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Lecture6

Turbulence
14.0Release

IntroductiontoANSYS
FLUENT
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January19,2012

Release14.0

Introduction
LectureTheme:
Themajorityofengineeringflowsareturbulent.Successfullysimulating
suchflowsrequiresunderstandingafewbasicconceptsofturbulence
theoryandmodeling.Thisallowsonetomakethebestchoicefromthe
availableturbulencemodelsandnearwalloptionsforanygivenproblem.
LearningAims:
Youwilllearn:
Basicturbulentflowandturbulencemodelingtheory
TurbulencemodelsandnearwalloptionsavailableinFLUENT
Howtochooseanappropriateturbulencemodelforagivenproblem
Howtospecifyturbulenceboundaryconditionsatinlets
LearningObjectives:
Youwillunderstandthechallengesinherentinturbulentflowsimulation
andbeabletoidentifythemostsuitablemodelandnearwalltreatment
foragivenproblem.
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ObservationbyOsborneReynolds
Flowscanbeclassifiedaseither:

Laminar
(Low Reynolds Number)

Transition
(Increasing Reynolds Number)

Turbulent
(Higher Reynolds Number)

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ObservationbyOsborneReynolds
TheReynoldsnumberisthecriterionusedtodeterminewhethertheflowis
laminar orturbulent

.U .L
Re L

TheReynoldsnumberisbasedonthelengthscaleoftheflow:

L x, d, d hyd , etc.
Transitiontoturbulencevariesdependingonthetypeofflow:
Externalflow
alongasurface
aroundonobstacle
Internalflow
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:ReX > 500 000


:ReL > 20 000
:ReD > 2 300

Models

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Summary
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TurbulentFlowStructures
Aturbulentflowcontainsawiderangeofturbulenteddysizes
Turbulentflowcharacteristics:
Unsteady, three-dimensional, irregular, stochastic motion in which transported
quantities (mass, momentum, scalar species) fluctuate in time and space
Enhanced mixing of these quantities results from the fluctuations
Unpredictability in detail
Large scale coherent structures are different in each flow, whereas small
eddies are more universal

Small
structures
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Large
structures
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TurbulentFlowStructures
Energyistransferredfromlargereddiestosmallereddies
(Kolmogorov Cascade)
Largescalecontainsmostoftheenergy
Inthesmallesteddies,turbulentenergyisconvertedtointernalenergybyviscous
dissipation

Energy Cascade
Richardson (1922),
Kolmogorov (1941)

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BackwardFacingStep
Asengineers,inmostcaseswe donotactuallyneedtoseeanexactsnapshotof
thevelocityataparticularinstant.
Instead formostproblems,knowingthetimeaveragedvelocity(andintensityof
theturbulentfluctuations)isallweneedtoknow.Thisgivesusausefulwayto
approachmodellingturbulence.
Instantaneousvelocitycontours

Timeaveragedvelocitycontours

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MeanandInstantaneousVelocities
Ifwerecordedthevelocityataparticularpointinthereal(turbulent)fluidflow,
theinstantaneousvelocity(U)wouldlooklikethis:

Velocity

u Fluctuating velocity

U Time-average of velocity

U Instantaneous velocity
Time

Atanypointintime:U U u
u 0
u
Thetimeaverageofthefluctuatingvelocitymustbezero:
u 2 0
u
BUT,theRMSofisnotnecessarilyzero:
Noteyouwillhearreferencetotheturbulenceenergy,k.Thisisthesumofthe3
fluctuatingvelocitycomponents: k 12 u v w
2

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OverviewofComputationalApproaches
Different approaches to make turbulence computationally tractable
DNS

LES

RANS

(DirectNumerical Simulation)

(LargeEddySimulation)

(ReynoldsAveraged Navier
StokesSimulation)

Numericallysolvingthefull
unsteadyNavierStokesequations

SolvesthespatiallyaveragedNS
equations

Resolvesthewholespectrumof
scales

Largeeddiesaredirectlyresolved, Allturbulentlengthscalesare
buteddiessmallerthanthemesh modeledinRANS
aremodeled
Variousdifferentmodelsareavailable
LessexpensivethanDNS,butthe
amountofcomputational
resourcesandeffortsarestilltoo Thisisthemostwidelyusedapproach
largeformostpractical
forindustrialflows
applications

Nomodelingisrequired

Butthecostistooprohibitive!
Notpracticalforindustrialflows!

