have peak-to-peak value = 20

EEU104/3:
Electrical
Technology
Dr Haidi Ibrahim
AC CIRCUIT ANALYSIS
Main reference
Expected outcomes
Revisions:
-- Complex number
-- Sinusoidal waveform
Basic AC component
-- Power sources
-- Resistance
-- Reactance
-- Impedance
-- Power calculation

Average value:
If given the following sample:

v {8,4,9}
The average is:

Vavg

8 4 (9)

3
3/ 3
1

Circuit Analysis

## *note the notation

EEU104/3:
Electrical
Technology
Dr Haidi Ibrahim
AC CIRCUIT ANALYSIS
Main reference
Expected outcomes
Revisions:
-- Complex number
-- Sinusoidal waveform
Basic AC component
-- Power sources
-- Resistance
-- Reactance
-- Impedance
-- Power calculation

Circuit Analysis

## If given the following sample:

v {8,4,9,8,4 9}
The average is:

8 4 (9) 8 4 (9)
Vavg
6
28 4 (9)

2(3)
3/ 3
1

EEU104/3:
Electrical
Technology
Dr Haidi Ibrahim
AC CIRCUIT ANALYSIS

## If given the following sample:

v(t ) 8,4,9,...
The average is:

Main reference
Expected outcomes
Revisions:
-- Complex number
-- Sinusoidal waveform
Basic AC component
-- Power sources
-- Resistance
-- Reactance
-- Impedance
-- Power calculation

Circuit Analysis

Vavg

8 4 (9)

3
3/ 3
1

(Repeated)

EEU104/3:
Electrical
Technology
Dr Haidi Ibrahim
AC CIRCUIT ANALYSIS
Main reference

In general:
T

1
Vavg v(t )dt
T 0

Expected outcomes
Revisions:
-- Complex number
-- Sinusoidal waveform
Basic AC component
-- Power sources
-- Resistance
-- Reactance
-- Impedance
-- Power calculation

Circuit Analysis

## Integration = area under the graph

EEU104/3:
Electrical
Technology
Dr Haidi Ibrahim
AC CIRCUIT ANALYSIS

Average value:
15
10

Main reference
Expected outcomes
Revisions:
-- Complex number
-- Sinusoidal waveform
Basic AC component
-- Power sources
-- Resistance
-- Reactance
-- Impedance
-- Power calculation

5
0

-5
-10
-15

Circuit Analysis

Average =0

EEU104/3:
Electrical
Technology
Dr Haidi Ibrahim
AC CIRCUIT ANALYSIS

Average value:
20
15

Main reference
Expected outcomes
Revisions:
-- Complex number
-- Sinusoidal waveform
Basic AC component
-- Power sources
-- Resistance
-- Reactance
-- Impedance
-- Power calculation

10
5

0
-5
-10

Circuit Analysis

Average =5

EEU104/3:
Electrical
Technology
Dr Haidi Ibrahim
AC CIRCUIT ANALYSIS

15
10

Main reference
Expected outcomes
Revisions:
-- Complex number
-- Sinusoidal waveform
Basic AC component
-- Power sources
-- Resistance
-- Reactance
-- Impedance
-- Power calculation

5
0

-5
-10
-15

Circuit Analysis

0 = No current or voltage?

EEU104/3:
Electrical
Technology
Dr Haidi Ibrahim
AC CIRCUIT ANALYSIS
Main reference
Expected outcomes
Revisions:
-- Complex number
-- Sinusoidal waveform
Basic AC component
-- Power sources
-- Resistance
-- Reactance
-- Impedance
-- Power calculation

Circuit Analysis

Therefore,
the average
value of a
sine or
cosine is
defined
over a half
cycle rather
than over a
full cycle.

Vavg

T /2

T /2

v(t )dt
0

T /2

T /2 0
1 V p cos(2ft )

T /2
2f
0
Vp
cos( ) ( cos(0))
T /2

2V p

0.637V p

EEU104/3:
Electrical
Technology

## Root mean square (rms) value:

Dr Haidi Ibrahim
AC CIRCUIT ANALYSIS
Main reference
Expected outcomes
Revisions:
-- Complex number
-- Sinusoidal waveform
Basic AC component
-- Power sources
-- Resistance
-- Reactance
-- Impedance
-- Power calculation

Circuit Analysis

Vrms

1 2

v (t )dt

T 0

EEU104/3:
Electrical
Technology
Dr Haidi Ibrahim

## For a full cycle sinusoidal or cosine

waveform:

AC CIRCUIT ANALYSIS
Main reference
Expected outcomes
Revisions:
-- Complex number
-- Sinusoidal waveform
Basic AC component
-- Power sources
-- Resistance
-- Reactance
-- Impedance
-- Power calculation

Circuit Analysis

Vrms

p sin( 2ft ) dt
2

0
T

Vrms

1
2
2

V
sin
(2ft )dt
p

T 0

Vrms

1
2 1 cos( 4ft )

Vp
dt

T 0
2

EEU104/3:
Electrical
Technology

AC CIRCUIT ANALYSIS

1
2 1 cos( 4ft )

Vp
dt

T 0
2

Dr Haidi Ibrahim

Vrms

Main reference
Expected outcomes
Revisions:
-- Complex number
-- Sinusoidal waveform
Basic AC component
-- Power sources
-- Resistance
-- Reactance
-- Impedance
-- Power calculation

Circuit Analysis

Vrms 2

V p2

1 cos(4ft ) dt

2T
0

Vrms 2
Vrms

V p2
2T

Vp
2

[T 0]

0.7071V p

EEU104/3:
Electrical
Technology
Dr Haidi Ibrahim
AC CIRCUIT ANALYSIS

RMS value:
15
10

Main reference
Expected outcomes
Revisions:
-- Complex number
-- Sinusoidal waveform
Basic AC component
-- Power sources
-- Resistance
-- Reactance
-- Impedance
-- Power calculation

5
0

-5
-10
-15

Circuit Analysis

## RMS value = 0.7071(10)=7.071

EEU104/3:
Electrical
Technology
Dr Haidi Ibrahim
AC CIRCUIT ANALYSIS
Main reference
Expected outcomes
Revisions:
-- Complex number
-- Sinusoidal waveform
Basic AC component
-- Power sources
-- Resistance
-- Reactance
-- Impedance
-- Power calculation

Circuit Analysis

RMS value:
Irms is normally written as I
Vrms is normally written as V

Power Sources
EEU104/3:
Electrical
Technology
Dr Haidi Ibrahim
AC CIRCUIT ANALYSIS
Main reference
Expected outcomes
Revisions:
-- Complex number
-- Sinusoidal waveforms
Basic AC component
-- Power sources
-- Resistance
-- Reactance
-- Impedance
-- Power calculation

