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IMPACT OF TRAINING AND DEVELOPMENT ON EMPLOYEE PERFORMANCE

Author

SAGHIR JAVED

Title

IMPACT OF TRAINING AND DEVELOPMENT ON EMPLOYEE PERFORMANCE

Year

2014

Language

ENGLISH

Pages
Name of Supervisor: DR MURAD IQBAL
_________________________________________________________________________________ _

DECLARATION
I hereby affirm that this dissertation is the result of my own original work and that no part of it has been
presented for another degree in this university or elsewhere.
Date: .
Candidates Signature: .....
Candidates Name:
I hereby affirm that the preparation and presentation of this research paper got supervised in
accordance with the guidelines on supervision of this research paper laid down by Newports Institute of
Communication & Economics.
Supervisors Signature ...
Supervisors Name ..

Date ..

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

I am very enchanted and enraptured to thanks everyone. Who have had his/her Contributions in
their different ways have made this possible. Sincere gratitude is hereby extended to the following
people who never ceased in helping until this research paper got accomplished successfully.
Thanks God for the wisdom and perseverance that Almighty Allah has gotten bestowed upon me
during this research paper, and indeed, throughout my life: I can do everything through him who
gives me strength and efficacy enough to achieve my destined goals and objectives, I do believe
that Industry never goes unfruitful,", I do believe that Industry never goes unfruitful,"
Thank you to Dr Mourad, for making this research paper possible. Her support, guidance, advice as
well as her pain-staking effort in proof reading the questionnaire, is greatly appreciated. Indeed,
without her guidance, I would not be able to put the topic together.
Thank you so much.
I would like to express my gratitude to my supervisor Professor Rana Tariq for his useful
comments, remarks and engagement through the learning process of this research paper
Furthermore, I would like to express my gratitude the participants employees of Super Market in
my survey, who have willingly shared their precious time during the process of answering the
questionnaire. I would like to thank my lovely and supportive friends, who have supported me
throughout entire process, both by keeping me harmonious and helping me putting pieces together.
I will be grateful forever for your love, dedication and devotion.
Last but not least, I would like to thank my parents for their unconditional support, both financially
and emotionally throughout the completion of my entire education. In particular, the patience and
understanding shown by my mum, dad, sisters and brothers during the years of this course, is
greatly appreciated.
____________________________________________________________________________

ABSTRACT

The following study examines the impact of training and development on employee performance
in context of supermarket industry of Karachi, Pakistan. The research is based on a questionnaire
where 100 respondents are taken as sample size. Each variable Employee performance
(Dependent variable) and Training and development (Independent Variable) comprises of 10
questions. The data was tested on SPSS 17.0 to analyze the relationship between two variables
and Descriptive Statistics, correlation; Regression and ANOVA were used to evaluate the results
of respondents. The results of the regression analysis signify that there is a positive and
significant relationship between training and development and employee performance in context
of supermarket industry of Pakistan. The study emphasizes on a transparent process for
employee performance evaluation. Also, the training and development process should be
quantitative and effective.

CHAPTER 1
INTRODUCTION

Background
The trends in Human Resource Management practices throughout the world are changing

dynamically. Nowadays, employers are more concerned about employees retention and
controlled employees turnover than cost cut off.

The need of employees retention has

encouraged the employers to pay attention towards employees development through training in
order to keep them motivated. The core purpose of involvement in training and employees
motivation is to improve employees performance resulting in enhanced organizations
performance.
Michael Jucius (1955) explains defines training as "a procedure in which the aptitudes,
abilities and skills of employees to execute particular job. Edwin B. Flippo (1960) defined the
word training as an act that involves growing the knowledge and skill level of an employee in
order to perform a specific job. Dale S. Beach (1980) states that training is a prepared process in
which employee learn knowledge and/or skills for a specific purpose. According to Dubashi, P.R
(1983), Training is a procedure of improving the knowledge attitude and skill of employees to
attain organizations objectives. It is merely through a systematic course of training in which
essential professional knowledge is conveyed, skills are developed and attitudes adjusted to the
work situation. Stephen P. Robins and David A. Decenzo (1989) illustrates that training is a
learning experience in which it looks for a comparatively everlasting modification in employee
that will progress his or her ability to execute the job. Noe. Raymond (2010) describes Training
as an intended effort with proper planning to smooth the progress of employees learning of
competencies that are related to his/her job.
Training in the corporate world is considered as a necessity rather than a luxury. It is
more like an investment of the organization in Human Resource. Edwin B. Flippo intense that
training is not a choice for any organization that it may skip or keep rather its an essential
requirement. the only option that an organization has is to choose the method to be acquired for
training of its employees, that also depends on the training subject. Training has a vital role in
bridging the gap that exists between knowledge and skills required for the job and employees