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Models

SolvetimeaveragedNavierStokes
equations

NearWallTreatments

InletBCs

Summary
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RANSModeling:Averaging
Thus,theinstantaneousNavierStokesequationsmayberewrittenasReynolds
averagedequations:
u
u

p
i uk i

xk
xi x j
t

ui

x
j

Rij

x
j

Rij uiu j
(Reynolds stress tensor)

TheReynoldsstressesareadditionalunknownsintroducedbytheaveraging
procedure,hencetheymustbemodeled(relatedtotheaveragedflowquantities)in
ordertoclosethesystemofgoverningequations

u '2 u ' v ' u ' w'

Rij uiu j u ' v ' v '2 v ' w '

2
u ' w ' v ' w ' w '

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unknowns

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RANSModeling:TheClosureProblem
TheReynoldsStresstensor Rij uiu j mustbesolved
TheRANSmodelscanbeclosedintwoways:
ReynoldsStressModels(RSM)

EddyViscosityModels

Rij isdirectlysolvedviatransportequations
(modelingisstillrequiredformanytermsinthe
transportequations)

Boussinesq hypothesis
Reynoldsstressesaremodeledusinganeddy(or
turbulent)viscosity,T

uiu j
u k uiu j Pij Fij DijT ij ij
t
xk
RSMismoreadvantageousincomplex3D
turbulentflowswithlargestreamlinecurvature
andswirl,
butthemodelismorecomplex,computationally
intensive,moredifficulttoconvergethaneddy
viscositymodels

u u j 2 uk
2
T
Rij uiuj T i
ij k ij
x x 3 x
3
i
k
j

Thehypothesisisreasonableforsimpleturbulent
shearflows:boundarylayers,roundjets,mixing
layers,channelflows,etc.

Note:Allturbulencemodelscontainempiricism
Equationscannotbederivedfromfundamentalprinciples
Somecalibratingtoobservedsolutionsandintelligentguessingiscontainedinthemodels

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TurbulenceModelsAvailableinFLUENT

RANSbased
models

OneEquationModel
SpalartAllmaras
TwoEquationModels
Standardk
RNGk
Realizablek*
Standardk
SSTk*
ReynoldsStressModel

Increasein
Computational
Cost
PerIteration

kkl TransitionModel
SSTTransitionModel
DetachedEddySimulation
LargeEddySimulation
* Recommended choice for standard cases

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TwoEquationModels
Twotransportequationsaresolved,givingtwoindependent
scalesforcalculatingt

Virtuallyallusethetransportequationfortheturbulentkineticenergy,k

Dk

Dt x j

t

k

P ;
x j

P t S 2 ( ske)

S 2 Sij Sij

production dissipation

Severaltransportvariableshavebeenproposed,basedondimensionalarguments,
andusedforsecondequation.Theeddyviscosityt isthenformulatedfromthetwo
transportvariables.
Kolmogorov,:
t k / ,l k1/2 / k /
isspecificdissipationrate
definedintermsoflargeeddyscalesthatdefinesupplyrateofk
Chou,:
t k2 / ,l k3/2 /
Rotta,l:
t k1/2l, k3/2 / l
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Summary
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Standardk- ModelEquations
k-transport equation

Dk

Dt x j

C1 t S C2
x j k

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k , , Ci , C 2

Empiricalconstantsdetermined
frombenchmarkexperimentsof
simpleflowsusingairandwater.

turbulent viscosity

k2

2011ANSYS,Inc.

inverse time scale

coefficients

Introduction

S 2 Sij Sij

production dissipation

-transport equation

Dt x j

k
2

t S ;
x j

t C

Theory
January19,2012

Models

NearWallTreatments

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Summary
Release14.0

RANS:EVM:Standardk(SKE)Model
TheStandardKEpsilon model(SKE)isthemostwidelyusedengineering
turbulencemodelforindustrialapplications

Modelparametersarecalibratedbyusingdatafromanumberofbenchmark

experimentssuchaspipeflow,flatplate,etc.
Robustandreasonablyaccurateforawiderangeofapplications
Containssubmodels forcompressibility,buoyancy,combustion,etc.