Circuit Analysis

## Power source in ac circuits (i.e.

voltage supply or current supply)
Normally, this power source supplies
cosine or sinusoidal waveforms.
For time domain expression:
v(t ) Vp cos(t )

## In complex number notation:

V Vrms cos j sin

EEU104/3:
Electrical
Technology

In polar form:

Dr Haidi Ibrahim

V Vrms

AC CIRCUIT ANALYSIS
Main reference
Expected outcomes
Revisions:
-- Complex number
-- Sinusoidal waveforms
Basic AC component
-- Power sources
-- Resistance
-- Reactance
-- Impedance
-- Power calculation

Circuit Analysis

The symbols:
+

V Vrms
-

## Positive cycle is indicated by symbol +

EEU104/3:
Electrical
Technology

In polar form:

Dr Haidi Ibrahim

V Vrms

AC CIRCUIT ANALYSIS
Main reference
Expected outcomes
Revisions:
-- Complex number
-- Sinusoidal waveforms
Basic AC component
-- Power sources
-- Resistance
-- Reactance
-- Impedance
-- Power calculation

Circuit Analysis

The symbols:
+

v(t ) Vp cos(t )
-

## Positive cycle is indicated by symbol +

EEU104/3:
Electrical
Technology

In polar form:

Dr Haidi Ibrahim

V Vrms

AC CIRCUIT ANALYSIS
Main reference
Expected outcomes
Revisions:
-- Complex number
-- Sinusoidal waveforms
Basic AC component
-- Power sources
-- Resistance
-- Reactance
-- Impedance
-- Power calculation

Circuit Analysis

The symbols:
+

I I rms
-

## Positive cycle is indicated by symbol +

EEU104/3:
Electrical
Technology

In polar form:

Dr Haidi Ibrahim

V Vrms

AC CIRCUIT ANALYSIS
Main reference
Expected outcomes
Revisions:
-- Complex number
-- Sinusoidal waveforms
Basic AC component
-- Power sources
-- Resistance
-- Reactance
-- Impedance
-- Power calculation

Circuit Analysis

The symbols:
+

i(t ) I p cos(t )
-

## Positive cycle is indicated by symbol +

EEU104/3:
Electrical
Technology

Example:

Dr Haidi Ibrahim
AC CIRCUIT ANALYSIS

## i(t ) 14.1421cos(5t 1.32)

Main reference
Expected outcomes
Revisions:
-- Complex number
-- Sinusoidal waveforms
Basic AC component
-- Power sources
-- Resistance
-- Reactance
-- Impedance
-- Power calculation

Circuit Analysis

EEU104/3:
Electrical
Technology

Example:

Dr Haidi Ibrahim
AC CIRCUIT ANALYSIS

## i(t ) 14.1421cos(5t 1.32)

Main reference
Expected outcomes
Revisions:
-- Complex number
-- Sinusoidal waveforms
Basic AC component
-- Power sources
-- Resistance
-- Reactance
-- Impedance
-- Power calculation

Circuit Analysis

Is equivalent to:
+

I 101.32
-

EEU104/3:
Electrical
Technology

Example:

Dr Haidi Ibrahim
AC CIRCUIT ANALYSIS

Expected outcomes
Revisions:
-- Complex number
-- Sinusoidal waveforms
Basic AC component
-- Power sources
-- Resistance
-- Reactance
-- Impedance
-- Power calculation

Circuit Analysis

V 2 2 32

Main reference

EEU104/3:
Electrical
Technology

Example:

Dr Haidi Ibrahim
AC CIRCUIT ANALYSIS

Expected outcomes
Revisions:
-- Complex number
-- Sinusoidal waveforms
Basic AC component
-- Power sources
-- Resistance
-- Reactance
-- Impedance
-- Power calculation

Circuit Analysis

V 2 2 32

Main reference

Is equivalent to:
+

v(t ) 4 cos(t 32 )
-

EEU104/3:
Electrical
Technology

Example:

Dr Haidi Ibrahim
AC CIRCUIT ANALYSIS

Expected outcomes
Revisions:
-- Complex number
-- Sinusoidal waveforms
Basic AC component
-- Power sources
-- Resistance
-- Reactance
-- Impedance
-- Power calculation

V 2 2 32

Main reference

Is equivalent to:
+

v(t ) 4 cos(t 32 )
-

Circuit Analysis

## In case of not given value

EEU104/3:
Electrical
Technology
Dr Haidi Ibrahim

Example:
+

v(t ) 4 cos(7t 32 )

AC CIRCUIT ANALYSIS
Main reference
Expected outcomes
Revisions:
-- Complex number
-- Sinusoidal waveforms
Basic AC component
-- Power sources
-- Resistance
-- Reactance
-- Impedance
-- Power calculation

Circuit Analysis

EEU104/3:
Electrical
Technology
Dr Haidi Ibrahim

Example:
+

v(t ) 4 cos(7t 32 )

AC CIRCUIT ANALYSIS
Main reference

Expected outcomes
Revisions:
-- Complex number
-- Sinusoidal waveforms
Basic AC component
-- Power sources
-- Resistance
-- Reactance
-- Impedance
-- Power calculation

Circuit Analysis

V 2 2 32
-

EEU104/3:
Electrical
Technology
Dr Haidi Ibrahim

Example:
+

v(t ) 4 cos(7t 32 )

AC CIRCUIT ANALYSIS
Main reference

Expected outcomes
Revisions:
-- Complex number
-- Sinusoidal waveforms
Basic AC component
-- Power sources
-- Resistance
-- Reactance
-- Impedance
-- Power calculation

V 2 2 32
-

Circuit Analysis

v(t ) 4 cos(7t 32 )
-

EEU104/3:
Electrical
Technology
Dr Haidi Ibrahim

Example:
+

v(t ) 4 cos(7t 32 )

AC CIRCUIT ANALYSIS
Main reference

Expected outcomes
Revisions:
-- Complex number
-- Sinusoidal waveforms
Basic AC component
-- Power sources
-- Resistance
-- Reactance
-- Impedance
-- Power calculation

V 2 2 32
-

Circuit Analysis

v(t ) 4 cos(7t 32 )
-

Resistance
EEU104/3:
Electrical
Technology
Dr Haidi Ibrahim

## In ac circuit, the resistance of a

resistor is treated as a real number.

