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JEPPIAAR ENGINEERING COLLEGE

DEPARTMENT OF ECE
ELECTIVE -I
EC2021 MEDICAL ELECTRONICS
QUESTION BANK
SEM/YEAR : VI/III
EC2021

MEDICAL ELECTRONICS SYLLABUS

UNIT I
ELECTRO-PHYSIOLOGY AND BIO-POTENTIAL RECORDING
The origin of Bio-potentials; biopotential electrodes, biological amplifiers, ECG, EEG, EMG,
PCG, EOG, lead systems and recording methods, typical waveforms and signal characteristics.
UNIT II BIO-CHEMICAL AND NON ELECTRICAL PARAMETER MEASUREMENT
PH, PO2, PCO2, PHCO3, Electrophoresis, colorimeter, photometer, Auto analyzer, Blood flow
meter, cardiac output, respiratory measurement, Blood pressure, temperature, pulse, Blood cell
counters.
UNIT III ASSIST DEVICES AND BIO-TELEMETRY
Cardiac pacemakers, DC Defibrillator, Telemetry principles, frequency selection, Biotelemetry,
radio-pill and tele-stimulation.
UNIT IV RADIOLOGICAL EQUIPMENTS
Ionizing radiation, Diagnostic x-ray equipments, use of Radio Isotope in diagnosis, Radiation
Therapy.
UNIT V RECENT TRENDS IN MEDICAL INSTRUMENTATION
Thermograph, endoscopy unit, Laser in medicine, Diathermy units, Electrical safety in medical
equipment.
. TEXTBOOKS
1. Leislie Cromwell, Biomedical instrumentation and measurement, Prentice Hall of India,
New Delhi, 2007.
REFERENCES
1. Khandpur, R.S., Handbook of Biomedical Instrumentation, TATA McGraw-Hill, New Delhi,
2003.
2. Joseph J.Carr and John M.Brown, Introduction to Biomedical equipment Technology, John
Wiley and Sons, New York, 2004.

UNIT-1 ELECTRO-PHYSIOLOGY AND BIO-POTENTIAL RECORDING


PART A
1.

State all or none law in respect of cell biopotential. (Apr/May 2008)unit-1


Regardless of the method of excitation of cells or the intensity of the stimulus, which is
assumed to be greater than the threshold of stimulus, the action potential is always the same for
any given cell. This is known as all or none law.

Define the term Conduction Velocity. (Apr/May 2008) &(May/June2007)(Nov/Dec 2009)


unit-1
The rate at which an action potential moves down a fiber of a nerve cell or is propagated
from cell to cell is called the propagation rate (or) conduction velocity. The conduction
velocity is defined as V =[ (l1 l2 ) / (t1 t2)] .The conduction velocity in peripheral nerves is
normally 50m/s.
3. Draw a typical ECG waveform. (May/June2007)(Nov/Dec 2009)unit-1
2.

4.

State how a phonocardiogram and an electrocardiogram signals differ in their clinical


information. (AP/MAY 2008) unit-1
In electrocardiography, only the voltage generated by the electrical activity of the heart is
recorded. Any form of arrhythmia (disturbance in the heart rhythm) can be easily diagnosed
using electrocardiogram.
The graphic record of the heart sounds is called phonogram. Because the sound is from the heart,
it is called as phonocardiogram. The basic aim of phonocardiograph is to pick up the different
heart sounds, filter out the heart sounds and to display them.

Define resting and action potential. (NOV/DEC 2008) (May /June 2009) unit-1
The membrane potential caused by the different concentration of ions is called as resting
potential of the cell. The positive potential of the cell membrane during excitation is called as
action potential and it is about 20mV.
6. Define Latency as related to EMG. (NOV/DEC 2008) unit-1
Latency is defined as the elapsed time between the stimulating impulse and the muscles
action potential.
7. List the names and frequency bands of EEG signals(May 2007) unit-1
5.

Alpha waves 8-13 Hz


Beta waves 13-30Hz
Theta waves 4-8 Hz
Delta waves 05-4 Hz
8. What is the importance of PCG Signal ?(May/June 2009) unit-1
1. Different types of heart sounds are measured.
2. Due to vibration setup in the blood inside the heart by sudden closure of valves
3. Additional sounds are hard between normal heart sounds.
Mention the importance of biological amplifier.(Apr/May 2010) unit-1
Generally, Bio signal are having low amplitude and low frequency .so, amplifier are needed to
boost the amplitude level of the bio signals. These amplifiers are known as bio- amplifiers.
10. Mention the various lead systems used in ECG recording. (Apr/May 2010) unit-1
(i) Bipolar limb lead/standard lead
9.

(ii)Augmented unipolar limb lead


(iii) Chest lead/precordial lead
(iv)Frank Lead system/corrected orthogonal lead system.
11. What is half cell Potential? (Apr/May 2011) unit-1

The voltage developed at an electrode-electrolyte interface is designated as the half cell potential
or electrode potential. A Characteristics potential difference established by the electrode and its
surrounding electrolyte which depends on the metal, concentration of ions in solution and
temperature.
12. Give the EMG Signal Characteristics. (Apr/May 2011) unit-1

The EMG signal ranges from 0.1mV to 0.5mV.The frequency components of the EMG signal
vary from 20HZ to 10 KHz and they are restricted to the frequency range of 20HZ to 200HZ for
Clinical purpose using a low pass filter.
13. What is EOG? (Nov/Dec 2011) unit-1

EOG Electro oculography It is the recording of the biopotential generated by the movement of
eyes.
14. Compare the signal characteristics of ECG and PCG. (Nov/Dec 2011) unit-1

PCG related to mechanical events of heart while ECG related to electrical activity of heart. PCG
has three different waves but ECG has only one wave from to analysis the function of heart.
15. What is PCG? (Apr/May 2012) unit-1
The graphic record of the heart sounds is called as phonogram. Because the sound is from the
heart, it is called phonocardiogram. The instrument used to measure the heart sounds is called as
phonocardiograph.
16. What are the different types of electrodes used in bipolar measurement? (Apr/May 2012)

unit-1
a) Metal plate electrodes, b) Suction cup electrode, c) Adhesive tape electrode,
d) Multipoint electrode, e) Floating electrode.