KnownlimitationsoftheSKEmodel:
Performspoorlyforflowswithlargerpressuregradient,strongseparation,high

swirlingcomponentandlargestreamlinecurvature.
Inaccuratepredictionofthespreadingrateofroundjets.
Productionofk isexcessive(unphysical)inregionswithlargestrainrate(forexample,
nearastagnationpoint),resultinginveryinaccuratemodelpredictions.

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RANS:EVM:Realizablekepsilon
Realizablek(RKE)model(Shih):
Dissipationrate()equationisderivedfromthemeansquare

vorticity fluctuation,whichisfundamentallydifferentfromthe
SKE.
Severalrealizability conditionsareenforcedforReynolds
stresses.

Benefits:
Accuratelypredictsthespreadingrateofbothplanarandroundjets
Alsolikelytoprovidesuperiorperformanceforflowsinvolving
rotation,boundarylayersunderstrongadversepressuregradients,
separation,andrecirculation
OFTEN PREFERRED TO STANDARD K-EPSILON

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Summary
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RANS:EVM:SpalartAllmaras (SA)Model
SpalartAllmaras isalowcostRANSmodelsolvingasingle
transportequationforamodifiededdyviscosity

Designedspecificallyforaerospaceapplicationsinvolvingwall
boundedflows
Hasbeenshowntogivegoodresultsforboundarylayerssubjectedtoadverse
pressuregradients.
Usedmainlyforaerospaceandturbomachinery applications

Limitations:
Themodelwasdesignedforwallboundedflowsandflowswithmildseparation
andrecirculation.
Noclaimismaderegardingitsapplicabilitytoalltypesofcomplexengineering
flows.

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komegaModels
Ink models,thetransportequationfortheturbulentdissipationrate,,is
replacedwithanequationforthespecificdissipationrate,

Theturbulentkineticenergytransportequationisstillsolved
SeeAppendixfordetailsof equation

k modelshavegainedpopularityinrecentyearsmainlybecause:
Muchbetterperformancethank modelsforboundarylayerflows
Forseparation,transition,lowReeffects,andimpingement,k modelsaremore
accuratethank models

Accurateandrobustforawiderangeofboundarylayerflowswithpressuregradient

Twovariationsofthek modelareavailableinFLUENT
Standardk model(Wilcox,1998)
SSTk model(Menter)

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Summary
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SSTModel
ShearStressTransport(SST) Model
TheSSTmodelisanhybridtwoequationmodelthatcombinestheadvantagesofboth
k andk models
k modelperformsmuchbetterthank modelsforboundarylayerflows
Wilcoxoriginalk modelisoverlysensitivetothefreestream value(BC)of,
whilek modelisnotpronetosuchproblem

k-
k-
Wall

ThekeandkwmodelsareblendedsuchthattheSSTmodelfunctionslikethekw
closetothewallandthekemodelinthefreestream

SSTisagoodcompromisebetweenk andk models


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RANS:OtherModelsinFLUENT
RNGk model
Modelconstantsarederivedfromrenormalizationgroup(RNG)theoryinsteadof

empiricism
Advantagesoverthestandardk modelareverysimilartothoseoftheRKE
model

ReynoldsStressmodel(RSM)
InsteadofusingeddyviscositytoclosetheRANSequations,RSMsolvestransport

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equationsfortheindividualReynoldsstresses
7additionalequationsin3D,comparedto2additionalequationswithEVM.
MuchmorecomputationallyexpensivethanEVMandgenerallyverydifficultto
converge
Asaresult,RSMisusedprimarilyinflowswhereeddyviscositymodelsare
knowntofail
Thesearemainlyflowswherestrongswirlisthepredominantflowfeature,for
instanceacyclone(seeAppendix)

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TurbulenceNeartheWall
TheStructureofNearWallFlows

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NearWallTreatments

InletBCs

Summary
Release14.0

TurbulencenearaWall

Velocity, U

Neartoawall,thevelocitychangesrapidly.