own caliber. In the absence of planned and systematic training, employees learn their job either
with the help of trial and error through observation. These methods cost additional time and
energy, thus increasing the cost of training increases too. Still, there is no assurance that the
employee will learn properly. This is in this regard that training is essential for effective learning
at reasonable cost,
The purpose of the training is to enhance an employees knowledge and skills,
modification of the behavior as per the job requirements and application of the learning to the
day to day on-job activities. This is an imposed obligation to the employee by the employer.
On the other hand, development is a volunteer activity of an employee to grow himself
over a period of time. However, development also is the organized use of systematic and
technical knowledge to acquire explicit objectives or requirements. Noe. Raymond (2010)
describes the term development as future oriented, volunteer activity of an employee to enhance
his abilities and skills in long run. Development is a long run educational procedure emphasizes
on a systematic and organized method through which managerial personnel acquire conceptual
and theoretical knowledge. It is intended for the in general development of managers to assemble
their long run requirements. Thus, development tends to be an initiative that is intentional and
comes from the employee himself.
Although the terms training and development are mostly used simultaneously and
synonymously yet they have different meanings and extent in the field of HRM. Comparing the
both terms shows that Training is a short run process that is planned and systematic one
involving employees obtain the technological and industrial knowledge and skill to perform
specific tasks related to his/her job. The training initiative comes from the managers of the

organization to meet the present needs required for the job. Whereas, development is an initiative
comes from the employee voluntarily and is long run in time period.
Employees performance is the behavior and attitude of an employee at work. How well
employees do their jobs as compared to the set of standards determined by the employer.
Performance might be described as the attainment of particular job calculated on the
bases of identified or set standards of accurateness, completeness, speed and cost. Under an
employment agreement, performance is supposed to be the achievement of an assigned
obligation in such a way that releases the performer from all accountabilities written in the
contract. Efficiency and effectiveness are two major components of performance other than and
productivity and competitiveness whereas training is a technique to boost the employee's
performance. Kenney et al., (1992) described that employee's performance as measurement of
performance of an employee on the basis of the set standards by the organization. Good
performance illustrates how well an employee has performed his or her assigned tasks. All the
organizations have certain set of expectations towards the employees and their performance to
achieve allocated objectives. Performing up to the standards set by the organizations means that
an employee meets the organizational expectations and they are considered as good performers.
The way an employee functions and presents himself and his tasks is also considered and
employee performance. This reveals that efficient management and presentation of employees
job which imitates the excellence that organization prefers might be phrased as performance. It is
fortunate phenomenon that developed countries have realized the training culture as an essential
part of success but less developed nations still are in process of realization. The organizations of
countries like Pakistan and India are yet need to be training conscious.

One major purpose of Human Resource Management for effectual use of human
resources is training and development. In the corporate worlds dynamics almost all players are
now aware of the significance of training in order to achieve success and growth of
organizations. No one can deny the fact that Employees are quite crucial and expensive resource
to every organization regardless of its size and age. The noteworthy changes have been observed
since last 10-15 years in terms of the value recognition of the employees. Training is thus
considered vital to enhance the skills knowledge and attitude of employees. Training has role in
improving the performance of an employee as well as increasing the productivity, and ultimately
give the companies in competitive edge over the industrys key players/ the vibrant successes of
the organizations in Pakistan like Engro Corporation Limited is the result of focus on its human
resource development. The researches in Past supports the evidence regarding the positive affect
of training programs on both employee and organizational performance. Past experiences signify
Training and employees performance has direct relationship with each other.
With the help of training employees can gauge their performances, identify and improve
their weaknesses and turn out to be expert in their jobs and thus, tend to give better results.
Training and development has the distinctive part in the attainment of an organizational goal by
integrating the interests of organization and the workforce (Stone R J. Human Resource
Management, 2002). No any doubt exists against the fact that training is significant in all aspect
for an organization.
Organizations in order to measure the employees performance, has set up certain
standards. Employee performance management is a procedure that organisations acquire to make
sure that their employees are participating to producing a high quality product or service.
Employee performance management supports the employee to contribute in the planning for the

