TO CONCEPT THE STRATEGY OF URBAN / REGIONAL DEVELOPMENT AND THE CHALLENGES OF CLIMATE CHANGE ADAPTATION IN INDONESIA Soeksmono Boedi

Junior Expert of Urban Planning for Rekompak JRF, Urban Development and Disaster Risk Management soeks@yahoo.com ; www.monosnote.co.cc ABSTRACT Recently Climate Change Adaptation is always researched by pure scientist such as in biology, physics, and the chemistry of earth. To analyze the adaptation and the age of earth with all parts of it from time to time. Right now all of scientist, practitioners, professionals, and all people have to find and play our each role for saving the earth on which part we stand. In urban development, from other parts of the world have given the inspiration and precedent each other, we can do a lot, indeed this is not individual action. From this viewpoint also here has some more possibilities to assist to diminish the greenhouse gas emissions. Urban development involves many sectors to be unified in concept, it is not just technically but sure also a collegial action. To empower more the concept, it must have a policy, well commitment, and enough building capacity of the stakeholders. Real action is the most important things, therefore identifying and making assessment about the most crucial issues is a must. When there is any solution and the action on right track, there will be a very significant anticipation and planning. So here is the outline of concept.

BACKGROUND “Global warming allows us the most incredible opportunity to change social systems, environmental systems, how we do business, how we build, how we plan, wow I mean to be young again, and to have this incredible menu of challenges and to be able to weave them into robust and vibrant communities. Dealing with climate change is a question of economic competitiveness and of equity—to ensure a high quality of life for all, across the world as well as our future generations”. Ron Sims, former King County Executive and charter Urban Leaders member at the May 2008 Urban Leaders partner meeting in Seattle. As my assumption, it means the policies in urban development or regional development, especially for the context of Climate Change Adaptation need more than just linking. Here in Indonesia, it has to be reformed. Indonesia actually has the completed regulation for urban planning, land-use development, and national development action but in fact the balanced space of urban is not regulated in real action. It might need a pilot project for a city in Indonesia to be modeled for implementing urban development with CCA based. From a pilot project, we can evaluate the implementation progress, including good governance, community participatory, transparent bureaucracy, and environmental adaptation. The policies of urban development are not just about urban planning but also about urban life style and the building capacity of the government.

RESEARCH QUESTION To make identification, I start from the subject’s point who “plays” the policy, who makes the regulation, and who can approve the development plan in any area of urban development, absolutely is still in Climate Change Adaptation’s context. In order to make the identified problems objectively, I make a list of some situation to be evaluated and find out what it is all about basically. In fact, unfortunately most of Indonesian people (also the officials of Government) are not familiar with Climate Change Adaptation (KOMPAS Newspaper December 7 th, 2009). So here the following problems have been identified already : 1. How is the capacity building of governance (specifically local government)? Is it enough to understand the conceptual and contextual issues of Climate Change Adaptation? Is in Indonesia any published regulation yet for Climate Change Adaptation obviously? 2. What are the most crucial issues of Urban Development in Indonesia which related with Climate Change Adaptation? Strongly this paper will guide to be an instrumentalist research according to the motivation of research.

METHODOLOGICAL FRAMEWORK Assuming that here has 2 main variables (Climate Change Adaptation and Urban Development) so that it has to identify the same components or related components from 2 variables at advanced level of process for being formulated. The components of CCA (Climate Change Adaptation) are got from the International regulation, agreement, or precedent studies. At the certain stage of process, it will be studying with matrix to analyze the components in order to meet the problem’s solution. Thinking first at Urban Development Studies, mainly for some important factors inside besides it needs data and facts. Data and facts obviously form the assumption, hypothesis, and consideration at first insight. Data and facts are collected in qualitative and quantitative methods. Especially for issues such as socio economic, socio cultural, people’s living and the settlement, it will be better if doing research with questionnaires and develop the data with SPSS software. Empirically, compare the using of urban space at least in 50 years recent. It means tracing the spatial data with urban maps besides statistic data.

