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2nd Periodical Test

Reviewer in Science 8

Earthquakes & Faults

1. An earthquake refers to the shaking of Earth when energy stored in rocks deep
inside earth is released.
2. Earthquakes happen alon tectonic plate boundaries or along active faults.

3. The theory of plate tectonics explains the formation and movement of the plates
of earth.
4. Convection currents cause the movement of the lithosphere and the formation
of tectonic plates.

5. The Philippines has many trenches and active faults. They are the sites of
6. Active faults have documented history of recent displacements. The Philippine
Fault zone and the Valley fault system are examples of active faults.

7. Faults are three types based on the direction of slippage: dip-slip, strike-slip,
and oblique-slip.
8. Earthquakes enerated by movements along faults are all shallow-seated and
very destructive.

9. Tsunamis are often generated if strong shallow earthquakes occur under the
sea. They displace parts of the seabed.
Earthquakes may be tectonic or volcanic in origin. Tectonic earthquakes
happen because of displacements along fault fissures in the solid, rigids layers
of earth. Volcanic earthquakes are induced by rising lava or magma beneath
active volcanoes.

The focus or hypocenter or the earthquake refers to the immediate are
where the displacement of the plates takes place. The point directly above the
focus is the epicenter.

Intensity and magnitude are two general ways to describe the strength of
an earthquake.
The Philippine Institute of Volcanology and seismology (PHIVOLCS) has
its own intensity scale, called the PHIVOLCS earthquake intensity scale (PEIS).

Typhoon- A tropical cyclone
-An intense low pressure system with minimum sustained winds of 35kph.
Classification of Tropical cyclone
It is based on the maximum sustained winds near the center of the eye of the cyclone.
36-63kph Tropical depression
64-117kph Tropical storm
117kph and above Typhoon
Characteristics of a Typhoon
Spiral rain bands
-The are where wind is light or calm and there is no rain.
The eye wall
-It have the heaviest precipitation and the strongest wind speed.
The eye
-The center of the spiral that extends about 10-100km in a diameter.
Formation of typhoons
-It forms in the large bodies of water
-Warm water that mixes with cold air results in the formation of low pressure system.
PAGASA Philippine Atmospheric Geophysical and Astronomical Services Administration
Typhoon NW Pacific Ocean
W of Inernational date line

Factors of CORIOLIS effect

-Abundance of warm water (An ocean water temp. of 26.5 degree celcious
-Surface depth up to 50 meters
-High humidity
-Low vertical wind shear
-An optimal location (500km)
Coriolis Effect
-Turning of winds due to the earths rotation.
-Hour by hour variations in atmospheric conditions experienced at a certain place.
-Average weather in a region over many years
Climate change
-Climate change is a significant time variation in weather patterns occurring over periods ranging
from decades to millions of years.
-It may also refer to a change in average weather conditions, or in the time variation of weather
around longer term average conditions.
Causes of Climate Change
-Burning of fossil fuel (oil, coal,gas)
By these, we add unnatural heat to the atmosphere

-Altering the normal cycle of water

-Polluting the atmosphere
-Modifying the land (construction)
-Heat generated by vehicles
Green House Gases
Making the earth warm for us to survive
-Carbon Dioxide
-Carbon Monoxide
-Nitrous oxide
-Hydrofluorcarbons (HFCs) and perfluorocarbons

Effects of high level of green house gases

-Increase in the number of malaria cases
-Damage to the crops (No crops for some places)
-Less food reproduction
-Frequent forest fire
-Wild life will face extinction
-Melting of ice in the polar regions
-Flooding in the coastal regions
-It will create chaos (Global security)
-Seawater will contaminate fresh water
How to respond?
-Plant trees
-Stop modifying land forms
-Avoid pollution
-Use energy efficient appliances and light bulbs
-Seal any areas in our homes that allow heat to escape
-Unplug appliances that are not in use
-Lessen the use of car (Use public Vechicles)
-Use Bike
The Solar System
Composition of Comets
-They are made up of frozen gases of water, ammonia