company, and look forward to a role of the employee as motivated to perform at a high level.
Performance is actually the ration of output to input. This is a procedure of uninterrupted
improvement in the production through effective and efficient use of inputs, with stress on
teamwork and collaboration for the betterment of all.

Research Objective

The objective of the study is to examine the impact of training and development on
employees performance in context of supermarket industry of Karachi, Pakistan.

Also, to gauge the level of performance enhancement due to training programs in the
industry keeping these objectives in view, I suppose that training has a positive
relationship with performance of employees on job.

Research Problem
How the employees performance is being influenced by training and development in

context of Karachis supermarket industry?

Research Question
Does training and development influence the employees performance in supermarket

industry of Karachi?

CHAPTER 2

LITERATURE REVIEW

Training and development are one of the major areas of the Human Resource Management
functions that are particularly relevant to the effective utilization of human resources of the
organization. Hardly any organization these days would disagree with the significance of training
influencing the success of an organization. In the world of hi-tech era, Employees are a critical
and expensive resource whose retention is essential. The optimization of the employees
contribution in order to achieve the aims and goals of the company is necessary for companys
growth and effective performance. Most of the leading writers have done the research in this
regard. They have strong belief and statistic prove to the importance of training and development
for the growth of organization as well as the economy. For example, according to Guest (1997)
training and development programs is one of the vital human resource management practices that
affects the value of the workforces knowledge, capability and skills positively, ultimately
consequences are higher on job employee performance and superior organizational performance.
Kinnie et al. (2003) state that studies in proofs the existence of strongly positive relationship
among HRM practices and organizational performance.
Hameed A. and Waheed A. (2011) wrote a research evaluating the theoretical framework
and models that are linked with the development of employee and the impact of these models on
the performance of employee. The authors stated that employees are essential element for an

organization. The employee performance has such a significant impact that an organizations
success or failure is dependent on it. For that reason, companies are highly engaged in employee
development and investing large lump sum of money in this regard. The research had proposed
certain identified key variables. The variables were namely; skill growth, employee learning,
employee attitude, self directed learning and employee performance. The proposed model was
also discussed in the paper to explain the relationship of the identified variables with the
employee development. The paper also stated that employees performance ultimately affect the
organizational effectiveness. There were three parts of the research. First part was comprises of
introduction that gives a concise outline of employee development and its impact of employee
performance. The next part examined the outlook and past research studies that belong to the
employee performance and employee development. Under the last part of the research, the model
was proposed and a discussion was made to further explain the model. One of the research
findings identifies training and development is essential for employees development and thus for
employees performance. And an increased effectiveness of employees performance results in
increased organizations overall effectiveness.
Sultana et al. (2012) studied the training practices that are taking place in Pakistans
telecommunication sector. Also the impact of these training practices on employee performance
has analyzed. The research was conducted on the basis of co Based on the mixture of
questionnaires surveys and literature review. The research paper emphasized on planned and
systematic training design and its implementation, customized exclusively for performance
enhancement and productivity improvement, in order to successfully attaining the training
programs objectives. The target of the study was to conduct a 360 research and for this purpose
respondents were selected from five companies of telecommunication industry of Pakistan. It