Distance from Wall, y

Ifweplotthesamegraphagain,where:
Logscaleaxesareused
Thevelocityismadedimensionless,fromU/U

Thewalldistancevectorismadedimensionless
Thenwearriveatthegraphonthenextpage.Theshapeofthisisgenerallythesamefor
allflows:

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TurbulenceNeartheWall
Byscalingthevariablesnearthewallthevelocityprofiledatatakesona
predictableform(transitioningfromlineartologarithmicbehavior)

Scaling the non-dimensional


velocity and non-dimensional
distance from the wall results in a
predictable boundary layer profile
for a wide range of flows

Linear
Logarithmic

Sincenearwallconditionsareoftenpredictable,functionscanbeusedto
determinethenearwallprofilesratherthanusingafinemeshtoactually
resolvetheprofile

Thesefunctionsarecalledwallfunctions
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NearWallTreatments

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Summary
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ChoiceofWallModelingStrategy.
Inthenearwallregion,thesolutiongradientsareveryhigh,butaccuratecalculationsin
thenearwallregionareparamounttothesuccessofthesimulation.
Thechoiceisbetween:
ResolvingtheViscousSublayer

Firstgridcellneedstobeatabouty+ =1
Thiswilladdsignificantlytothemeshcount
UsealowReynoldsnumberturbulencemodel(likekomega)
Generallyspeaking,iftheforcesonthewallarekeytoyoursimulation(aerodynamicdrag,
turbomachinery bladeperformance)thisistheapproachyouwilltake

UsingaWallFunction

Firstgridcellneedstobe30<y+ <300
(Toolow,andmodelisinvalid.Toohighandthewallisnotproperlyresolved.)
Useawallfunction,andahighReturbulencemodel(SKE,RKE,RNG)
Generallyspeaking,thisistheapproachifyouaremoreinterestedinthemixinginthemiddleof
thedomain,ratherthantheforcesonthewall

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TurbulenceNeartheWall
Fewernodesareneedednormaltothewallwhenlogarithmicbasedwallfunctionsare
used(comparedtomoredetailedlowRewallmodeling)
y

Logarithmic-based Wall functions


used to resolve boundary layer

Near-wall resolving approach


used to resolve boundary layer

Boundary layer
First node wall distance is reflected by y+ value

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NearWallTreatments

InletBCs

Summary
Release14.0

ExampleinPredictingNearwallCellSize
Duringthepreprocessingstage,youwillneedtoknowasuitablesizeforthefirstlayerofgrid
+
cells(inflationlayer)sothatY isinthedesiredrange.

Theactualflowfieldwillnotbeknownuntilyouhavecomputedthesolution(andindeeditis

sometimesunavoidabletohavetogobackandremesh yourmodelonaccountofthecomputed
Y+ values).

Toreducetheriskofneedingtoremesh,youmaywanttotryandpredictthecellsizeby
performingahandcalculationatthestart.Forexample:
Air at 20 m/s

= 1.225 kg/m3
= 1.8x10-5 kg/ms

Flat plate, 1m long

VL

The question is what


height (y) should the first
row of grid cells be. We
will use SWF, and are
aiming for Y+ 50

6
Rel
Foraflatplate,Reynoldsnumber()givesRe
l =1.4x10

(Recallfromearlierslide,flowoverasurfaceisturbulentwhenReL >5x105)
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Summary
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ExampleinPredictingNearwallCellSize[2]
Reisknown,sousethedefinitionsto

Beginwiththedefinitionofy+ and
rearrange:

calculatethefirstcellheight

y
y
U

U
y
y

C f 0.058 Re l0.2 .0034

Thetargety+ valueandfluidproperties
areknown,soweneedU,whichis
definedas:

w 12 C f U 2 0.83 kg/ m s 2
U

w
0.82 m/s

Thewallshearstress,w ,canbefound Weknowweareaimingfory+ of50,


fromtheskinfrictioncoefficient,Cf:
2
w 1 C f U
2

hence:
y
y
9x10-4 m
U

fortheskinfrictiononaplate1 thus:

ourfirstcellheighty shouldbe
approximately1mm.

Aliteraturesearchsuggestsaformula
C f 0.058 Rel0.2

1Anequivalentformulaforinternalflows,withReynoldsnumberbasedonthepipediameterisC

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InletBCs

=0.079Red0.25

Summary
Release14.0

LimitationsofWallFunctions
Insomesituations,suchasboundarylayerseparation,logarithmicbased
wallfunctionsdonotcorrectlypredicttheboundarylayerprofile

Wall functions applicable

Wall functions not applicable


Non-equilibrium wall functions have been developed
in FLUENT to address this situation but they are very
empirical. A more rigorous approach is
recommended if affordable

Inthesecaseslogarithmicbasedwallfunctionsshouldnotbeused
Instead,directlyresolvingtheboundarylayercanprovideaccurateresults
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NearWallTreatments