UNIT-1 PART B
1. i) Discuss in detail about Action Potential and Resting Potential.(Apr/May 2011)
ii) Write short notes on microelectrodes. (MAY/JUNE2007) unit-1
Ans: Text book: Bio medical instrumentation By Arumugam .pg.no:4-8 & 24-27.
2. i) Explain the working principle of a ECG machine with a neat block diagram.
ii) What is Phonocardiography? (MAY/JUNE2007) unit-1
Ans: Text book: Bio medical instrumentation By Arumugam .pg.no:117-142.
3.

i) Explain in detail various types of bio potential electrodes.(May/June2012)(Nov/Dec2011)


ii) Write a short note on electromyogram. (AP/MAY 2008) unit-1
Ans: Text book: Bio medical instrumentation By Arumugam .pg.no:21-33 & 153-156.

4. i) Draw an action potential waveform and discuss in detail about polarization and repolarization.
ii) Draw the bipolar limb lead system of an ECG. (AP/MAY 2008) unit-1
Ans: Text book: Bio medical instrumentation By Arumugam .pg.no:4-8 & 120-121.
5. i)What is Half cell potential?
ii) What are the three types of electrodes and mention its use.
iii) Discuss Microelectrodes in detail. (NOV/DEC 2008) unit-1
Ans: Text book: Bio medical instrumentation By Arumugam .pg.no: 21, 24 -27.
6. i) Bring out the salient features of phonocardiography. .(Apr/May 2011)
ii) With suitable diagram, explain the method of measurement of conduction velocity in
peripheral nerves. (NOV/DEC 2008) unit-1
Ans: Text book: Bio medical instrumentation By Arumugam .pg.no: 133-142 & 153-156.

UNIT-2 BIO CHEMICAL &NONELECTRICAL PARAMETER


MEASUREMENT
PART A
1. What are cardiac output and phonocardiogram?
Cardiac output is the amount of blood delivered by the heart to aorta per minute.
Phonocardiogram is used to measure heart sounds in graphical manner
2. What is cardiac output .Mention the methods of measurement of cardiac output
Cardiac output is the amount of blood delivered by the heart to aorta per minute various
Methods to measure the cardiac output is
Ficks method
Indication dilution method
By impedance change
3. What are demerits of electromagnetic blood flow meter?
i) The output voltage of the method is only few micro volts.
ii) Change of magnetic field causes the transducer to act like a transformer and induces error
Voltage.
4. Name any two methods of respiration rate measurement?
1. Maximum mid expiratory
2. Maximal expiration flow rate
3. Maximal breathing capacity.
5. What is residual volume? (May/June 2007) unit-II
The Residual Volume (RV) is the volume of gas remaining in the lungs at the end of a maximal
expiration.
[[

6. Mention the application of flame photometer. (May/June 2007) (Nov/Dec 2009)unit-II


A flame photometer is used to analyze urine or blood in order to determine the concentration of
potassium (K), sodium (Na), Calcium (Ca) and Lithium (Li).
7. What is meant by Mean Arterial Pressure (MAP)? (Apr/May 2008) (Nov/Dec 2007) unit-II
Mean Arterial Pressure is a weighted average of systolic and diastolic pressure. Generally, MAP
falls about one-third of the way between the diastolic low and the systolic peak. A simple formula
for computing MAP is: MAP = 1/3 (systolic - diastolic) + diastolic
8. What are Korotkoffs sounds? (Nov/Dec 2008) unit-II
When an artery is partially occluded so that the blood velocity through the constriction is
increased sufficiently, identifiable sounds can be heard downstream through a stethoscope. These
sounds are called Korotkoffs sounds, are used in the common method of blood pressure
measurement.
9. What is a colorimeter? State its uses? (Nov/Dec 2008)(May/June 2009) unit-II
The Colorimeter is used to measure the transmitted and absorbed light as it passes through a
sample. The colorimeter uses light absorption to determine blood proteins and iron levels.
Colorimeter can be in the filter photometer or spectrophotometer. When an interference filter is
used to select a given wavelength it is called filter photometer. When a diffraction grating or
prism is used as a monochromatic to get different spectral components or wavelength of interest
in the colorimeter, then it is called spectrophotometer.
10. Name the four physical principles based on which blood flow meters are constructed?
(Nov/Dec 2007)
1. Electromagnetic induction
2. Ultrasonic principle(Transit time type, Doppler type)
3. Thermal convection
4. Radiographic Principle
5. Indicated dilution Principle.
11. Name the instrument used to measure PO2 and PCO2?(May/June 2009)

12.

13.
14.

15.

16.

17.

Blood Gas Analyzer


How is the pulse rate measured?(Apr/May 2011)
The pulse rate is measured using one of the following methods
a) Electrical Impedance Method
b) Strain gauge Method
c) Photoelectric Method
d) Microphone Method
What is Stroke Volume? (Apr/May 2011)
Stroke Volume (SV) is the Volume of blood pumped from one ventricle of the heart with each
beat.
What is systolic and diastolic pressure? (Nov/Dec 2011)
Contraction of heart muscle is called as systolic. The systolic pressure is 120 mm of Hg.
Relaxation of heart muscle is called as diastole. The diastolic pressure is 80 mm of Hg.
How is respiration rate measured? (Nov/Dec 2011)
The measurement of respiration rate provides ideas about relative respiratory activity .Various
techniques are used for this measurement are
1. Displacement method
2. Thermistor Method
3. Impedance pneumography
4. CO2 Method
5. Apnora Detector
Which transducer is used for measuring temperature? Why?(Apr/May 2012)
Thermoelectric type transducer is used for measuring temperature, because to store and carry
plasma, antibiotics etc.
What is the principle used in pulse rate measurement? (Apr/May 2012)
Piezoelectric type transducer is the principle used in pulse rate measurement.

