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GLYCOLYSIS

Glucose is converted to Pyruvate

CHO
H

OH

HO

OH

OH

CH3

COOH

CH2OH
C6

C3

Pyruvate is converted to Acetate which is converted


to CO2 in the Citric Acid Cycle (Krebs Cycle)

O
CH3

COO
C3

CH3
C2

CO2

+ H2O

In oxygen depleted environments Pyruvate is


converted to Lactate (Muscle Cramp)
O

OH
COO

CH3
C3

CH3

COO

Lactate

All intermediates in the conversion of Glucose


to Pyruvate are phosphorylated
All are C6 or C3.

Glucose-6- phosphate isomerizes to give


Fructose-6-phosphate
(Reverse of Photosynthesis)

CHO
H
HO

HC O

OH
H

ATP

ADP

OH

OH

OH

OH

OH

CH2OH

OH

HO

HO

CH2OP

HO

OH

OH
CH2OP

CH2OP
O

CH2OH
ADP

ATP
HO

OH

OH

OH

OH

CH2OP

OH

CH2OP

Splits to give Glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate


and Dihydroxyacetone phosphate

CH2OP
O
CH2OP

HO

O
HO

H
H

OH

OH

OH

CH2OP

CH2OP

Dihydroxyacetone phosphate is an isomer


of Glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate

OH

OH

CH2OP

CH2OP

OH

H2C OH
O
CH2OP

Overall:
Fructose 1,6 diphosphate converted to
TWO Glyceraldehyde 3-phospahate
CH2OP
O
HO

OH

OH
CH2OP

(Reverse of Photosynthesis)

OH
CH2OP

Glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate is converted to 1,3-diphosphoglycerate

O
NAD

CHO
H

OH
CH2OP

Pinorganic

NADH

C OP
H

OH
CH2OP
1,3-DPG

1,3-DPG is converted to 3-Phosphoglycerate with formation of ATP

O
C OP
H

OH
CH2OP

ADP ATP

C OH

OH
CH2OP

3-Phosphoglycerate is converted to 2-Phosphoglycerate which loses H2O


to give PhosphoEnol Pyruvate (PEP)

O
C OH

OH
CH2OP

C O-

C O-

OP
CH2OH

OP
CH2

PEP is converted to Pyruvate with formation of ATP

O
C OOP
CH2
PEP

ADP

ATP

O
C OC O
CH3

Pyruvate (C3)

Overall:

Glucose

+ 2 Pinorg + 2 ADP + 2 NAD+

2 Pyruvate + 2 ATP + 2 NADH + 2 H+ + 2 H2O

CHO
H

OH
H

HO

OH

OH

CH2OH
C6

CH3

COOH

C3

Glucose

ATP

ADP

Glucose-6-phosphate

Fructose-6-phosphate
ATP

ADP

Fructose-1,6-phosphate
2 Glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate

Glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate
NAD + Pi
NADH + H+

1,3-Diphosphoglycerate
ADP
ATP

3-Phosphoglycerate

2-Phosphoglycerate

2-Phosphoglycerate

2-Phosphoenol Pyruvate
ADP
ATP

Pyruvate

Pyruvate is converted to Acetylcoenzyme A which enters


the Citric Acid Cycle (TCA or Krebs Cycle)

NAD NADH

O
CH3

COO-

CoA

CH3

C3

O
SCoA
C2

Overall:
Glucose converted to 2 Pyruvates which are
converted to 2 Acetates + 2 CO2

+ CO2

ATP, NADH and CoA are important Enzyme Cofactors

ATP carries Phosphoryl

NADH provides H for Reduction

CoA carries Acyl group

ATP normally activates a substrate for Nucleophilic Displacement


(Converts OH into Phosphate or Pyrophosphate)

H2 N

HO

O-

O-

O-

N
O

OH OH

RCH2OH

H2N

RCH2 O

OH

HO

O-

O-

N
O

OH OH

O
Nu-

RCH2 O

P
O

OH

Nu-CH2R
O
-

P
O

OH