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Summary
Release14.0

EnhancedWallTreatment(EWT)
Needfory+insensitivewall
treatment

EWTsmoothlyvariesfromlow
Retowallfunctionwithmesh
resolution

EWTavailablefork andRSM
models

Similarapproachimplemented
fork equationbasedmodels

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Models

NearWallTreatments

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Summary
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ChoosinganearWallTreatment
StandardWallFunctions
TheStandardWallFunctionoptions

isdesignedforhighReattachedflows
Thenearwallregionisnotresolved
Nearwallmeshisrelativelycoarse

NonEquilibriumWallFunctions
Forbetterpredictionofadversepressuregradientflowsand

separation
Nearwallmeshisrelativelycoarse

EnhancedWallTreatment*
UsedforlowReflowsorflowswithcomplex

nearwallphenomena
Generallyrequiresaveryfinenearwallmeshcapableof
resolvingthenearwallregion
Canalsohandlecoarsenearwallmesh

UserDefinedWallFunctions
Canhostuserspecificsolutions
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* Recommended choice for standard cases

Models

NearWallTreatments

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Summary
Release14.0

y+fortheSSTandkomegaModels
TheSSTandk modelswereformulatedtobenearwallresolvingmodels
wheretheviscoussublayer isresolvedbythemesh
Totakefulladvantageofthisformulation,y+shouldbe<2
Thisisnecessaryforaccuratepredictionofflowseparation
Thesemodelscanstillbeusedwithacoarsernearwallmeshandproduce
validresults,withinthelimitationsoflogarithmicwallfunctions
Thefirstgridpointshouldstillbeinthelogarithmiclayer(y+<300)
Manyadvantagesofthesemodelsmaybelostwhenacoarsenearwall
meshisused

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InletBCs

Summary
Release14.0

InletBoundaryConditions
Whenturbulentflowentersadomainatinletsoroutlets(backflow),boundary
ui' u 'j
conditionsfork,, and/ormustbespecified,dependingonwhich
turbulencemodelhasbeenselected

Fourmethodsfordirectlyorindirectlyspecifyingturbulenceparameters:
1)Explicitlyinputk,,,orReynoldsstresscomponents(thisistheonlymethodthat
allowsforprofiledefinition)
Notebydefault,theFLUENTGUIentersk=1m/s and =1m/s. These values
MUST be changed, they are unlikely to be correct for your simulation.
2)Turbulenceintensityandlengthscale
Lengthscaleisrelatedtosizeoflargeeddiesthatcontainmostofenergy
Forboundarylayerflows:l 0.499
Forflowsdownstreamofgrid:l openingsize
3)Turbulenceintensityandhydraulicdiameter(primarilyforinternalflows)
4)Turbulenceintensityandviscosityratio (primarilyforexternalflows)
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InletTurbulenceConditions
Ifyouhaveabsolutelynoideaoftheturbulencelevelsinyoursimulation,you
couldusefollowingvaluesofturbulenceintensitiesandviscosityratios:

Usualturbulenceintensitiesrangefrom1%to5%
Thedefaultturbulenceintensityvalueof0.037(thatis,3.7%)issufficientfornominal

turbulencethroughacircularinlet,andisagoodestimateintheabsenceof
experimentaldata
Forexternalflows,turbulentviscosityratioof110istypicallyagoodvalue
Forinternalflows,turbulentviscosityratioof10100ittypicallyagoodvalue
ForfullydevelopedpipeflowatRe=50,000,theturbulentviscosityratioisaround
100

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RANSTurbulenceModelUsage
Model

Behavior and Usage

Spalart-Allmaras

Economical for large meshes. Performs poorly for 3D flows, free shear flows, flows with strong
separation. Suitable for mildly complex (quasi-2D) external/internal flows and boundary layer flows
under pressure gradient (e.g. airfoils, wings, airplane fuselages, missiles, ship hulls).

Standard k

Robust. Widely used despite the known limitations of the model. Performs poorly for complex flows
involving severe pressure gradient, separation, strong streamline curvature. Suitable for initial
iterations, initial screening of alternative designs, and parametric studies.

Realizable k*

Suitable for complex shear flows involving rapid strain, moderate swirl, vortices, and locally transitional
flows (e.g. boundary layer separation, massive separation, and vortex shedding behind bluff bodies, stall
in wide-angle diffusers, room ventilation).