PART B (UNIT-2)
1. a) i) Discuss the working principle of a colorimeter with a neat block Diagram.
ii) How will you measure blood pressure using Sphygmomanometer? (May/June 2007)
Ans: Text book: Bio medical instrumentation By Arumugam .pg.no:284-286 & Notes.
2. a) i) Explain the working principle of a electromagnetic type blood flow Meter.
ii) Define Cardiac output .Discuss a technique to determine cardiac Output.
(May/June
2007) (Apr/May 2012)(Nov/Dec 2011)
Ans: Text book: Bio medical instrumentation By Arumugam .pg.no:233-237 &246-253.
3. a) i) Explain the working principle of a electromagnetic type blood flow Meter.
ii) Describe the operation of a blood cell counter. (April/ May 2008) unit-II
Ans: Text book: Bio medical instrumentation By Arumugam .pg.no: 233-237 & 274-277.
4. a) i) Define the terms : residual volume , tidal volume ,vital capacity and Total lung capacity.
ii)Discuss Ficks method for determining cardiac output. (April/ May 2008) unit-II
Ans: Text book: Bio medical instrumentation By Arumugam .pg.no:254&246-247.
5. a) i) Describe the measurement of pH in blood.(Nov/Dec2011)
ii) Describe the principle of working of an Electrophoresis apparatus. Nov/Dec 2008) unit-II
Ans: Text book: Bio medical instrumentation By Arumugam .pg.no:265-267 &Notes.
6. Draw a block diagram of ultrasonic blood flow meter .Explain the method of measuring the
velocity of blood flow using (i) Transit time principle (2) Doppler effect.(Apr/May 2011)
(Nov/Dec2007) unit-II
Ans: Text book: Bio medical instrumentation By Arumugam .pg.no:237-244.

UNIT-3 ASSIST DEVICES AND BIO - TELEMETRY

PART A
1. Why should a patient susceptible to ventricular fibrillation be watched continuously?
Ventricular fibrillation is far more dangerous, for under this condition the ventricles are unable to
pump blood and if the fibrillation is not corrected death will usually occurs with in a few minutes.
So patient should be watched continuously.
2. List out any six bioelectric and physiological variables adaptable for biotelemetry
Measurements
Bioelectric variables---ECG, EEG, EMG and Physiological variables---blood pressure,
gastrointestinal pressure, blood flow, temperature.
3. What is radio pill?(Apr/May2012)

Radio pill is used to monitor stomach pressure or pH. A pill consisting of a sensor and
miniature transmitter is swallowed and the data are picked up by a receiver and recorded
4. List out the advantages of a Bio-telemetry system. (May/June 2007) unit-III
Bio-telemetry helps us to record the bio-signals over long periods and while the patient is
engaged in his normal activities.
Computer or the medical attendants can easily diagnosis the nature of disease by seeing the
telemetric bio-signals without attending the patients room.
Patient is in his room without any mechanical (or) physical disturbance during recording by
means of Bio-telemetry
For future reference (or) to study the treatment effect, the bio-telemetry is the essential one.
For recording on animals, particularly for research, the bio-telemetry is greatly used.
For monitoring the person who is in action, the bio-telemetry is an ideal one.
5. Classify pacing modes. (NOV/DEC 2007) unit-III
Competitive mode
Pacing modes

Asynchronous mode
( fixed rate)

Non competitive mode

Ventricular programmed

Demand mode
(R-wave inhibited)

Atrial programmed

Standby mode
(R-wave triggered)

Synchronous mode
(P-wave)

6. What is Defibrillator? State its use. (Nov/Dec 2007) unit-III


A Defibrillator is an electronic device that creates a sustained myocardial depolarization of a
patients heart in order to stop ventricular fibrillation (or) atrial fibrillation .The instrument for
administering the electric shock is called as defibrillator.
1. The method of defibrillation is the application of an electric shock to the area of the heart.
2. Defibrillators are also used to convert other potentially dangerous arrhythmias to one that is
easily managed CARDIO VERSION.
3. Defibrillator discharge may used to convert a tachycardia (fast heart) arrhythmia to a normal
rhythm.
7. Explain the principle of telestimulation. (Apr/May 2008) unit-III
Telestimulation is the measurement of biological signals over long distance.

8. Draw the block diagram of a Bio Telemetry system. (Nov/Dec 2008) unit-III

Biological
Signal

Transducer

Conditioner

Transmission
Link

Read-out
Devices

9. Draw the circuit of DC Defibrillator and give its output specification.(Apr/May2011 &2012)

10. List the application of Bio- Telemetry.(Apr/May2011)


1. Monitoring ECG even under ergonomic conditions
2. Monitoring the health of astronauts in space
3. Patient Monitoring in an ambulance and other locations away from hospital
4. Research on anaesthetized animals.
11. What is photometer?(Nov/Dec 2011)
Photometer is used to measure the protein and iron levels in blood. These biological substances
can be determined by analyzing their absorbance and transmittance characteristics.
12. What is tele- stimulation?(Nov/Dec2011)
Tele-stimulation is the measurement of biological signals over long distance. Tele- stimulation
refers to study of diseases by stimulating into animals without killing them and to monitor them
by receiving their bio signals.