AC CIRCUIT ANALYSIS
Main reference
Expected outcomes

Revisions:
-- Complex number
-- Sinusoidal waveforms
Basic AC component
-- Power sources
-- Resistance
-- Reactance
-- Impedance
-- Power calculation

Circuit Analysis

Unit is ohm,

Reactance
EEU104/3:
Electrical
Technology
Dr Haidi Ibrahim
AC CIRCUIT ANALYSIS
Main reference
Expected outcomes
Revisions:
-- Complex number
-- Sinusoidal waveforms
Basic AC component
-- Power sources
-- Resistance
-- Reactance
-- Impedance
-- Power calculation

Circuit Analysis

## In ac circuit, the capacitor and

inductor are treated as imaginary
number.
Reactance X, which is similar to
resistance for resistor, is associated
with inductor and capacitor.
Unit for reactance is ohm,

EEU104/3:
Electrical
Technology

For inductor:

Dr Haidi Ibrahim
AC CIRCUIT ANALYSIS
Main reference
Expected outcomes
Revisions:
-- Complex number
-- Sinusoidal waveforms
Basic AC component
-- Power sources
-- Resistance
-- Reactance
-- Impedance
-- Power calculation

Circuit Analysis

X L jX L
j L
j 2fL

EEU104/3:
Electrical
Technology

Example:

Dr Haidi Ibrahim
AC CIRCUIT ANALYSIS
Main reference
Expected outcomes
Revisions:
-- Complex number
-- Sinusoidal waveforms
Basic AC component
-- Power sources
-- Resistance
-- Reactance
-- Impedance
-- Power calculation

Circuit Analysis

L 4H
2

EEU104/3:
Electrical
Technology

Example:

Dr Haidi Ibrahim
AC CIRCUIT ANALYSIS
Main reference
Expected outcomes
Revisions:
-- Complex number
-- Sinusoidal waveforms
Basic AC component
-- Power sources
-- Resistance
-- Reactance
-- Impedance
-- Power calculation

Circuit Analysis

L 4H
2

X L jX L
j L
j (2)(4)
j8

EEU104/3:
Electrical
Technology

For capacitor:

Dr Haidi Ibrahim
AC CIRCUIT ANALYSIS
Main reference
Expected outcomes
Revisions:
-- Complex number
-- Sinusoidal waveforms
Basic AC component
-- Power sources
-- Resistance
-- Reactance
-- Impedance
-- Power calculation

Circuit Analysis

X C jX C
1
j

C
1

j
2fC

EEU104/3:
Electrical
Technology

Example:

Dr Haidi Ibrahim
AC CIRCUIT ANALYSIS
Main reference
Expected outcomes
Revisions:
-- Complex number
-- Sinusoidal waveforms
Basic AC component
-- Power sources
-- Resistance
-- Reactance
-- Impedance
-- Power calculation

Circuit Analysis

C 4F
2

EEU104/3:
Electrical
Technology

Example:

Dr Haidi Ibrahim
AC CIRCUIT ANALYSIS
Main reference
Expected outcomes
Revisions:
-- Complex number
-- Sinusoidal waveforms
Basic AC component
-- Power sources
-- Resistance
-- Reactance
-- Impedance
-- Power calculation

Circuit Analysis

C 4F
2

X C jX C
1
j

C
1

j
(2)(4)
j 0.125

Impedance
EEU104/3:
Electrical
Technology
Dr Haidi Ibrahim
AC CIRCUIT ANALYSIS
Main reference
Expected outcomes
Revisions:
-- Complex number
-- Sinusoidal waveforms
Basic AC component
-- Power sources
-- Resistance
-- Reactance
-- Impedance
-- Power calculation

Circuit Analysis

## Impedance, Z, is a complex number,

normally presented in rectangular or
polar form.

Impedance
EEU104/3:
Electrical
Technology
Dr Haidi Ibrahim
AC CIRCUIT ANALYSIS
Main reference
Expected outcomes
Revisions:
-- Complex number
-- Sinusoidal waveforms
Basic AC component
-- Power sources
-- Resistance
-- Reactance
-- Impedance
-- Power calculation

Circuit Analysis

## Impedance, Z, is a complex number,

normally presented in rectangular or
polar form.
Impedance = Resistance + Reactance

Impedance
EEU104/3:
Electrical
Technology
Dr Haidi Ibrahim
AC CIRCUIT ANALYSIS
Main reference
Expected outcomes

## Impedance, Z, is a complex number,

normally presented in rectangular or
polar form.
Impedance = Resistance + Reactance

Revisions:
-- Complex number
-- Sinusoidal waveforms
Basic AC component
-- Power sources
-- Resistance
-- Reactance
-- Impedance
-- Power calculation

Circuit Analysis

Impedance triangle
Z

EEU104/3:
Electrical
Technology

Example:

Dr Haidi Ibrahim
AC CIRCUIT ANALYSIS

XL

Main reference

j8

Expected outcomes
Revisions:
-- Complex number
-- Sinusoidal waveforms

XC
j 4

Basic AC component
-- Power sources
-- Resistance
-- Reactance
-- Impedance
-- Power calculation

Circuit Analysis

EEU104/3:
Electrical
Technology

Example:

Dr Haidi Ibrahim
AC CIRCUIT ANALYSIS

XL

Main reference

j8

Expected outcomes
Revisions:
-- Complex number
-- Sinusoidal waveforms

XC
j 4

Basic AC component
-- Power sources
-- Resistance
-- Reactance
-- Impedance
-- Power calculation

Circuit Analysis

Z R X L XC
3 j8 j 4
3 j 4
50.9273

EEU104/3:
Electrical
Technology

Example:

Dr Haidi Ibrahim
AC CIRCUIT ANALYSIS

XL

Main reference

j8

Expected outcomes
Revisions:
-- Complex number
-- Sinusoidal waveforms

XC

Z R X L XC
3 j8 j 4
3 j 4
50.9273

j 4

Basic AC component
-- Power sources
-- Resistance
-- Reactance
-- Impedance
-- Power calculation

Circuit Analysis

Z 5
0.9273

R 3

X 4

EEU104/3:
Electrical
Technology

Example:

Dr Haidi Ibrahim

AC CIRCUIT ANALYSIS

X L 890

Main reference
Expected outcomes
Revisions:
-- Complex number
-- Sinusoidal waveforms
Basic AC component
-- Power sources
-- Resistance
-- Reactance
-- Impedance
-- Power calculation

Circuit Analysis

XC1 5 90

Z
R
3

XC 2 j 4

EEU104/3:
Electrical
Technology

Example:

Dr Haidi Ibrahim

AC CIRCUIT ANALYSIS

1
1

Z X L XC1
R XC 2

X L 890

Main reference
Expected outcomes
Revisions:
-- Complex number
-- Sinusoidal waveforms
Basic AC component
-- Power sources
-- Resistance
-- Reactance
-- Impedance
-- Power calculation

Circuit Analysis

XC1 5 90

Z
R
3

XC 2 j 4

Z 1.92 j 4.44
4.837466.6148

EEU104/3:
Electrical
Technology

Example:

Dr Haidi Ibrahim

AC CIRCUIT ANALYSIS

1
1

Z X L XC1
R XC 2

X L 890

Main reference
Expected outcomes
Revisions:
-- Complex number
-- Sinusoidal waveforms
Basic AC component
-- Power sources
-- Resistance
-- Reactance
-- Impedance
-- Power calculation

Circuit Analysis

XC1 5 90

Z
R
3

Z 1.92 j 4.44
4.837466.6148

XC 2 j 4 Z 4.8374
X 4.44
66.6148

R 1.92

EEU104/3:
Electrical
Technology

Units:

Dr Haidi Ibrahim
AC CIRCUIT ANALYSIS
Main reference
Expected outcomes
Revisions:
-- Complex number
-- Sinusoidal waveforms
Basic AC component
-- Power sources
-- Resistance
-- Reactance
-- Impedance
-- Power calculation

Circuit Analysis

Quantity
Resistance
Reactance
Impedance
Conductance (1/R)

Symbol

Unit

X
Z
G
Y

S
S

Power
EEU104/3:
Electrical
Technology

In resistive circuit:

Dr Haidi Ibrahim

AC CIRCUIT ANALYSIS
Main reference
Expected outcomes
Revisions:
-- Complex number
-- Sinusoidal waveforms
Basic AC component
-- Power sources
-- Resistance
-- Reactance
-- Impedance
-- Power calculation

Circuit Analysis

vS (t )

iR (t )

vR (t )

## The current and voltage across resistor,

(i.e. iR(t) and vR(t)) are at the same
phase (i.e. in phase)

EEU104/3:
Electrical
Technology

In resistive circuit:

Dr Haidi Ibrahim

AC CIRCUIT ANALYSIS
Main reference

vS (t )

Expected outcomes
Revisions:
-- Complex number
-- Sinusoidal waveforms
Basic AC component
-- Power sources
-- Resistance
-- Reactance
-- Impedance
-- Power calculation

Circuit Analysis

If

iR (t )

vR (t )

vS (t ) Vp sin(2ft )V

Then,

vR (t ) Vp sin(2ft )V
iR (t ) V p sin(2ft )
A
iR (t )

R
R

EEU104/3:
Electrical
Technology
Dr Haidi Ibrahim
AC CIRCUIT ANALYSIS
Main reference
Expected outcomes
Revisions:
-- Complex number
-- Sinusoidal waveforms
Basic AC component
-- Power sources
-- Resistance
-- Reactance
-- Impedance
-- Power calculation

Circuit Analysis

## The instantaneous power dissipated by

resistor:

pR (t ) iR (t )vR (t )
Vp

R

## pR (t ) I p sin 2ft V p sin 2ft

pR (t ) I pV p sin 2ft
2

EEU104/3:
Electrical
Technology
Dr Haidi Ibrahim

2.5
2

AC CIRCUIT ANALYSIS

1.5
Main reference
Expected outcomes
Revisions:
-- Complex number
-- Sinusoidal waveforms
Basic AC component
-- Power sources
-- Resistance
-- Reactance
-- Impedance
-- Power calculation

Circuit Analysis

1
0.5

0
-0.5
-1

-1.5
-2
-2.5

v_R(t)
i_R(t)
p_R(t)

EEU104/3:
Electrical
Technology
Dr Haidi Ibrahim

2.5
2

AC CIRCUIT ANALYSIS

1.5
Main reference
Expected outcomes
Revisions:
-- Complex number
-- Sinusoidal waveforms
Basic AC component
-- Power sources
-- Resistance
-- Reactance
-- Impedance
-- Power calculation

Circuit Analysis

1
0.5

0
-0.5
-1

-1.5
-2
-2.5

v_R(t)
i_R(t)
p_R(t)

EEU104/3:
Electrical
Technology
Dr Haidi Ibrahim

2.5
2

AC CIRCUIT ANALYSIS

1.5
Main reference
Expected outcomes
Revisions:
-- Complex number
-- Sinusoidal waveforms
Basic AC component
-- Power sources
-- Resistance
-- Reactance
-- Impedance
-- Power calculation

Circuit Analysis

1
0.5

0
-0.5
-1

-1.5
-2
-2.5

v_R(t)
i_R(t)
p_R(t)

EEU104/3:
Electrical
Technology
Dr Haidi Ibrahim

## The average power dissipated by

resistor:
T

AC CIRCUIT ANALYSIS
Main reference

Pavg

Expected outcomes
Revisions:
-- Complex number
-- Sinusoidal waveforms
Basic AC component
-- Power sources
-- Resistance
-- Reactance
-- Impedance
-- Power calculation

Circuit Analysis

1
p (t )dt
T 0
T

Pavg

1
I pV p sin 2 (2ft )dt
T 0

Pavg

1
1 cos(4ft )
I pV p
dt
T 0
2
T

EEU104/3:
Electrical
Technology
Dr Haidi Ibrahim

Pavg

AC CIRCUIT ANALYSIS
Main reference
Expected outcomes
Revisions:
-- Complex number
-- Sinusoidal waveforms
Basic AC component
-- Power sources
-- Resistance
-- Reactance
-- Impedance
-- Power calculation

Circuit Analysis

1
1 cos(4ft )
I pV p
dt
T 0
2
T

Pavg
Pavg
Pavg

I pV p
2T
I pV p
2T
I pV p

1 cos(4ft )dt
0

(T ) (0)

I p V p

I rmsVrms

2
2 2

EEU104/3:
Electrical
Technology

In inductive circuit:

Dr Haidi Ibrahim

AC CIRCUIT ANALYSIS
Main reference
Expected outcomes
Revisions:
-- Complex number
-- Sinusoidal waveforms
Basic AC component
-- Power sources
-- Resistance
-- Reactance
-- Impedance
-- Power calculation

Circuit Analysis

vS (t )

iL (t )

vL (t )

## The current and voltage across

inductor, (i.e. iL(t) and vL(t)) are NOT at
the same phase (i.e. out of phase)

EEU104/3:
Electrical
Technology

In inductive circuit:

Dr Haidi Ibrahim

AC CIRCUIT ANALYSIS
Main reference

vS (t )

Expected outcomes
Revisions:
-- Complex number
-- Sinusoidal waveforms
Basic AC component
-- Power sources
-- Resistance
-- Reactance
-- Impedance
-- Power calculation

Circuit Analysis

If

iL (t )

vL (t )

vS (t ) Vp cos(2ft )V

Then,

VS Vrms 0V
X L L90

EEU104/3:
Electrical
Technology
Dr Haidi Ibrahim

vS (t )

iL (t )

vL (t )