RNG k

Offers largely the same benefits and has similar applications as Realizable. Possibly harder to converge
than Realizable.

Standard k

Superior performance for wall-bounded boundary layer, free shear, and low Reynolds number flows.
Suitable for complex boundary layer flows under adverse pressure gradient and separation (external
aerodynamics and turbomachinery). Can be used for transitional flows (though tends to predict early
transition). Separation is typically predicted to be excessive and early.

SST k*

Offers similar benefits as standard k. Dependency on wall distance makes this less suitable for free
shear flows.

RSM

Physically the most sound RANS model. Avoids isotropic eddy viscosity assumption. More CPU time
and memory required. Tougher to converge due to close coupling of equations. Suitable for complex
3D flows with strong streamline curvature, strong swirl/rotation (e.g. curved duct, rotating flow
passages, swirl combustors with very large inlet swirl, cyclones).

* Recommended choice for standard cases


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RANSTurbulenceModelDescriptions

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Model

Description

Spalart
Allmaras

A single transport equation model solving directly for a modified turbulent viscosity. Designed specifically
for aerospace applications involving wall-bounded flows on a fine near-wall mesh. FLUENTs
implementation allows the use of coarser meshes. Option to include strain rate in k production term
improves predictions of vortical flows.

Standard k

The baseline two-transport-equation model solving for k and . This is the default k model. Coefficients
are empirically derived; valid for fully turbulent flows only. Options to account for viscous heating,
buoyancy, and compressibility are shared with other k models.

RNG k

A variant of the standard k model. Equations and coefficients are analytically derived. Significant changes
in the equation improves the ability to model highly strained flows. Additional options aid in predicting
swirling and low Reynolds number flows.

Realizable k

A variant of the standard k model. Its realizability stems from changes that allow certain mathematical
constraints to be obeyed which ultimately improves the performance of this model.

Standard k

A two-transport-equation model solving for k and , the specific dissipation rate ( / k) based on Wilcox
(1998). This is the default k model. Demonstrates superior performance for wall-bounded and low
Reynolds number flows. Shows potential for predicting transition. Options account for transitional, free
shear, and compressible flows.

SST k

A variant of the standard k model. Combines the original Wilcox model for use near walls and the
standard k model away from walls using a blending function. Also limits turbulent viscosity to guarantee
that T ~ k. The transition and shearing options are borrowed from standard k. No option to include
compressibility.

RSM

Reynolds stresses are solved directly using transport equations, avoiding isotropic viscosity assumption of
other models. Use for highly swirling flows. Quadratic pressure-strain option improves performance for
many basic shear flows.

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Summary TurbulenceModelingGuidelines
Successfulturbulencemodelingrequiresengineeringjudgmentof:
Flowphysics
Computerresourcesavailable
Projectrequirements
Accuracy
Turnaroundtime

ChoiceofNearwalltreatment

Modelingprocedure
1. CalculatecharacteristicReynoldsnumberanddeterminewhetherflowisturbulent.
2. Iftheflowisinthetransition(fromlaminartoturbulent)range,considertheuseofone
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.

oftheturbulencetransitionmodels(notcoveredinthistraining).
Estimatewalladjacentcellcentroid y+ beforegeneratingthemesh.
PrepareyourmeshtousewallfunctionsexceptforlowReflowsand/orflowswith
complexnearwallphysics(nonequilibriumboundarylayers).
BeginwithRKE(realizablek)andchangetoSA,RNG,SKW,orSSTifneeded.Checkthe
tablesonpreviousslidesasaguideforyourchoice.
UseRSMforhighlyswirling,3D,rotatingflows.
Rememberthatthereisnosingle,superiorturbulencemodelforallflows!

Introduction
36

2011ANSYS,Inc.

Theory
January19,2012

Models

NearWallTreatments

InletBCs

Summary
Release14.0

Appendix

37

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January19,2012

Release14.0

Example#1 TurbulentFlowPastaBlunt
FlatPlate

Turbulentflowpastabluntflatplatewassimulatedusingfour
differentturbulencemodels.