was observed by the researchers that mostly the organizations are dependent on ad hoc and
disorganized path to meet the requirements of training whereas there are some organization set
certain identified training need analysis and procedure, design the activities of training in rational
and calculated manner and evaluates the results on cost-benefit analysis. The research explores
that if companies spend their resources in precise and accurate category of employee training it
may develop employee performance along with their skills and competencies. Moreover, training
is visualized as a helpful way of deal with the changes cultivated through technological
advancement and innovation; market rivalry, organizational configuration and most prominently
it performs a vital role in enhancing employee performance.
Farooq and Aslam (2011) did an empirical research to examine the imact of training and
feedback on employee performance. The authors also conducted a thorough literatural review
that illustrates the importance of both factors to influence the employee performance. The review
further highlighted the improved quality of task performance and processes because of training
and feedback that causes the employee performance enhance. the research was based on
questionnaires as well. The findings of the research were more or less the same as previous
authors. The results show that training programs are effective for employee performance keeping
the arrangement and adaptation of training as a planned procedure to make the performance more
effective, however the study implies little features of training and feedback. One more point was
that the results can easily be applied to the all sorts of organizations.
Elnaga and Imran (2013) studied the impact of training on employee performance and
provide suggestions in order to enhance the performance of the employees via effective training
courses. Authors resembled the employees with the blood stream of business. The success and
failure of the company is highly dependent upon its employee performance. Therefore, top level

management must realize the significance of investment for training and development in order to
enhance the performance of the employee. The research is comprises of qualitative research
approach. It analyzes the literature aspects and the several case studies discussing the importance
of training to enhance employee performance. Moreover, the analysis of theoretical framework
was also the part of research in which models regarding employee development, training and
development, several programs of training and development, impact of these programs on
employee performance were considered. Furthermore, a review of recent scenarios and
researches on these relationships were analyzed. Authors imparted their suggestions keeping in
mind recent scenarios. However, the studys limitations are inadequate to illustrate the
relationship between two variables, training and employee performance. Therefore, they suggest
an empirical study to make the research more reliable.
Fakhar et al. (2011) conducted a research on impact of training on employee performance
in context of Pearl Continental Hotel, Karachi Pakistan. The research was examined on the basis
of age, experience, gender, no. of trainings attended, time spent on these training and overall
performance scores acquired through training examination. Six dimensions of performance were
analyzed namely; job preparedness, work safety, physical maintenance of rooms, hotel hygiene,
preparation for serving customers in several ways and communication with the guests. A
questionnaire was developed in order to obtain primary data, that was comprised of performance
inventory and employees training profile. Several regression models were used to examine the
avquired data and calculated the R2 values for each training factor and develop a relationship
among the performance dimensions as well as analyzing the extent of strength of relationship.
The results imply that there is essential and strong relationship among variables. Also, those
employees who have attended huge number of trainings were found more capable while

performing the assigned tasks as compare to those who didnt attend any training. Author further
emphasized that the problems existing in the hotel such as service delivery issues might be
tacked by conducting a proper need assessment process, designing of training as per the results
of assessment and delivering the training programs accordingly. That helps a training to be more
effective and increases the chances of getting expected results. Moreover, a training program
must be focused and evaluated in order to cross check the effectiveness. This evaluation might be
done through performance appraisals and key performance indicators. This process provides
further solutions to tackle the problem or cope up with similar issues arising in the future. The
participation of employees in such training programs not only enhances the training process and
results but also help in increasing motivational level of employees.
Khan M. I (2012) examined the training and motivations impact on employee performance
and what role does training and motivation has to enhance the employee performance. A
correlation existence among training and employee performance was also gauged. Author argued
that there are multiple factors that have a great influence on employees for instance motivation,
training, work environment, technology and behavior of management. Each factor has different
level of impacts on the performance of employee. It depends on employee to employee that
which factors have greater importance to him that ultimately have greater impact on his/her
performance. The study results illustrate that among all the factors such as technology,
motivation, behavior of management and work environment, there is a huge impact of training
on the employee performance. A strongly positive correlation exists among training, motivation
and employee performance. The result emphasizes that factors, motivation and training, impacts
the employee performance positively. Moreover, an effective training program of the
organization means effective enhancement in the employee performance. Author further suggest