PART B (Unit-3)
1. a) i) What is ventricular fibrillation ? Discuss in detail direct current Defibrillator.
ii) Discuss the power sources used and electromagnetic interference that arise in a pacemaker.
(April/ May 2008) unit-III
Ans: Text book: Bio medical instrumentation By Arumugam .pg.no:185,188-190 &175-182.
2. a) i) Explain in detail the components of a Bio telemetry system.
ii) Discuss the various applications of telemetry in patient care.(April/ May 2008) unit-III
Ans: Text book: Bio medical instrumentation By Arumugam .pg.no:311&320.
3. a) Discuss with suitable block diagram the different modes of operation of Cardiac pacemakers.
(Nov/ Dec 2008) unit-III(Apr/May 2011 & 2012) (Nov/Dec 2011)
Ans: Text book: Bio medical instrumentation By Arumugam .pg.no:167-175.
4. a) i) What is defibrillator?
ii) Distinguish between Internal and External Defibrillator.
iii) With block diagram describe the operation of synchronized D.C Defibrillator.
(Nov/ Dec 2008) unit-III (Apr/May 2011)
Ans: Text book: Bio medical instrumentation By Arumugam .pg.no:185-186 &190-193.
5. a) i) Explain working principle of a single channel telemetry system with a neat block diagram.
ii) Discuss working principle of a DC defibrillator with a neat circuit diagram.
(May/ June 2007) unit-III)(Apr/May 2012) (Nov/Dec2011)
Ans: Text book: Bio medical instrumentation By Arumugam .pg.no:312&188-190

UNIT-4 RADIOLOGICAL EQUIPMENTS


PART A

1. What care must be taken while measuring responses to electrical stimulation?


1. Proper Grounding
2. Protection is provided by removing the power from the defective
3. Device by tripping the circuit breaker.
2. Name any two equipments used in radiation therapy. (May/June 2007) unit-IV
1. X-rays
2. Radio isotope
3. Differentiate between radiography and fluoroscopy. (May/June 2007) unit-IV &
(Nov/Dec 2008) unit-IV

4. What is Angiography? (Nov/Dec 2007 & 2008) unit-IV


Angiography is a special X-ray imaging technique in which better contrast can be obtained. The
outlines of the blood vessels are made visible by injecting a contrast medium, which is normally
water soluble organic compound of iodine and is readily excreted by the body, directly
into an artery or vein in the region to be investigated.
5. State the principle by which body organs could be visualized by radio isotope methods.
(Nov/Dec 2007)
The body organs could be visualized in X-rays by using the principle of energy absorption.
6. List out the precaution that should be followed during handling of radio isotopes. (Apr/
May 2008) (Nov/Dec 2009)
1.Radio active materials are kept in thick walled lead containers so that radiation cannot penetrate
them.
2.Lead aprons and lead gloves are worn.
3.All radio active samples are handled by a special remote control process using robots.
7. What is radiation therapy? (April/ May 2008) unit-IV
The ionizing effects of radiation is used for the treatment of certain diseases, such as cancer .The
use of radiation for treatment of diseases has become an important subfield of medicine ,called
radiation therapy.
8. Mention the need for ionizing radiation (May/June 2009)
It can be used for the i) Treatment 2) Diagnosis and 3) Sterilization
9. Distinguish between soft X-rays and hard X-rays(Nov/Dec 2009)

10. In what way X-ray equipment are useful for diagnostics purpose? (May /June 2010)
The use of x-rays as a diagnostic tool is based on the fact that various components of the body
have different densities for the rays. When X-rays from point sources penetrate a body section the
internal structure of the body absorbs varying amount of the radiation. The radiation that leads the
body therefore has a spatial intensity variation ie., an image of the internal structure of the body.
11. Brief about the effectiveness of radio isotopes? (Nov /Dec 2010)

The radio isotopes techniques are all based on actually counting the number of nuclear disintegrations that occur in a radioactive sample during a certain time interval, this will avoid the
statistical errors. Photographic records has the disadvantage, the scan of larger organ can take a
long time, which can effectively overcome by radio isotopes.
12. What is the need of cooling system in X- ray tube?(Apr/May 2011)
1. To get better throughput
2. To reduce the heat in focal spot area which improves the quality of the image.
13. How the radio isotopes are used for therapy?(Apr/May 2011)
Radio Isotopes are used to identify the tumor location, detect any urinary tract obstruction, in
diagnosis of coronary heart diseases.
14. What is ionizing radiation?(Nov/Dec 2011)

It is the radiation originating in radioactive materials is that it ionizes the gases through
which it travels.
15. What are radio isotopes?(Nov/Dec 2011)

Radio isotopes are the element which exists the radiation during disintegration. They are
chemically identical to their mother element.
16. Mention the different types of radiation generated from radio isotopes.(Apr/May 2012)
Iodine 131, Tritium, Carbon 14, Chromium 51
17. List the characteristics of X-rays?(Apr/May 2012)
1. X-rays are invisible.
2. X-rays are electrically neutral. They have neither a positive nor a negative charge. They
cannot be accelerated or made to change direction by a magnet or electrical field.
3. X-rays have no mass.
4. X-rays travel at the speed of light in a vacuum.
PART B (Unit-4)
1. a) Draw the block diagram of an X-ray machine and explain the function of each block.
(Nov/Dec 2008) (Apr/May 2012 ,2011)(Nov/Dec 2011)
Ans: Text book: Bio medical instrumentation By Arumugam .pg.no:299-303.
2. a) Write short note on: a) Image intensifiers b) Fluoroscopy. (Nov/Dec 2008) (Apr/May 2011)
Ans: Text book: Bio medical instrumentation By Arumugam .pg.no:304-305.
3. a) i) Explain the principle involved in the production of X-rays.
ii) Draw and explain the block diagram of an image intensifier unit (Apr/ May 2008)
Ans: Text book: Bio medical instrumentation By Arumugam .pg.no:297 &305.
4. a) i) Differentiate between radiography and fluoroscopy.
ii) Write a short on Scintillation Detector.
iii) Explain the principle of angiography. (Apr/ May 2008)
Ans: Text book: Bio medical instrumentation By Arumugam .pg.no:304& Notes &306.
5.

a) i) Explain the working of an image intensifier with a neat block diagram.


ii) Write a short note on ionization chamber. (May/June 2007)
Ans: Text book: Bio medical instrumentation By Arumugam .pg.no: 305& Notes.