AC CIRCUIT ANALYSIS
Main reference
Expected outcomes
Revisions:
-- Complex number
-- Sinusoidal waveforms
Basic AC component
-- Power sources
-- Resistance
-- Reactance
-- Impedance
-- Power calculation

Circuit Analysis

VL VS Vrms 0V

Vrms 0V
VL
IL

X L L90
Vrms

90 I rms 90
L

EEU104/3:
Electrical
Technology

Im

Dr Haidi Ibrahim

VL

AC CIRCUIT ANALYSIS
Main reference
Expected outcomes
Revisions:
-- Complex number
-- Sinusoidal waveforms

IL

Basic AC component
-- Power sources
-- Resistance
-- Reactance
-- Impedance
-- Power calculation

Circuit Analysis

## If seen clockwise, VL leads IL by 90o.

Re

EEU104/3:
Electrical
Technology

VL Vrms 0V

Dr Haidi Ibrahim

I L I rms 90

AC CIRCUIT ANALYSIS
Main reference
Expected outcomes
Revisions:
-- Complex number
-- Sinusoidal waveforms
Basic AC component
-- Power sources
-- Resistance
-- Reactance
-- Impedance
-- Power calculation

Circuit Analysis

vL (t ) Vp cos(2ft )V

iL (t ) I p cos(2ft 90 )A

EEU104/3:
Electrical
Technology
Dr Haidi Ibrahim
AC CIRCUIT ANALYSIS
Main reference
Expected outcomes
Revisions:
-- Complex number
-- Sinusoidal waveforms
Basic AC component
-- Power sources
-- Resistance
-- Reactance
-- Impedance
-- Power calculation

Circuit Analysis

## The instantaneous power dissipated by

inductor:
pL (t ) iL (t )vL (t )

## pL (t ) I pV p cos 2ft cos 90 sin 2ft sin 90 cos 2ft

pL (t ) I pV p sin 2ft cos 2ft
I pV p
sin 4ft
pL (t )
2

EEU104/3:
Electrical
Technology
Dr Haidi Ibrahim
AC CIRCUIT ANALYSIS
Main reference
Expected outcomes
Revisions:
-- Complex number
-- Sinusoidal waveforms
Basic AC component
-- Power sources
-- Resistance
-- Reactance
-- Impedance
-- Power calculation

Circuit Analysis

2.5
2

1.5
1

0.5

v_L(t)

i_L(t)

-0.5
-1
-1.5

-2
-2.5

p_L(t)

EEU104/3:
Electrical
Technology
Dr Haidi Ibrahim
AC CIRCUIT ANALYSIS
Main reference
Expected outcomes
Revisions:
-- Complex number
-- Sinusoidal waveforms
Basic AC component
-- Power sources
-- Resistance
-- Reactance
-- Impedance
-- Power calculation

Circuit Analysis

2.5
2

1.5
1

0.5

v_L(t)

i_L(t)

-0.5
-1
-1.5

-2
-2.5

p_L(t)

EEU104/3:
Electrical
Technology
Dr Haidi Ibrahim
AC CIRCUIT ANALYSIS
Main reference
Expected outcomes
Revisions:
-- Complex number
-- Sinusoidal waveforms
Basic AC component
-- Power sources
-- Resistance
-- Reactance
-- Impedance
-- Power calculation

Circuit Analysis

2.5
2

1.5
1

0.5

v_L(t)

i_L(t)

-0.5
-1
-1.5

-2
-2.5

p_L(t)

EEU104/3:
Electrical
Technology

## The average power dissipated by inductor:

T

Pavg

1
p (t )dt
T 0

Pavg

T
1 I pV p

sin( 4ft )dt 0
T 0 2

Dr Haidi Ibrahim
AC CIRCUIT ANALYSIS
Main reference
Expected outcomes
Revisions:
-- Complex number
-- Sinusoidal waveforms
Basic AC component
-- Power sources
-- Resistance
-- Reactance
-- Impedance
-- Power calculation

Circuit Analysis

## The inductor takes energy from the

source, and at the other time, return back
the energy. The inductor does not
dissipate power.

EEU104/3:
Electrical
Technology

In capacitive circuit:

Dr Haidi Ibrahim

AC CIRCUIT ANALYSIS
Main reference
Expected outcomes
Revisions:
-- Complex number
-- Sinusoidal waveforms
Basic AC component
-- Power sources
-- Resistance
-- Reactance
-- Impedance
-- Power calculation

Circuit Analysis

vS (t )

iC (t )

vC (t )

## The current and voltage across

capacitor, (i.e. iC(t) and vC(t)) are NOT
at the same phase (i.e. out of phase)

EEU104/3:
Electrical
Technology

In capacitive circuit:

Dr Haidi Ibrahim

AC CIRCUIT ANALYSIS
Main reference

vS (t )

Expected outcomes
Revisions:
-- Complex number
-- Sinusoidal waveforms
Basic AC component
-- Power sources
-- Resistance
-- Reactance
-- Impedance
-- Power calculation

Circuit Analysis

If

iC (t )

vC (t )

vS (t ) Vp cos(2ft )V

Then,

VS Vrms 0V
1
XC
90
C

EEU104/3:
Electrical
Technology
Dr Haidi Ibrahim

vS (t )

iC (t )

vC (t )

AC CIRCUIT ANALYSIS
Main reference
Expected outcomes

VC VS Vrms 0V

Revisions:
-- Complex number
-- Sinusoidal waveforms
Basic AC component
-- Power sources
-- Resistance
-- Reactance
-- Impedance
-- Power calculation

Circuit Analysis

VC
Vrms 0V
IC

XC (1 / C ) 90

## Vrms C90 I rms 90

EEU104/3:
Electrical
Technology

Im

Dr Haidi Ibrahim
AC CIRCUIT ANALYSIS
Main reference
Expected outcomes
Revisions:
-- Complex number
-- Sinusoidal waveforms

IC
VC
Re

Basic AC component
-- Power sources
-- Resistance
-- Reactance
-- Impedance
-- Power calculation

Circuit Analysis

## If seen clockwise, VC lags IC by 90o.

EEU104/3:
Electrical
Technology

VC Vrms 0V

Dr Haidi Ibrahim

I C I rms 90

AC CIRCUIT ANALYSIS
Main reference
Expected outcomes
Revisions:
-- Complex number
-- Sinusoidal waveforms
Basic AC component
-- Power sources
-- Resistance
-- Reactance
-- Impedance
-- Power calculation

Circuit Analysis

vC (t ) Vp cos(2ft )V

iC (t ) I p cos(2ft 90 )A

EEU104/3:
Electrical
Technology
Dr Haidi Ibrahim
AC CIRCUIT ANALYSIS
Main reference
Expected outcomes
Revisions:
-- Complex number
-- Sinusoidal waveforms
Basic AC component
-- Power sources
-- Resistance
-- Reactance
-- Impedance
-- Power calculation