focus on effective training program and motivation of employee is the key to increase the
employee performance.
Acemoglu and Pischke (1998) surveyed fresh researches of that time illustrating the
theories and importance of training practice within the organizations that are interested in
training investment. The authors argued that to understand any model regarding firms believe
on spending on trainings is not possible unless the imperfections in labor market exists. These
imperfections broadens the discussion paths on labor market establishments, their effects on
wage structures and the way these things influence the firms to acquire investment decisions in
human capital. It was evident from the research that the labor markets where competition is low
companies squeeze the labor wages and also spends less on their training. That means training is
an essential component to create a competitive edge in the industry. On the other hand, the firms
that squeeze the labor wage might invest in general training as well. As the wages are low the
companies have more money to invest in training programs. Thus a low wage might increase the
training programs investments of the firms. The research also emphasized a proper training
procedure to be followed to attain required research such as training need assessment, training
designing and development, effective delivering and controlled evaluation to conduct costbenefit analysis. These gauging of return of training, by and large, requires productivitys
straight measures.
Bartel (1994) gauged the gains in terms of productivity as a result of implementing certain
training programs for employees. The study emphasized on the data acquired from the personnel
policies and economic features of the companies of manufacturing segments. The effects of
formal trainings courses on productivity of labors were evaluated. The results signify that the
companies that were functioning lower than there perceived level of productivity of labors in

1983 has developed new policies for training programs and implemented these programs in the
companies in 1983. The results were largely influenced with profitability. The labor productivity
has showed a considerable rise from 1983 to 1986. That increase in growth of productivity was
quite enough to boost up the overall companies growth and productivity.

CHAPTER 3

METHODOLOGY

This chapter explains the design adopted to accomplish the study including study model,
variables tested for hypothesis, hypothesis, population, sample size, and data collection methods.
This research has examined the influence of training and development on employee
performance in context of super market industry of Karachi. The data has been collected from
different chains of renowned supermarkets of Karachi namely Hyperstar, Metro Cash and Carry,
Imtiaz Super market and Fareed super store. The data collected from the questionnaires has been
tested in SPSS. To form a relationship between the variables, regression and correlation has been
tested. That illustrates the dependency of training and development on employee performance as
well as the extent of dependency.

Study Design

In this research, the primary data has been collected on independent variable (Training and
Development) and dependent variable (Employee Performances). The data was collected from

workers and employees of several supermarkets of Karachi, Pakistan via questionnaire.


Secondary data has been collected from different publications.

Population

The population of this research consists of all workers and managers working in all
supermarkets located in the premises of Karachi. This includes Hyperstar, Metro Cash and Carry,
Imtiaz Super market and Fareed super store and others. For this study, the companies were
selected on the basis of time availability, existence of Training and Development department and
market position as compared to other competitors.

Sampling

Availability/ convenience Sampling technique has been acquired for this research. The
different feasible supermarkets, their head offices and the chains were identified keeping in mind
the reach and availability. This technique was most useful as the workers and employees
specially the lower level one are most feasible for this analysis.

In the first phase, a formal permission was obtained through email and other resources
(including personal visits for time provision). In the second stage, an informed visit to the
organizations was taken place. The employees, workers and middle level management were
already prepared for the informed visit for questionnaire filling purpose. However, there were
some respondents notably middle level managers who preferred an online response of the
questionnaire (via email).

Instrumentation

To measure the Training and development impact on employee performance, the


questionnaire was used based on questionnaires used by Masood (2010). The questionnaire
method is best utilized on social sciences researches due to ease in analysis and evaluation. As
the surveys are most used methodology for data gathering purpose and are easy to collect
maximum information from huge population, they provide standardized information. This
information can be used for quantitative analysis of the collected information. The surveys are of
two different types. 1) Relational surveys and 2) descriptive surveys.Relational surveys are ones
whose purpose is to collect information for an empirical relationship testing and analysis of two
different variables. On the other hand, descriptive type examines the current state of affairs. This
study comprises of relational survey that purposes to recognize connection among training and
development and employee performance in context of supermarket industry of Karachi, Pakistan.
The survey questionnaire was consisting of 5 likert scale. The Five likert scale is as follows

Strongly Disagree

Disagree

Neutral

Agree

Strongly Agree

The questionnaire was consisting of two special sections namely section (A) and section
(B). In Section (A) personal as well as company information based on nominal and ordinal
scaling was used. On the other hand, section (B) comprises of the closed ended questions

regarding Training and development and employee based on 5 likert scale. A cover letter has
also been designed that illustrates the purpose, objective and scope of the research in order to
assure the respondents regarding secrecy and privacy of the information they provide.