UNIT-5 RECENT TRENDS IN MEDICAL INSTRUMENTATION


PART A
1. List out the properties of LASER. (May/June 2007)
1. Laser light is highly coherent
2. Laser is highly powerful
3. It is also directional and monochromatic
4. It is capable of propagation over long distance
5. It is extremely bright
6. Laser beams are not easily absorbed by the water.
2. What is Thermograph? State its applications. (Nov/Dec 2008) (Apr/May2010 & 2012)
Thermograph is the process of recording true thermal images of the surfaces of objects under
study. In medicine, Thermograph displays images representing the thermal radiation of skin areas.
Application:
1. It is important diagnostic aid in Breast cancers
2. Rheumatic diseases or joint diseases.
3. Tumors
4. Collagen and Orthopedic diseases
5. Examination of placenta attachment
6. Harmone, Brain and Nervous diseases.
3. What are the functions of endoscopy unit? (Nov/Dec 2008)
Endoscope is a tubular optical instrument to inspect or view the body cavities which are not
visible to the naked eye normally. The endoscope is so designed for easy sterilization. In the
endoscope, at the object end there is an assembly of objective lens and prism and at the viewing
end, there is an eye lens. Endoscopic pictures can be recorded with color film and video tape
recorder.
4. Mention the advantages of performing surgery using LASER. (Apr/ May 2008)
1. Highly sterile
2. Highly localized and precise
3. Noncontact surgery
4. Dry field ,almost bloodless surgery
5. Define Let-go current. (Apr/ May 2008)(Nov/Dec2011) (Apr/May 2012)
Let-go current is the minimum current to produce muscular contraction. Let-go current for men is
about 16 mA and for women is about 10.5 mA.
6. Distinguish between Micro shock and Macro shock. (Nov/Dec 2007 & 2009) (Apr/May 2011)
MICRO SHOCK
A physiological response to a current
applied to the surface of the heart that
results in unwanted stimulation like muscle
contraction or tissue injury is called Micro
shock.

MACRO SHOCK
A physiological response to a current
applied to the surface of the body that
produces unwanted or unnecessary
stimulation like muscle contraction or
tissue injury is called Macro shock.

7. What is diathermy? List its types. (Nov/Dec 2007) (Apr/May2010)


Diathermy is the treatment process by which cutting, coagulation, etc., of tissue s are obtained.
The various types are:
Surgical diathermy
Short wave diathermy
Microwave diathermy
Ultrasonic diathermy
8. What is the electrical safety methods used in hospitals? (Nov /Dec 2010)

Proper grounding of equipment.


Double insulation
Protection by Low voltage
Ground Fault Interrupter
Isolation Transformer.
9. How electrical hazards do occurs due to medical equipments? (Nov /Dec 2010)
One of the main hazards connected with the use of medical equipment is electrical shock.
10. Which laser is used for surgery? (Apr/May 2011)
Argon Iron, CO2 and Nd-YAG laser.
11. What is the use of ultrasonic diathermy?(Nov/Dec 2011)
It is used for curing the diseases of peripheral nervous system, skeletal muscle system and skin
ulcers.
PART B (UNIT 5)
1. a) Discuss working principle of an infrared thermo graphic equipment. Mention applications of
thermo graph
. (May/June 2007) (Apr/May 2011)(Nov/Dec 2011)
Ans: Text book: Bio medical instrumentation By Arumugam .pg.no:367-373.
2. a) i) Mention the physiological effects of electric current on human body.
ii) Explain working principle of a surgical diathermy unit with a neat block diagram.
(May/June 2007) (Apr/May 2011) (Apr/May 2012)
Ans: Text book: Bio medical instrumentation By Arumugam .pg.no:329-330&219-223.
3. a) Discuss in detail the different application of Laser in medicine. (Nov/Dec 2007)(Apr/May
2012)
Ans: Text book: Bio medical instrumentation By Arumugam .pg.no:347.
4. a) i) Explain the physiological effects of electric current at 50Hz.
ii) With reference to electrical safety explain:
a) Ground fault circuit interrupter(Apr/May 2011)
b) Protection by low voltage
(Nov/Dec 2007)
Ans: Text book: Bio medical instrumentation By Arumugam .pg.no: NOTES
.
5. What is an endoscope? Discuss the working of an endoscopic unit.
(Apr/ May 2008)
(Nov/Dec11)(Apr/May 2012)
Ans: Text book: Bio medical instrumentation By Arumugam .pg.no:219-223 &356-359.

Question Paper Code : 11274


B.E/B.Tech. Degree Examination, APRIL /MAY 2011
Sixth Semester
Electronics and Communication Engineering

EC2021 MEDICAL ELECTRONICS


(Regulation 2008)
Answer all Questions

PART A (10*2=20Marks)
1. What is half cell Potential?
The voltage developed at an electrode-electrolyte interface is designated as the half cell
potential or electrode potential. A Characteristics potential difference established by the
electrode and its surrounding electrolyte which depends on the metal, concentration of
ions in solution and temperature.
2. Give the EMG Signal Characteristics.
The EMG signal ranges from 0.1mV to 0.5mV.The frequency components of the EMG
signal vary from 20HZ to 10 KHz and they are restricted to the frequency range of 20HZ
to 200HZ for Clinical purpose using a low pass filter.
3. How is the pulse rate measured?
The pulse rate is measured using one of the following methods
e) Electrical Impedance Method
f) Strain gauge Method
g) Photoelectric Method
h) Microphone Method
4. What is Stroke Volume?
Stroke Volume (SV) is the Volume of blood pumped from one ventricle of the heart with
each beat.
5. Draw the circuit of DC Defibrillator and give its output specification.

6. List the application of Bio- Telemetry.


5. Monitoring ECG even under ergonomic conditions
6. Monitoring the health of astronauts in space
7. Patient Monitoring in an ambulance and other locations away from hospital
8. Research on anaesthetized animals.
7. What is the need of cooling system in X- ray tube?
3. To get better throughput
4. To reduce the heat in focal spot area which improves the quality of the image.

8. How the radio isotopes are used for therapy?


Radio Isotopes are used to identify the tumor location, detect any urinary tract
obstruction, in diagnosis of coronary heart diseases.
9. What is micro shock?
A physiological response to a current applied to the surface of the heart those results in
unwanted stimulation like contractions or tissue injury is called micro shock.
10. Which laser is used for surgery?
Argon Iron, CO2 and Nd-YAG laser.