Circuit Analysis

## The instantaneous power dissipated by

capacitor:
pC (t ) iC (t )vC (t )

## pC (t ) I pV p cos 2ft cos 90 sin 2ft sin 90 cos 2ft

pC (t ) I pV p sin 2ft cos 2ft
I pV p
sin 4ft
pC (t )
2

EEU104/3:
Electrical
Technology

2.5

Dr Haidi Ibrahim

AC CIRCUIT ANALYSIS
Main reference
Expected outcomes
Revisions:
-- Complex number
-- Sinusoidal waveforms
Basic AC component
-- Power sources
-- Resistance
-- Reactance
-- Impedance
-- Power calculation

Circuit Analysis

1.5
1
0.5

v_L(t)

i_L(t)

-0.5
-1
-1.5

-2
-2.5

p_L(t)

EEU104/3:
Electrical
Technology

2.5

Dr Haidi Ibrahim

AC CIRCUIT ANALYSIS
Main reference
Expected outcomes
Revisions:
-- Complex number
-- Sinusoidal waveforms
Basic AC component
-- Power sources
-- Resistance
-- Reactance
-- Impedance
-- Power calculation

Circuit Analysis

1.5
1
0.5

v_L(t)

i_L(t)

-0.5
-1
-1.5

-2
-2.5

p_L(t)

EEU104/3:
Electrical
Technology

2.5

Dr Haidi Ibrahim

AC CIRCUIT ANALYSIS
Main reference
Expected outcomes
Revisions:
-- Complex number
-- Sinusoidal waveforms
Basic AC component
-- Power sources
-- Resistance
-- Reactance
-- Impedance
-- Power calculation

Circuit Analysis

1.5
1
0.5

v_L(t)

i_L(t)

-0.5
-1
-1.5

-2
-2.5

p_L(t)

EEU104/3:
Electrical
Technology
Dr Haidi Ibrahim
AC CIRCUIT ANALYSIS

## The average power dissipated by

capacitor:
T

Pavg

1
p (t )dt
T 0

Pavg

T
1 I pV p

sin( 4ft )dt 0
T 0 2

Main reference
Expected outcomes
Revisions:
-- Complex number
-- Sinusoidal waveforms
Basic AC component
-- Power sources
-- Resistance
-- Reactance
-- Impedance
-- Power calculation

Circuit Analysis

## The capacitor takes energy from the

source, and at the other time, return back
the energy. The capacitor does not
dissipate power.

Power in AC Circuit
EEU104/3:
Electrical
Technology
Dr Haidi Ibrahim
AC CIRCUIT ANALYSIS
Main reference
Expected outcomes
Revisions:
-- Complex number
-- Sinusoidal waveforms
Basic AC component
-- Power sources
-- Resistance
-- Reactance
-- Impedance
-- Power calculation

Circuit Analysis

Average power:
Resistor = Pavg I rmsVrms (across resistor)
Inductor = 0W
Capacitor = 0W

## In AC circuit, there are three kind of

powers, related by:
S P jQ

EEU104/3:
Electrical
Technology

Power triangle

Dr Haidi Ibrahim
AC CIRCUIT ANALYSIS
Main reference
Expected outcomes
Revisions:
-- Complex number
-- Sinusoidal waveforms
Basic AC component
-- Power sources
-- Resistance
-- Reactance
-- Impedance
-- Power calculation

Circuit Analysis

## Related to power triangle!

i.e. takes the angle from the impedance
triangle.
Z

X
R

EEU104/3:
Electrical
Technology

Power triangle

Dr Haidi Ibrahim
AC CIRCUIT ANALYSIS
Main reference
Expected outcomes
Revisions:
-- Complex number
-- Sinusoidal waveforms
Basic AC component
-- Power sources
-- Resistance
-- Reactance
-- Impedance
-- Power calculation

Circuit Analysis

## Related to power triangle!

i.e. takes the angle from the impedance
triangle.
Z

X
R

EEU104/3:
Electrical
Technology

Power triangle

Dr Haidi Ibrahim

Main reference

Expected outcomes
Revisions:
-- Complex number
-- Sinusoidal waveforms
Basic AC component
-- Power sources
-- Resistance
-- Reactance
-- Impedance
-- Power calculation

Circuit Analysis

AC CIRCUIT ANALYSIS

The formulas:
S | I rms || Vrms |

EEU104/3:
Electrical
Technology

Power triangle

Dr Haidi Ibrahim

Main reference

Expected outcomes
Revisions:
-- Complex number
-- Sinusoidal waveforms
Basic AC component
-- Power sources
-- Resistance
-- Reactance
-- Impedance
-- Power calculation

Circuit Analysis

AC CIRCUIT ANALYSIS

The formulas:
S | I rms || Vrms |
S | I rms || Vrms | cos j | I rms || Vrms | sin

EEU104/3:
Electrical
Technology

Power triangle

Dr Haidi Ibrahim

Main reference

Expected outcomes
Revisions:
-- Complex number
-- Sinusoidal waveforms
Basic AC component
-- Power sources
-- Resistance
-- Reactance
-- Impedance
-- Power calculation

Circuit Analysis

AC CIRCUIT ANALYSIS

The formulas:
S | I rms || Vrms |
S | I rms || Vrms | cos j | I rms || Vrms | sin

EEU104/3:
Electrical
Technology

Power triangle

Dr Haidi Ibrahim

Main reference

Expected outcomes
Revisions:
-- Complex number
-- Sinusoidal waveforms
Basic AC component
-- Power sources
-- Resistance
-- Reactance
-- Impedance
-- Power calculation

Circuit Analysis

AC CIRCUIT ANALYSIS

The formulas:
S | I rms || Vrms |
S | I rms || Vrms | cos j | I rms || Vrms | sin

EEU104/3:
Electrical
Technology

Power triangle

Dr Haidi Ibrahim

Main reference

Expected outcomes
Revisions:
-- Complex number
-- Sinusoidal waveforms
Basic AC component
-- Power sources
-- Resistance
-- Reactance
-- Impedance
-- Power calculation

Circuit Analysis

AC CIRCUIT ANALYSIS

The formulas:
S | I rms || Vrms |
S | I rms || Vrms | cos j | I rms || Vrms | sin

EEU104/3:
Electrical
Technology
Dr Haidi Ibrahim
AC CIRCUIT ANALYSIS
Main reference
Expected outcomes
Revisions:
-- Complex number
-- Sinusoidal waveforms
Basic AC component
-- Power sources
-- Resistance
-- Reactance
-- Impedance
-- Power calculation

