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Vocabulary Unit 12


to realize verb [I or T]


/r.laz/ /ri.-/

to understand a situation, sometimes suddenly: They didn't realize the danger they were in.[+ (that)] "Do you
realize (that) this is the third time you've forgotten?" she said angrily.[+ question word] I realize how difficult it's going
to be, but we must try. As he watched the TV drama, he suddenly realized (that) he'd seen it before.
"You're standing on my foot." "Sorry, I didn't realize."

to free verb [T]



to allow someone to leave a prison or place where they have been kept: After a ten
hour siege the gunman agreed to free the hostages. Anti-vivisectionists last night freed a number of animals from a

to beg verb

/be/ (-gg-)

to make a very strong and urgent request: They begged for mercy.[+ speech] "Please, please forgive me!" she
begged (him).[+ obj + to infinitive ] He begged her to stay, but she simply laughed and put her bags in
the car.B2 [I or T] to ask for food or money because you are poor: There are more and
more homeless people begging on the streets these days. She had to beg for money and food for her children. He
begged a loan from his boss.

on (the) condition that

only if: I'll come to the party on the condition that you don't wear those ridiculous trousers!


gossip noun


conversation or reports about other people's private lives that might or might not be true:
an interesting piece of gossip
PERSON [C] someone who likes to talk about other people's private lives

rumour noun [C] UK (US rumor)


a fact that a lot of people are talking about although they do not know if it is true: to spread rumours
to deny rumours[+ (that)] I heard a rumour that you were leaving.

hear (sth) on/through the grapevine

to hear news from someone who heard the news from someone else: I heard on the grapevine that he was
leaving - is it true?

to overhear verb [I or T]

/.vhr/ /o.vhr/ (overheard, overheard)

to hear what other people are saying without intending to and without theirknowledge:I overheard a
very funny conversation on the bus this morning.

to eavesdrop verb [I]


to secretly listen to a conversation: He stood outside the door eavesdropping on their conversation.

eavesdropper noun [C]

guilty adjective


/l.ti/ /-ti/

B1 feeling guilt: I feel so guilty about forgetting her birthday. She must have done something wrong, because

she's looking so guilty. You've got a guilty conscience - that's why you can't sleep.


/ / adverb "I don't know where your money is!" she exclaimed guiltily.


/-ns/ noun [U]

afterwards adverb

/f.t.wdz/ /f.t.wdz/ (US ALSO afterward)

A2 after the time mentioned: We had tea, and afterwards we sat in the garden for a while. They separated,

and soon/shortly afterwards Jane left the country.

gene noun [C]


a part of a cell that is passed on from a parent to a child and that controls particular characteristics: Scientists

have discovered the gene responsible for causing this disease.

skill noun [C, U]


B1 the ability to do an activity or job well, especially because you have practised it: You need

good communication skills to be a teacher.

connection noun


RELATIONSHIP [C, U]B2 a relationship between people or things: The connection

between smoking and heart disease is well known. He denied having any connection with the terrorists.

to pass sth on phrasal verb with pass

/ps/ verb

TELLB1 to tell someone something that someone else has told you: Did you pass on my message to him?
GIVEB1 to give something to someone else: Could you pass it on to Laura when you've finished reading it?
DISEASE to give a disease to another person: The virus can be passed on through physical contact.

to dislike verb [T]


B1 to not like someone or something: Why do you dislike her so much?[+ doing sth] I dislike ironing intensely.

WB Listening exercise Pg 79

to carry sth out phrasal verb with carry

/kr.i/ /ker-/ verb

to do or complete something, especially that you have said you would do or that you have been told to do: Nigel
is carrying out research on earlyChristian art.The hospital is carrying out tests to find out what's wrong with
her. Our soldiers carried out a successful attack last night.

telecommunications noun [plural]

/ /--

/(INFORMAL telecoms)
the sending and receiving of messages over distance, especially by phone, radio, and television: the
telecommunications industry

research noun [U]


detailed study of a subject in order to discover new information: research into language development/They
are doing research into the effects of passive smoking.

to hang on phrasal verb with hang

/h/ verb (hung)

to wait for a short time: Hang on - I'm almost finished.

to hold something tightly: Hang on, we're going over a big bump here

My goodness!
something you say when you are surprised: My goodness, he's a big baby, isn't he?
thank goodness INFORMAL something you say when you are happy because something bad did not happen:
Thank goodness that dog didn't bite you.

wouldn't dream of doing sth

used to say that you would not do something because you think it iswrong or silly

not in the least

not in any way:"Are you dissatisfied with the results?" "Not in the least."

WB Listening Pg 81

noun [C] (COMPETITION) /kntes.tnt/ /-tnt/
C1 someone who competes in a contest:In tonight's quiz, our contestants have come from all over the country.


noun [C]


a phrase that is often repeated by andtherefore becomes connected with

aparticular organization or person,especially someone famous such as atelevision entertainer



B1 entertaining:an amusing story/person/situation