PART B (5*16=80Marks)
11. a i) Draw the action potential wave form and explain the following terms
a) Resting Potential
b) Action Potential
c) Absolute Refractory period
d) Relative refractory period
Ans: Text book: Bio medical instrumentation By Arumugam .pg.no:4-8 +Notes.

ii) Discuss about the different EEG Signal frequency bands.


Ans: Text book: Bio medical instrumentation By Arumugam .pg.no:153 +Notes.

(OR)
b) i) Draw the 12 lead system used in ECG.
Ans: Text book: Bio medical instrumentation By Arumugam .pg.no:120-121 +Notes.

ii) How the PCG signals are generated? Explain the measurement of PCG.
Ans: Text book: Bio medical instrumentation By Arumugam .pg.no:117-142 +Notes.

12. a) Explain the blood pressure measurement using following techniques


i)
Sphygmomanometer
ii)
Ultrasonic
Ans: Text book: Bio medical instrumentation By Arumugam .pg.no:284 & 237 +Notes.

(OR)
b) Explain the principle of Following
i) PH measurement
ii) Auto analyzer.
Ans: Text book: Bio medical instrumentation By Arumugam .pg.no:265 -267 +Notes.

13. a) i) Explain the function of synchronized DC defibrillator with neat block.


ii) Discuss about the radio pill.
Ans: Text book: Bio medical instrumentation By Arumugam .pg.no:188 -190 +Notes.

(OR)
b) What is the need of pacemaker? Explain the different types of pacemakers?
Ans: Text book: Bio medical instrumentation By Arumugam .pg.no:167 -175 +Notes.

14. a) Draw the block diagram of X-ray imaging system and explain the components.
Ans: Text book: Bio medical instrumentation By Arumugam .pg.no: 299-303+Notes.

(OR)
b) Explain production, properties, isotopes used and application of the following
radiation.1) Alpha, 2) Beta, 3) Gamma
Ans: Text book: Bio medical instrumentation By Arumugam .pg.no:297 +Notes.

15. a) Explain the function of surgical diathermy and various modes of operation.
Ans: Text book: Bio medical instrumentation By Arumugam .pg.no:219 -223 +Notes
(OR)

b) Write short notes on following


i) Thermograph
ii) Ground Fault Interrupter.
Ans: Text book: Bio medical instrumentation By Arumugam .pg.no:367-373 + Notes

Question Paper Code : 11287


B.E/B.Tech. Degree Examination, NOV/DEC 2011
Sixth Semester
Electronics and Communication Engineering

EC2021 MEDICAL ELECTRONICS


(Regulation 2008)
Answer all Questions

PART A (10*2=20Marks)
1. What is EOG?
EOG Electro oculography It is the recording of the biopotential generated by the
movement of eyes.
2. Compare the signal characteristics of ECG and PCG
PCG related to mechanical events of heart while ECG related to electrical activity of
heart. PCG has three different waves but ECG has only one wave from to analysis the
function of heart.
3. What is systolic and diastolic pressure?
Contraction of heart muscle is called as systolic. The systolic pressure is 120 mm of Hg.
Relaxation of heart muscle is called as diastole. The diastolic pressure is 80 mm of Hg.
4. How is respiration rate measured?
The measurement of respiration rate provides ideas about relative respiratory activity
.Various techniques are used for this measurement are
6. Displacement method
7. Thermistor Method
8. Impedance pneumography
9. CO2 Method
10. Apnora Detector
5. What is photometer?
Photometer is used to measure the protein and iron levels in blood. These biological
substances can be determined by analyzing their absorbance and transmittance
characteristics.
6. What is tele- stimulation?
Tele-stimulation is the measurement of biological signals over long distance. Telestimulation refers to study of diseases by stimulating into animals without killing them
and to monitor them by receiving their bio signals.
7. What is ionizing radiation?
It is the radiation originating in radioactive materials is that it ionizes the gases through
which it travels.
8. What are radio isotopes?
Radio isotopes are the element which exists the radiation during disintegration . They are
chemically identical to their mother element.

9. Define Let- Go Current?


Let-go current is the minimum current to produce muscular contraction. Let-go current
for men is about 16 mA and for women is about 10.5 mA.
10. What is the use of ultrasonic diathermy?
It is used for curing the diseases of peripheral nervous system, skeletal muscle system
and skin ulcers.

PART B (5*16=80Marks)
11. a) Discuss the different types of Bio-potential electrodes used in measurement of
Bio- signals?
Ans: Text book: Bio medical instrumentation By Arumugam .pg.no:21-33 + Notes

(OR)
b) i) Draw the 12 lead system in ECG
ii) Explain the 10-20 electrode placement used in EEG.
Ans: Text book: Bio medical instrumentation By Arumugam .pg.no:120 & 153 + Notes

12. a)i) Explain the blood flow measurement using following technique.
1. Electromagnetic principle
2. Dye dilution
Ans: Text book: Bio medical instrumentation By Arumugam .pg.no:233-237 + Notes

(OR)
b) Explain the principle of following
1. PH Measurement
2. Electrophoresis.
Ans: Text book: Bio medical instrumentation By Arumugam .pg.no:265 + Notes

13. a) Explain any two types of pacemakers with neat block diagram.
Ans: Text book: Bio medical instrumentation By Arumugam .pg.no:167-175 + Notes

(OR)
b) i)Explain the principle of DC defibrillator with neat diagram.
ii) Explain the operation of Bio telemetry systems.
Ans: Text book: Bio medical instrumentation By Arumugam .pg.no:190 & 310 + Notes

14. a) Draw the block diagram of X-Ray machines, explain its operation.
Ans: Text book: Bio medical instrumentation By Arumugam .pg.no:299-303 + Notes