Circuit Analysis

P: Active power
Power dissipated from the circuit (by resistors)
Power factor = cos
If is negative:

If is positive:
Lagging power factor
Inductive circuit: Current lags voltage

## Unit: Watts [W]

EEU104/3:
Electrical
Technology
Dr Haidi Ibrahim
AC CIRCUIT ANALYSIS
Main reference
Expected outcomes
Revisions:
-- Complex number
-- Sinusoidal waveforms
Basic AC component
-- Power sources
-- Resistance
-- Reactance
-- Impedance
-- Power calculation

Circuit Analysis

P: Active power
Power dissipated from the circuit (by resistors)
Power factor = cos
If is negative:

If is positive:
Lagging power factor
Inductive circuit: Current lags voltage

## Unit: Watts [W]

EEU104/3:
Electrical
Technology
Dr Haidi Ibrahim
AC CIRCUIT ANALYSIS
Main reference
Expected outcomes
Revisions:
-- Complex number
-- Sinusoidal waveforms
Basic AC component
-- Power sources
-- Resistance
-- Reactance
-- Impedance
-- Power calculation

Circuit Analysis

Q: Reactive power
Not dissipated from circuit, but temporarily
stored by inductors or capacitors.
Imaginary part of S.
Written without j
Unit: Volt ampere reactive [VAR]

EEU104/3:
Electrical
Technology
Dr Haidi Ibrahim
AC CIRCUIT ANALYSIS
Main reference
Expected outcomes
Revisions:
-- Complex number
-- Sinusoidal waveforms
Basic AC component
-- Power sources
-- Resistance
-- Reactance
-- Impedance
-- Power calculation

Circuit Analysis

Q: Reactive power
Not dissipated from circuit, but temporarily
stored by inductors or capacitors.
Imaginary part of S.
Written without j
Unit: Volt ampere reactive [VAR]

EEU104/3:
Electrical
Technology
Dr Haidi Ibrahim
AC CIRCUIT ANALYSIS

S: Apparent power
Unit: Volt ampere (VA)
Normally given by its magnitude:

Main reference
Expected outcomes
Revisions:
-- Complex number
-- Sinusoidal waveforms
Basic AC component
-- Power sources
-- Resistance
-- Reactance
-- Impedance
-- Power calculation

Circuit Analysis

P Q
2

EEU104/3:
Electrical
Technology
Dr Haidi Ibrahim
AC CIRCUIT ANALYSIS

S: Apparent power
Unit: Volt ampere (VA)
Normally given by its magnitude:

Main reference
Expected outcomes
Revisions:
-- Complex number
-- Sinusoidal waveforms
Basic AC component
-- Power sources
-- Resistance
-- Reactance
-- Impedance
-- Power calculation

Circuit Analysis

P Q
2

Circuit Analysis
EEU104/3:
Electrical
Technology
Dr Haidi Ibrahim
AC CIRCUIT ANALYSIS
Main reference
Expected outcomes
Revisions:
-- Complex number
-- Sinusoidal waveforms
Basic AC component
-- Power sources
-- Resistance
-- Reactance
-- Impedance
-- Power calculation

Circuit Analysis

## All calculation MUST be in polar or rectangular form

(i.e. complex number)
Steps:
1)See whether all power supplies in the circuit are
using the same frequency or not.
If yes, can solve the circuit with all the
supplies within.
If no, need to use superposition theorem.
2) Transform the supplies into polar form
3) Calculate the reactance for inductor and
capacitor
4) Then, can analyze the circuit similar to DC
circuit.

EEU104/3:
Electrical
Technology

Basic formulas:

Dr Haidi Ibrahim

DC

AC

AC CIRCUIT ANALYSIS

ZRX

Main reference
Expected outcomes
Revisions:
-- Complex number
-- Sinusoidal waveforms
Basic AC component
-- Power sources
-- Resistance
-- Reactance
-- Impedance
-- Power calculation

Circuit Analysis

V IR

V IZ

P IV

S PQ

EEU104/3:
Electrical
Technology
Dr Haidi Ibrahim
AC CIRCUIT ANALYSIS
Main reference
Expected outcomes
Revisions:
-- Complex number
-- Sinusoidal waveforms
Basic AC component
-- Power sources
-- Resistance
-- Reactance
-- Impedance
-- Power calculation

Circuit Analysis

Exercise 1.19
For the following circuit:
a) Draw the impedance
triangle
b) Find the phasor
current, I
c) Draw the phasor
diagram of I and V
d) Draw the power
triangle
e) Calculate the power
factor.

I
R

1k

5V 15o

5kHz
C

22nF

EEU104/3:
Electrical
Technology
Dr Haidi Ibrahim
AC CIRCUIT ANALYSIS
Main reference
Expected outcomes
Revisions:
-- Complex number
-- Sinusoidal waveforms
Basic AC component
-- Power sources
-- Resistance
-- Reactance
-- Impedance
-- Power calculation

Circuit Analysis

## (a) Draw the impedance triangle:

R 1000
1
1
XC j
j
2fC
2 (5000Hz)(22 10 9 F)
j1446.8631
X L j 2fL j 0
Z R X R X L XC
Z 1000 0 ( j1446.8631)
1758.8101 55.3497 o

EEU104/3:
Electrical
Technology
Dr Haidi Ibrahim

Z 1000 j1446.8631
1758.8101 55.3497 o

AC CIRCUIT ANALYSIS
Main reference
Expected outcomes
Revisions:
-- Complex number
-- Sinusoidal waveforms
Basic AC component
-- Power sources
-- Resistance
-- Reactance
-- Impedance
-- Power calculation

Circuit Analysis

## The impedance triangle:

R 1k
55.3497o

X 1446.8631
Z 1758.8101

EEU104/3:
Electrical
Technology
Dr Haidi Ibrahim
AC CIRCUIT ANALYSIS
Main reference

## (b) The phasor current, I

Z 1000 j1446.8631
1758.8101 55.3497 o

Expected outcomes
Revisions:
-- Complex number
-- Sinusoidal waveforms
Basic AC component
-- Power sources
-- Resistance
-- Reactance
-- Impedance
-- Power calculation

Circuit Analysis

V
5V 15o
I
Z 1758.8101 55.3497 o
2.8428mA40.3497 o

EEU104/3:
Electrical
Technology

## (c) The phasor diagram for I and V

Dr Haidi Ibrahim
AC CIRCUIT ANALYSIS
Main reference
Expected outcomes
Revisions:
-- Complex number
-- Sinusoidal waveforms
Basic AC component
-- Power sources
-- Resistance
-- Reactance
-- Impedance
-- Power calculation

Circuit Analysis

I 2.8428mA
40.3497o
15o

V 5V

EEU104/3:
Electrical
Technology
Dr Haidi Ibrahim
AC CIRCUIT ANALYSIS
Main reference