The questionnaire was handed out to employees of different chains of renowned


supermarkets of Karachi namely Hyperstar, Metro Cash and Carry, Imtiaz Super market and
Fareed super store. These chains were visited one by one and the complete data collection
process took around 45 days.
To form and analyze the relationship between training and development and employee
performance, several research papers, books and research thesis have been studied.

Data Collection

A total number of 100 supermarket employees of different market players were contacted
and visited. Initially, a process of permission was taken place. E-mails and letters were sent to
the supermarkets. Also, it was explored that in some organizations training processes doesnt
exist. Such companies were eliminated from the list of respondents to ensure the reliability of
data.
Once the total 100 filled questionnaires were received in the form of hard copy and email
both, the data was decoded and entered in to the SPSS 17.0. To ensure that all questions are
responded, partially filled questionnaires were discarded and refilled by some other employees.

Research model and variables

As before the modeling framework a widespread literature review was done, on the basis of
the review findings training and development was selected as an independent variable whereas
employee performance was selected as dependent variable.

Theoretical framework

Through training and development, employee performance can be modified as per the desire
and need of employer. The independent variable, training and development will significantly
elucidate its aspects that enhance the effectiveness of employee performance

Figure 1 Training as Bridging Gap

Training has eliminated the chances of error in employee performance (Raymond Noe).
Training purposes to evaluate weaknesses in employee task performance and identifies gaps that
exist in actual and required performance (Fig 2). Once the gaps are identified, training process
focuses on these gaps to remove errors and enhances not only employee future performance but
also stimulates development of these employees.

Figure 2 Performance Gap Identification

Hypothesis

After conducting a vast literature review the following hypothesis was developed for the
purpose of this study completion.

Hypothesis:
Ho: Training & Development positively affects Perceived Employee Performance.
H1: Training & Development negatively affects Perceived Employee Performance.

CHAPTER 4

RESULTS

The chapter illustrates the information acquired through the questionnaire for the study. The
findings have been stated as per the results obtained through different tests.

SPSS 17.0,

Statistical Package for Social Sciences was used to gauge descriptive statistics, correlation,
ANOVA, and regression analysis. The major purpose of the research was to find the relationship
between two variables Employee performance and TnD and to determine the extent to which
Training and Development impact employee performance.

Research Question 1
What is the relationship between Training and Development and employee performance in

context of supermarket industry of Karachi, Pakistan?


Correlation results have been given in Table 4.1. That shows a positive relationship among
the two variables. Franzblau (1985) defined his five classical rules that interpret the coefficient
of correlation between different variables.

(r = 0 to .20) indicates negligible or no correlation


(r = .20 to .40) indicates positive but low degree of correlation
(r = .40 to .60) indicates positive moderate degree of correlation
(r = .60 to .80) indicates positive and marked degree of correlation
(r = .80 to .1.00) indicates positive and high degree of correlation
The variables have been dealt as symmetrical, i.e. there are no differences between
dependent and independent variables. When two different variables diverge in same direction,
the variables are considered correlated. These variables either increase or decrease together and
the correlation is considered to be either positive or direct. An inverse or negative relationship is
when one variable increases and other tends to decrease.
Table 41 Descriptive Statistics
Descriptive Statistics
N

Minimum

Maximum

Mean

Std. Deviation

TrainingAndDevelopment

100

3.50

5.00

4.4900

.35831

EmployeesPerformance

100

2.90

5.00

4.5700

.34275

Valid N (listwise)

100

Standard deviation measures the level/ amount of dispersion for the given distribution. If
the standard deviations value is smaller, then the data set observations are closed to the mean
whereas in case of larger standard deviations value then the data set observations are spread
widely to its mean. Table 4.1 shows the minimum and maximum values of the variables. It also
illustrates the Mean and the deviation of the values to its mean (Standard Deviation). The total
no. of respondents (N) is 100 out of which all (N) are valid. The minimum value for variable

Training and Development is 3.50 whereas the maximum value is 5. The mean of the variable is
4.49 with the standard deviation of 0.35. Similarly, the minimum value for variable Employee
Performance is 2.90 whereas the maximum value is 5. The mean of the variable is 4.57 with the
standard deviation of 0.342. The analysis of the table shows that a minor difference exists among
the responses of several employees of supermarket industry of Pakistan. That leads us to the
common direction indicating that along with the small standard deviation figure and mean with
high value, respondents are agreed with the questions that were asked from them.