(OR)
b) Discuss the uses of radio isotopes in medical applications.
Ans: Text book: Bio medical instrumentation By Arumugam .pg.no:305 + Notes

15. a)Write brief notes on


1. Thermograph
2. Endoscopy
Ans: Text book: Bio medical instrumentation By Arumugam .pg.no:367 & 356+ Notes

(OR)
b) Write short notes on
1. Argon Laser
2. CO2 Laser
Ans: Text book: Bio medical instrumentation By Arumugam .pg.no:352 + Notes

Question Paper Code : 10284


B.E/B.Tech. Degree Examination, MAY/JUNE 2012
Sixth Semester
Electronics and Communication Engineering

EC2021 MEDICAL ELECTRONICS


(Regulation 2008)
Answer all Questions

PART A (10*2=20Marks)
1. What is PCG?
The graphic record of the heart sounds is called as phonogram. Because the sound is from
the heart, it is called phonocardiogram. The instrument used to measure the heart sounds
is called as phonocardiograph.
2. What are the different types of electrodes used in bipolar measurement?
a) Metal plate electrodes, b) Suction cup electrode, c) Adhesive tape electrode,
d) Multipoint electrode, e) Floating electrode.
3. Which transducer is used for measuring temperature? Why?
Thermoelectric type transducer is used for measuring temperature, because to store and
carry plasma, antibiotics etc.
4. What is the principle used in pulse rate measurement?
Piezoelectric type transducer is the principle used in pulse rate measurement.
5. Draw the defibrillator output wave form and indicate the output energy level.

6. What is radio pill?


Radio pill is used to monitor stomach pressure or pH. A pill consisting of a sensor and
miniature transmitter is swallowed and the data are picked up by a receiver and recorded.
7. Mention the different types of radiation generated from radio isotopes.
Iodine 131, Tritium, Carbon 14, Chromium 51
8. List the characteristics of X-rays?
1. X-rays are invisible.
2. X-rays are electrically neutral. They have neither a positive nor a negative charge.
They cannot be accelerated or made to change direction by a magnet or electrical
field.

3. X-rays have no mass.


4. X-rays travel at the speed of light in a vacuum.
5. X-rays cannot be optically focused.
6. X-rays form a polyenergetic or heterogenous beam.
7. The x-ray beam used in diagnostic radiography comprises many photons that have
many different energies.
8. X-rays travel in straight lines.
9. X-rays can cause some substances to fluoresce.
10. X-rays cause chemical changes to occur in radiographic and photographic film.
11. X-rays can be absorbed or scattered by tissues in the human body.
12. X-rays can produce secondary radiation.
13. X-rays can cause chemical and biologic damage to living tissue.
9. Define Let-go Current.
Let-go current is the minimum current to produce muscular contraction. Let-go current
for men is about 16 mA and for women is about 10.5 mA.
10. What is thermograph?
Thermograph is the process of recording true thermal images of the surfaces of objects
under study. In medicine, Thermograph displays images representing the thermal
radiation of skin areas.
Application: 1. It is important diagnostic aid in Breast cancers
2. Rheumatic diseases or joint diseases.
3. Tumors
4. Collagen and Orthopedic diseases
5. Examination of placenta attachment
6. Harmone, Brain and Nervous diseases.

PART B (5*16=80Marks)
11. a)i) Explain the origin of Bio potential
ii) Compare the signal Characteristics of ECG and EMG
Ans: Text book: Bio medical instrumentation By Arumugam .pg.no:23 & 117 + Notes

(OR)
b) i) Draw the bipolar lead system used in ECG and give its significance.
ii) Explain the 10-20 electrode placement system used in EEG.
Ans: Text book: Bio medical instrumentation By Arumugam .pg.no:120 &153 + Notes

12. a) Explain the blood flow measurement using the following technique.
1. Electromagnetic principle

2. Thermo dilution
Ans: Text book: Bio medical instrumentation By Arumugam .pg.no:233 &246 + Notes

(OR)
b) Explain the principle of following
1. Photometer
2. Auto analyzer
Ans: Text book: Bio medical instrumentation By Arumugam .pg.no: 248+ Notes

13. a) What is pacemaker? What are the different types of pacemakers? Explain the RWave inhibited pacemakers with a neat block diagram?
Ans: Text book: Bio medical instrumentation By Arumugam .pg.no:167 + Notes

(OR)
b) Explain the single channel ECG biotelemetry system with neat block diagram.
Ans: Text book: Bio medical instrumentation By Arumugam .pg.no:310 + Notes

14. a) Explain the need of following in X-ray imaging system.


1. Collimator
2. Bucky Grid
Ans: Text book: Bio medical instrumentation By Arumugam .pg.no:299-303 + Notes

(OR)
b) Explain, how the gamma radiation is used for imaging.
Ans: Text book: Bio medical instrumentation By Arumugam .pg.no:297 + Notes

15. a)Write brief notes on


1. Endoscopy
2. Surgical diathermy
Ans: Text book: Bio medical instrumentation By Arumugam .pg.no: 356 & 219 + Notes

(OR)
b) Explain the different types of Laser used in medicine.
Ans: Text book: Bio medical instrumentation By Arumugam .pg.no:347 + Notes

Question Paper Code:


B.E./B.Tech. DEGREE EXAMINATION, MAY/JUNE 2013
Sixth Semester
Electronics and Communication Engineering
EC 2021/EC 601/EC 1001/10144 ECE 11 MEDICAL ELECTRONICS
(Regulation 2008/2010)
Time: Three hours
Maximum: 100 marks
Answer ALL questions
PART A (10 X 2 = 20 marks)
1.List the characteristics needed for Bio Amplifier.
a) The voltage gain of the amplifier should be >100dB.
b) It should have low frequency response.
c) Gain and frequency response should be uniform throughout the
Bandwidth.
d) There is no drift in the amplifier.
e) The output impedance should be very small.
f) The common mode rejection ratio (CMMR) should be >80dB.
2. Compare the Signal Characteristics ECG and PCG.
PCG related to mechanical events of heart while ECG related to electrical activity of heart. PCG
has three different waves but ECG has only one wave from to analysis the function of heart. Different
types of heart sounds are measured in PCG.