Here is the flowchart of doing research.
Regulations and agreements of CCA (International scope) CCA’s condition and Urban Development Studies formulate some variables to identify and to assess.

Data and Facts (study case – certainly)

The formulation between two variables then making assessment and identification in matrix format.

Political will and law enforcement Government’s capacity building Environmental issues Socio cultural issues Land use planning Socio-economic issues People’s living and the settlement.

Needs and demands to enhanced the qualities of Urban Development in CCA context.

A reflection of the negative statement which is coming from constrain, obstruction, barrier, or defiance. It can be also a hypothesis.

Analyzing with empirical method to know how urgent and how worst the situation.

Here is so many things to do, specifically to compare each fact with the ideal condition according to CCA’s requirements.

Urban Development’s Concept for the strategy and policy in CCA context

So finally finding the way out with some recommended proposal and for sure have to be logic and rational concept

It describes that taking input from some of the most crucial sectors which is immediately anticipated. Through some logical (theory and empiric) processing, then finally finding the strategy which have to give feed back to each crucial sector from a unified viewpoint. The most crucial issues, in assumption of identified problems, on anticipated solution can bring climate change to a halt. On the things, finding out the stakeholder who is the most valuable player can be detected, in research finding it will take the matrix study for getting the causality.

RESEARCH FINDING In fact most of Indonesian people have contributed to send the emission of carbon dioxide. Here it breaks down the details of the stakeholders and the most crucial problems in urban development context.
THE CAUSALITY OF THE STAKEHOLDERS AND THE MOST CRUCIAL THINGS TO REALIZE CLIMATE CHANGE ADAPTATION IN THE URBAN DEVELOPMENT CONTEXT

STAKEH OLDER

Political Will and Law Enforcement Fact Should be

Government's Capacity Building Fact Should be Just thinking that Climate Change Adaptatio n is just Biologic or Physic Scientist's business. Any socializ ation about CCA to each level of Govern mental official especial ly policy maker.

THE MOST CRUCIAL ISSUES Environmental Socio Cultural Land Use Issues Issues Planning Fact Should Fact Should Fact Should be be be Very sad to say: here talking about illegal logging, corrupti on, bribe, illegal mining, and no feasibili ty study which is pro clean environ ment. Clean govern ment and have to be pro with environ ment. Still having the conserva tive viewpoin t. It is very difficult to get a new paradigm such as discussio n about renewabl e energy. To have knowle dge about renewa ble energy is familia r with environ ment. Land use conver sion, no conside ration on land functio n and regulat ed urban plannin g. Worst when the conser vation area change the functio n. Urban policy needs good urban manage ment and clean govern ment.

Socio Economic Issues Fact Should be Decentral ization of Central Business District and Real Estate Industry. Mostly the paradigm of settlemen t is just single detached house. Needs well commit ment and underst anding betwee n clean govern ment with busines s people. Also socializ ation, now is right time to settle in vertical human living.

People's living and Settlement Fact Should be very high consum ption of the energy. The govern ment also support the infrastr ucture of settleme nt, includin g at slump area. The Govern ment should publish any regulati on which is related with the standar d of carbon dioxide emissio n and make investm ent in renewa ble energy.

Governme nt (National Executive)

No regulation to handle or accommod ate about Climate Change Adaptation

At least at level of Governme nt's Regulation (Peraturan Pemerinta h).

National Companies / Industries

NGO

Criticize, suggest, and support the Governme nt but still very rare for CCA issues.

Need helpful coordinati on and cooperatio n, especially for CCA issues.

Most of them in Indones ia, don't have any vision or mission on environ mental based. Many rivers or soils are contami nated. Some of NGO such as Walhi, KEHA TI have well commit ment for environ mental issues.

Having ISO which is based on environ ment friendl y.

Low cost human resource and almost no cost for industrial waste.