8,700cellquadmesh,gradednearleadingedgeandreattachmentlocation.
Nonequilibriumboundarylayertreatment
xR

U0

ReD 50,000
D

Recirculation zone

Reattachment point

N. Djilali and I. S. Gartshore (1991), Turbulent Flow Around a Bluff Rectangular


Plate, Part I: Experimental Investigation, JFE, Vol. 113, pp. 5159.
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Release14.0

Example#1TurbulentFlowPastaBluntFlatPlate
Contours of Turbulent Kinetic Energy (m2/s2)
0.70
0.63
0.56

Standard k

RNG k

Realizable k

Reynolds Stress

0.49
0.42
0.35
0.28
0.21
0.14
0.07
0.00

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2011ANSYS,Inc.

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Release14.0

Example#1TurbulentFlowPastaBluntFlatPlate
Predicted separation bubble:

Standard k (SKE)

Skin
Friction
Coefficient
Cf 1000

Realizable k (RKE)

SKE severely underpredicts the size of


the separation bubble, while RKE
predicts the size exactly.

40

2011ANSYS,Inc.

January19,2012

Distance Along
Plate, x / D

Experimentally observed
reattachment point is at
x / D = 4.7

Release14.0

Example#2:PipeExpansionwithHeatTransfer
ReynoldsNumberReD=40750
FullyDevelopedTurbulentFlowatInlet
q=const
ExperimentsbyBaughn etal.(1984)
H

q=0
D

Outlet

Inlet

axis
H
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40 x H
Release14.0

Example#2:PipeExpansionwithHeatTransfer
PlotshowsdimensionlessdistanceversusNusseltNumber
BestagreementiswithSSTandkomegamodelswhichdoabetterjobofcapturing
flowrecirculationzonesaccurately

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Release14.0

Example#3TurbulentFlowinaCyclone
40,000cellhexahedralmesh

0.1 m
0.12 m

Highorderupwindschemewasused.
Uin = 20 m/s

ComputedusingSKE,RNG,RKEandRSM
(secondmomentclosure)modelswiththe
standardwallfunctions

0.2 m

0.97 m

Representshighlyswirlingflows(Wmax =
1.8Uin)

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Release14.0

Example#3TurbulentFlowinaCyclone
Tangentialvelocityprofilepredictionsat0.41mbelowthevortex
finder

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Release14.0

Example4:Diffuser
ShearStressTransport(SST) Model
Itaccountsmoreaccuratelyforthetransportoftheturbulentshearstress,which
improvespredictionsoftheonsetandtheamountofflowseparationcomparedto
k models
Standard k- fails to predict separation

SST result and experiment

Experiment Gersten et al.

Introduction
45

2011ANSYS,Inc.

Theory
January19,2012

Models

NearWallTreatments

InletBCs

Summary
Release14.0

TurbulentFlowStructuresRelatedtokand
CharacteristicsoftheTurbulentStructures:
Lengthscale:

l[m]

Velocityscale:

k [m/s]
l [s]

Timescale:

Shape(nonisotropiclargerstructures)
- Turbulent kinetic energy :

1 2
u ' v '2 w '2
2

- Turbulent kinetic energy dissipation :

[m2/s3]

- Turbulent Reynolds : Ret = k1/2.l/ ~ k2/


- Turbulent Intensity :

u 1

U U

2k
3

[m2/s2]
~ k3/2/l(dimensional analysis)

[-]
[-]

u i x , t U

x , t

u i x , t

Instantaneous Timeaverage Fluctuating


component
component
component

Introduction
46

2011ANSYS,Inc.

Theory
January19,2012

Models

NearWallTreatments

InletBCs

Summary
Release14.0

komegaModel
k models areRANStwoequationsbasedmodels
ui u j 2 uk
2
T

Rij uiu j T
ij k ij

x x 3 x
3
i
k
j
k

= specific dissipation rate

t k

k x j


ui
t
D
2

f
ij

x j
x j
Dt
k x j

Dk

u
ij i f k
Dt
x j
x j

1

k

Oneoftheadvantagesofthek formulationisthenearwalltreatmentforlow
Reynoldsnumbercomputations

designedtopredictcorrectbehaviorwhenintegratedtothewall

thek modelsswitchesbetweenalowReynoldsnumberformulation(i.e.directresolutionoftheboundarylayer)atlowy+
valuesandawallfunctionapproachathighery+ values

whileLowReynoldsnumbervariationsofstandardk modelsusedampingfunctionstoattempttoreproduce
correctnearwallbehavior

Introduction
47

2011ANSYS,Inc.

Theory
January19,2012

Models

NearWallTreatments

InletBCs

Summary
Release14.0