## (d) Draw the power triangle

S | I rms || Vrms |
S (2.8428mA)(5V) 55.3497o

Expected outcomes

S (14.2140mVA ) 55.3497o

Revisions:
-- Complex number
-- Sinusoidal waveforms

S 8.0816mW j (11.6930mVAR )

Basic AC component
-- Power sources
-- Resistance
-- Reactance
-- Impedance
-- Power calculation

P 8.0816mW
Q 11.6930mVAR

Circuit Analysis

S 14.2140mVA

EEU104/3:
Electrical
Technology
Dr Haidi Ibrahim

P 8.0816mW
55.3497o

Q 11.6930mVAR

AC CIRCUIT ANALYSIS
Main reference
Expected outcomes
Revisions:
-- Complex number
-- Sinusoidal waveforms
Basic AC component
-- Power sources
-- Resistance
-- Reactance
-- Impedance
-- Power calculation

Circuit Analysis

S 14.2140mVA

EEU104/3:
Electrical
Technology
Dr Haidi Ibrahim

## (e) Power factor

55.3497o

AC CIRCUIT ANALYSIS
Main reference
Expected outcomes
Revisions:
-- Complex number
-- Sinusoidal waveforms
Basic AC component
-- Power sources
-- Resistance
-- Reactance
-- Impedance
-- Power calculation

Circuit Analysis

## Power factor cos

cos(55.3497 o )
0.5686

EEU104/3:
Electrical
Technology
Dr Haidi Ibrahim
AC CIRCUIT ANALYSIS
Main reference
Expected outcomes
Revisions:
-- Complex number
-- Sinusoidal waveforms
Basic AC component
-- Power sources
-- Resistance
-- Reactance
-- Impedance
-- Power calculation

Circuit Analysis

Exercise 1.20
In the following circuit, the current I is
120mA when the source is at
frequency 1kHz. When the frequency
of the source is 5kHz, I is 150mA. Find
the values of R and C.
I

V
50V0 o

EEU104/3:
Electrical
Technology
Dr Haidi Ibrahim
AC CIRCUIT ANALYSIS
Main reference

V 50V0o
1
1
XC

C 2fC

Z R j XC

Expected outcomes
Revisions:
-- Complex number
-- Sinusoidal waveforms
Basic AC component
-- Power sources
-- Resistance
-- Reactance
-- Impedance
-- Power calculation

Circuit Analysis

Z Z R2 X C
V
I

V
1

R
2fC

R
V
50V0 o

EEU104/3:
Electrical
Technology

V
I

R
2fC

Dr Haidi Ibrahim
AC CIRCUIT ANALYSIS
Main reference

## When f=1kHz, |I|=120mA

Expected outcomes
Revisions:
-- Complex number
-- Sinusoidal waveforms
Basic AC component
-- Power sources
-- Resistance
-- Reactance
-- Impedance
-- Power calculation

Circuit Analysis

0.12A

50V

R
2 (1000Hz)C

50V
1

R

2 (1000Hz)C 0.12A
2

EEU104/3:
Electrical
Technology

V
I

R
2fC

Dr Haidi Ibrahim
AC CIRCUIT ANALYSIS
Main reference

## When f=5kHz, |I|=150mA

Expected outcomes
Revisions:
-- Complex number
-- Sinusoidal waveforms
Basic AC component
-- Power sources
-- Resistance
-- Reactance
-- Impedance
-- Power calculation

Circuit Analysis

0.15A

50V

R
2 (5000Hz)C

50V
1

R

2 (5000Hz)C 0.15A
2

EEU104/3:
Electrical
Technology
Dr Haidi Ibrahim
AC CIRCUIT ANALYSIS
Main reference
Expected outcomes
Revisions:
-- Complex number
-- Sinusoidal waveforms
Basic AC component
-- Power sources
-- Resistance
-- Reactance
-- Impedance
-- Power calculation

Circuit Analysis

2
2

1
1

2 (1000Hz)C 2 (5000Hz)C
2

50V 50V

0.12A 0.15A

1 9.6 10 7
C
6.2376 10 7 F
2
62500
0.6238F

EEU104/3:
Electrical
Technology
Dr Haidi Ibrahim
AC CIRCUIT ANALYSIS

into

1
2

50V
1
2

R

2 (1000Hz)(0.6238F) 0.12A

Main reference
Expected outcomes
Revisions:
-- Complex number
-- Sinusoidal waveforms
Basic AC component
-- Power sources
-- Resistance
-- Reactance
-- Impedance
-- Power calculation

Circuit Analysis

R 2 108515.8277

R 329.4174
Therefore, R=329.4174 and C=0.6238F

EEU104/3:
Electrical
Technology
Dr Haidi Ibrahim
AC CIRCUIT ANALYSIS
Main reference
Expected outcomes
Revisions:
-- Complex number
-- Sinusoidal waveforms
Basic AC component
-- Power sources
-- Resistance
-- Reactance
-- Impedance
-- Power calculation

Circuit Analysis

Exercise 1.21
The following circuit dissipates power
as much as 97W. Find the value of L
and sketch the phasor diagram for the
source voltage and the current in the
circuit.
i (t )

R 25

## 339 sin(100t 30o )V

EEU104/3:
Electrical
Technology
Dr Haidi Ibrahim
AC CIRCUIT ANALYSIS
Main reference
Expected outcomes
Revisions:
-- Complex number
-- Sinusoidal waveforms
Basic AC component
-- Power sources
-- Resistance
-- Reactance
-- Impedance
-- Power calculation

Circuit Analysis

339
V30 240V30
2

therefore:
P I 2R
97W I 2 (25)
I 1.97A

i (t )

R 25

## 339 sin(100t 35o )V

EEU104/3:
Electrical
Technology
Dr Haidi Ibrahim
AC CIRCUIT ANALYSIS
Main reference
Expected outcomes
Revisions:
-- Complex number
-- Sinusoidal waveforms
Basic AC component
-- Power sources
-- Resistance
-- Reactance
-- Impedance
-- Power calculation

Circuit Analysis

V
I

240V
122
1.97A

Z R 2 X 2 122
Z 252 X 2 122
X 119

L 119
100L 119
L 379mH
The phase angle: tan 1 119 78
25

EEU104/3:
Electrical
Technology

## The phasor diagram for I and V

Dr Haidi Ibrahim
AC CIRCUIT ANALYSIS

V 240V

Main reference
Expected outcomes
Revisions:
-- Complex number
-- Sinusoidal waveforms
Basic AC component
-- Power sources
-- Resistance
-- Reactance
-- Impedance
-- Power calculation

Circuit Analysis

30o
48o
I 1.97A