3. What are the components of Blood?


The components of blood include:
red blood cells, white blood cells, platelets, and plasma.

4. What is stroke volume?


Stroke Volume (SV) is the Volume of blood pumped from one ventricle of the heart with each beat.

5. List the applications of Bio Telemetry.

Monitoring ECG even under ergonomic conditions


Monitoring the health of astronauts in space
Patient Monitoring in an ambulance and other locations away from hospital
Research on anaesthetized animals.

6. What are Pacemakers?

Pace maker is an electrical pulse generator for starting and/or


maintaining the normal heart beat. The output of the pacemaker is applied
either externally to the chest or internally to the heart muscle.

7. What are Soft and Hard X-rays?

8. Mention the characteristics required for the radio isotopes to be


used for medical imaging.
The atom will be unstable
They have same number of protons in their atoms (atomic number) but different masses due to
different numbers of neutrons.
Radioisotopes decay by emission of gamma, beta, and alpha and neutron radiation.

9. List the parts of endoscope unit.

High power argon laser


Partial beam splitter
Power meter and heat sink
Lens system
Micropositioner
Encapsulated quartz fibreguide
Endoscope
Synchronous filter shutter
Firing control and timing unit

10. What is Macro shock?


A physiological response to a current applied to the surface of the body that produces unwanted or
unnecessary stimulation like muscle contraction or tissue injury is called Macro shock.

PART B (5 X 16 = 80 marks)
11. (a) (i) Discuss about the different types of electrode used in bio potential
measurement. (10)
Micro electrode/Intracellular electrode

Depth and needle electrode


Surface electrode
Microelectrodes
Metal Electrodes
Glass Micropipet Electrodes
Depth electrode
Needle electrode
Surface electrode
Metal plate electrode
Suction cup electrode
Adhesive tape electrode
Multipoint electrode
Floating electrode
Text book: Bio medical instrumentation By Arumugam .pg.no:21-33

(ii) Explain the measurement of EMG. (6)


Electromyography (EMG) is a technique for evaluating and recording
the electrical activity produced by muscles. EMG results can reveal nerve
dysfunction, muscle dysfunction or problems with nerve-to-muscle signal
transmission.
Text book: Bio medical instrumentation By Arumugam .pg.no:153-156 +Notes

(OR)
(b) Draw and explain the different lead configuration and its significances in
ECG.
Bipolar limb leads or standard leads
Augmented unipolar limb leads
Chest leads(or) precordial leads
Frank lead system or corrected orthogonal leads
Text book: Bio medical instrumentation By Arumugam .pg.no:120-123+Notes

12. (a) Explain the following:


(i) Ficks method for the determination of cardiac output. (8)
Ficks method is based on the determination of cardiac output by the
analysis of the gas- keeping of the organism.
Text book: Bio medical instrumentation By Arumugam .pg.no:246-247+Notes

(ii) Ultrasonic blood flow meter. (8)


(OR)
(b) Explain the following:
(i) Sphygmomanometer. (8)
(ii) Measurement of PHCO3. (8)
13. (a) Explain the following:
(i) R-wave Inhibited pacemaker. (8)
(ii) DC defibrillator (8)

(OR)
(b) Explain the Multi-channel Bio telemetry system with neat diagram. (16)
14. (a) Explain the need of following in the X-ray imaging system:
(i) Collimator (5)
(ii) Bucky grid (5)
(iii) Image intensifier (6)
(OR)
(b) Explain the Principle of Nuclear Imaging with neat diagram. (16)
15. (a) Write brief notes on:
(i) Thermograph (8)
(ii) Endoscopy unit (8)
(OR)
(b) Explain the following:
(i) Surgical diathermy (8)
(ii) Argon Laser and its medical application (8)

Question Paper Code:


B.E./B.Tech. DEGREE EXAMINATION, MAY/JUNE 2014
Sixth Semester
Electronics and Communication Engineering
EC 2021/EC 601/EC 1001/10144 ECE 11 MEDICAL ELECTRONICS
(Regulation 2008/2010)
Time: Three hours
Maximum: 100 marks
Answer ALL questions
PART A (10 X 2 = 20 marks)
1.The contraction of skeletal muscle is termed as what? Give its
specification.
2.Enlist the electrodes used for recording EEG.
3.Write the principle behind electromagnetic blood flow meter.
4.Nitrogen washout technique is meant for what measurements?
5.Draw the typical discharge pulse of a DC-defibrillator.
6.What are the essential requirements of the FM telemetry
receiver?
7.Labeled sodium isotope is deployed in diagnosis of what
impairment
8.Mammograms are used for what purposes?
9. Mention the situations which account for hazards from electric
shock.
10. Can pain be relieved through electrical stimulation? What is the
equipment used for it?
PART B (5 X 16 = 80 marks)
11. (a) With neat diagrams explain the formation of various lead
systems used for
recording ECG.
(Or)
(b) (i) Distinguish a biological amplifier from a conventional
amplifier with suitable
Equations and circuits (10)
(ii) Write short notes on measurement of PCG (6)
12. (a) From basic principles discuss the working of a pulmonary
function analyzer
(Or)
(b) Explain the following:
(i) Photometer (8)
(ii) Auto Analyzer (8)

13. (a) Explain the function and characteristics of the various types
of on-demand cardiac
pacemakers
(Or)
(b) Show how tele-stimulation is achieved and write the merits
and demerits of EHealth.
14. (a) Explain the function of diagnostic X-ray equipment with neat
block diagram.
(Or)
(b) Discuss how the radioisotopes are used as
(i) Diagnostic imaging (8)
(ii) Radiation therapy (8)
15. (a) (i) With neat block diagram explain the working of an
endoscopy unit (8)
(ii) Write a brief note on the functioning of microwave
diathermy unit (8)
(Or)
(b) Explain the different types of Lasers in medicine.