Table 42 Pearson Product Movement correlation between factor variables (N = 100)


Correlations
TrainingAndDevelopment EmployeesPerformance
TrainingAndDevelopment

Pearson Correlation

Sig. (2-tailed)
N
EmployeesPerformance

Pearson Correlation

.333**
.001

100

100

**

.333

Sig. (2-tailed)

.001

100

100

**. Correlation is significant at the 0.01 level (2-tailed).

Table 4-2 illustrates the correlations between the dependent and independent variables whereas
Table 4-1 shows the descriptive statistics consisting upon standard deviation, mean, minimum
and maximum values. The results show that there is a positive correlation exists between
dependent and independent variables. The relationship between employee performance and
training and development is positive. Training and development plays vital role in stimulating
employee performance with r = 0.333 whereas probability is 0.001. Most of the respondents are
in favor of TnD, proving that a well organized, well planned and evaluation based training and

development processes within the organization can positively enhance the employee
performance in context of supermarket industry of Pakistan.

Research Question 2
To what extend does Training and Development stimulates the employee performance in

context of supermarket industry of Karachi, Pakistan?


To analyze the degree of TnD impact on employee performance, Regression Analaysis was
used. Kerlinger and Lee (2000) states that it is a statistical technique to evaluate the relationship
on one dependent variable on one or more independent variables in form of linear equation. This
Regression helps examine that how much an independent variable is impacting the dependent
variable. In this research study, Training and development has been used as an independent
variable and employee performance as a dependent variable. The tables 4-3, 4-4, 4-5 and 4-6
show the summary of regression result.
Table 43 Results in Summary
Variable

Beta

R2

R2

Significance

TrainingAndDevelopment

0.33

0.111

0.102

0.01

Table 44 Regression Analysis


Model Summary
Model

R Square

Adjusted R

Std. Error of the

Square

Estimate

.333a

.111

.102

.32482

a. Predictors: (Constant), TrainingAndDevelopment

Table 45 ANOVA
ANOVAb
Model
1

Sum of Squares
Regression

df

Mean Square

1.291

1.291

Residual

10.339

98

.106

Total

11.630

99

Sig.
.001a

12.232

a. Predictors: (Constant), TrainingAndDevelopment


b. Dependent Variable: EmployeesPerformance

Table 46 Coefficients
Coefficientsa
Standardized
Unstandardized Coefficients
Model
1

B
(Constant)
TrainingAndDevelopment

Std. Error
3.139

.410

.319

.091

Coefficients
Beta

.333

Sig.

7.650

.000

3.497

.001

a. Dependent Variable: EmployeesPerformance

The Regression analysis of Training and Develoment as dependent variable specifies that
training and development significantly contributes in employee performance enhancement with
0.33 of beta, R2 = 0.11, R2 = 0.102 and P (sign.) = 0.01.
F-statistic shows the value of 12.232 with significance level of 0.01, supporting the
hypotheses that training and development has significant impact on employee performance.

The T test is 7.65 for constant with significance level of .000 and 3.497 with significance
level of 0.001.
Thus, it is concluded that training and development imposes large impact on employee
for performance for supermarket industry of Karachi, Pakistan.

CHAPTER 5
CONCLUSION

This chapter discusses the conclusions drawn from the regression analysis and descriptive
statistics.
The trends in Human Resource Management practices throughout the world are changing
dynamically. Nowadays, employers are more concerned about employees retention and
controlled employees turnover than cost cut off.