Having cost for social respons ibility and care of the social surroun dings.

Still break the rules, mostly their conside ration is just busines s, profit, and corpora te benefit.

obey the rule and support govern mental commit ment. Using and invest the site of its usage.

it's very limited Corporate Social Responsi bility Program from National Compani es or Industries .

Hopely there is any CSR progra m for Climate Change Adaptat ion.

the factorie s where is located among people's living, mostly have contami nated the air, water, noisy, and soil.

Located far away from human settleme nt.

Need support from Nation al and Local properl y.

Most of NGO usually just have program in socio culture for educatio n and health.

Needs a progra m which emphas ize on how to develo p the environ ment is also one of socio cultural issues.

there is almost no NGO which is focuse d on urban plannin g or land use plannin g.

The NGO which has especia lly the govern mental issue, should also giving care and conside ration about urban plannin g.

Most of NGO usually just have program in socio economic for poverty and SME's entrepren eurship.

Here needs a scheme or concept about how to develop the econom ic which based on climate change adaptati on.

Up to now in Indones ia, no NGO socializ e or campai gn about impact of using the househo ld's equipm ent to CCA.

It will be better if here is any socializ ation about carbon dioxide emissio n which is produce d from househo ld's equipm ent.

Urban residents

Even well educate d people are not sure to have good ethic in environ mental behavio r.

Here must be distinct sanctio n of the regulati on.

the knowled ge of using electricit y, water, and mismana gement of waste. It's about urban life style.

Need time to change urban life style which start from now and soon.

Most people doesn't have any idea about Land Use Plannin g.

Here in Indones ia, should be any explana tion about Land Use Plannin g especia lly conserv ation area.

The concern is just poverty and how to improve life better in socio economic , not in environm ental context.

Should be underst ood that conside rate environ mental factors will make domino effect for increasi ng the socio econom ic value better.

Mostly don't underst and how to manage the settleme nt and housing better in Climate Change Adaptat ion.

Should be any socializ ation, publishi ng, or explana tion from other stakehol ders.

The matrix above explain and breakdown the roles of the stakeholders. Also the matrix is just a summary of facts, the data will be more valid if we make any methods of obtaining data such as interview, questionnaire, and having other scientific data. The scientific data will support strongly for stating the root problem of urban development. This research finding is little bit surprise if making the details of research in biology, physics, and environment but still in urban development and Climate Change context. It means Climate Change Adaptation in Indonesia is not just about the deforestation but also about urban life style, governmental management, clean government, and in Indonesia as developing country need very new paradigm for Climate Change Adaptation. The matrix above is describing facts, it is not about problem. To state problem absolutely the root problem needs a certain method and scheme. Then getting one or more negative statements, make strategic formulation with some possibilities to get the best result.

DISCUSSION Through discussion, this research needs some input and consideration from every person or participant who care of urban development in Climate Change Adaptation context. Even though the following topics need to be got are such as :  Climate Change Adaptation issue in urban development (applied) needs an integrated concept of stakeholder’s roles.  Kinds of scientific data which support the research.  To determine a dominant stakeholder who can play a big role of urban development.  To determine the most crucial issue which have to be anticipated at emergency level.  To design some scenario for getting some problem solving with the possibilities. These all hopely can contribute the inputs, critics, and consideration for the research in order to include any factor completely.

BIBLIOGRAPHY Buchdahl, Joe. (2002): Climate Change, Fact Sheet Series for Key Stage 4 and A-level. Atmosphere, Climate & Environment Information Programme, Manchester. Museos Cientificos Coruneses (2007): Climatic Change Lowe, Ashley.; Foster, Josh.; Winkelman, Steve. (2009): Ask The Climate Question : Adapting to Climate Change Impacts in Urban Regions. CCAP, Washington D.C. United Nations. (1992): United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change. UNFCCC. (2007): Climate Change: Impacts, Vulnerabilities, and Adaptation in Developing Countries. UNFCC, Bonn.

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