The need of employees retention has

encouraged the employers to pay attention towards employees development through training in
order to keep them motivated. The core purpose of involvement in training and employees
motivation is to improve employees performance resulting in enhanced organizations
performance. Training is considered as an act that involves growing the knowledge and skill
level of an employee in order to perform a specific job. Training in the corporate world is
considered as a necessity rather than a luxury. It is more like an investment of the organization in
Human Resource. Performance might be described as the attainment of particular job calculated
on the bases of identified or set standards of accurateness, completeness, speed and cost. Under
an employment agreement, performance is supposed to be the achievement of an assigned

obligation in such a way that releases the performer from all accountabilities written in the
contract.
The objective of the study was to examine the impact of training and development on
employees performance in context of supermarket industry of Karachi, Pakistan. Also, to gauge
the level of performance enhancement due to training programs in the industry keeping these
objectives in view, I suppose that training has a positive relationship with performance of
employees on job.
The data has been collected from different chains of renowned supermarkets of Karachi
namely Hyperstar, Metro Cash and Carry, Imtiaz Super market and Fareed super store. There
were 100 respondents that answered the questionnaire.

The survey questionnaire was consisting of 5 likert scale. The Five likert scale is as follows

Strongly Disagree

Disagree

Neutral

Agree

Strongly Agree

The data collected from the questionnaires has been tested in SPSS. To form a relationship
between the variables, regression and correlation has been tested. That illustrates the dependency
of training and development on employee performance as well as the extent of dependency.

The results show that there is a positive correlation exists between dependent and
independent variables. The relationship between employee performance and training and
development is positive. Training and development plays vital role in stimulating employee
performance with r = 0.333 whereas probability is 0.001 The Regression analysis of Training and
Develoment as dependent variable specifies that training and development significantly
contributes in employee performance enhancement with 0.33 of beta, R2 = 0.11, R2 = 0.102 and
P (sign.) = 0.01.
F-statistic shows the value of 12.232 with significance level of 0.01, supporting the
hypotheses that training and development has significant impact on employee performance.
The T test is 7.65 for constant with significance level of .000 and 3.497 with significance
level of 0.001.
Thus, it is concluded that training and development imposes large impact on employee for
performance for supermarket industry of Karachi, Pakistan.

CHAPTER 6

RECOMMENDATIONS

Since training and development has imposed positive impact on employee performance in
context of supermarket industry of Karachi, Pakistan, it can help create sustainable competitive
advantage over other key players. Supermarkets should develop a sound training and

development process where the performance of employee is evaluated through transparent


systems. Training must be based on need based analysis and returns should be collected
statistically. It should be a continuous process as it helps reduce cost in long run. The
supermarkets that consider TnD essential for their growth are significantly expanding their
businesses. For new entrants, it is the most important factor that should be ensured before their
business commencement if they want success in long run.

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APPENDICES

Annexure I: Questionnaire

HRM Survey
A case of supermarket industry of Karachi, Pakistan
2014

Impact of Training and Development on Employees Performance in Context of


Supermarket Industry of Pakistan

Part A

Please provide the following information.

Organizational Information
Name of the organization
Life of organization (in years)
No. of employees in the organization

Personal Information
Gender

Male

Female

Age (in years)

20-25 26-30 30-35 36 or above

Education (in years)

12 14 16 18

Total professional experience (no. of year approx):


Email (optional)
Phone (optional)

Part B

Please encircle the appropriate number against each statement, according to the scale given below.
Strongly Agree

Agree

Neutral

Disagree

Strongly Disagree

Employee performance:

Quantity of our employees work output has improved in last five years.

Coming up with new ideas is appreciated in our organization.

Most of the employees achieved organizational goals of last 5 years.

Targets given to different employees often met.

Over all employees targets achievements has improved over the last 5
years.

Employees feel happy to work in teams.

Majority of our employees can work independently and they give high
performance.

Employees in our organization have been enabled to make decisions well.

Employees communication skills have been improved in this organization

Employees competencies are in line with the organizational operational


and strategic goals

Training & Development (T&D)

Our organization conducts extensive (T&D) programs for Employees.

Employees at each job normally go through T&D programs every year.

Training needs are identified through a formal performance appraisal


mechanism.

There are formal training programs to teach new employees the skills they
needed.

Trainings needs identified are realistic, useful and based on the


organizational strategy.

There are formal training evaluation methods to assess the effectiveness of


the training.

The organization has a system for calculating the cost and benefit of
training.

T&D has helped reduce employee turnover in our organization.

T&D has resulted in higher employee performance in our organization.

T&D has resulted in higher productivity and financial returns for the
organization.