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Presentation Dealt with basic concepts of gas dynamics

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Flow

D

0

Dt

The density of a gas changes significantly along a streamline

Compressible Flow

Definition of Compressibility: the fractional change in

volume of the fluid element per unit change in pressure

p + dp

p + dp

v dv

p + dp

p + dp

Compressible Flow

1. Mach Number:

M =

V

local velocity

=

c speed of sound

Flows where M > 0.3

M < 0.3 Subsonic & incompressible

0.3 <M < 0.8 Subsonic & compressible

0.8 <M < 1.2 transonic flow shock waves appear

mixed subsonic and sonic flow regime

1.2 <M < 3.0 - Supersonic shock waves are present

but NO subsonic flow

M > 3.0 Hypersonic Flow, shock waves and other

flow changes are very strong

Compressible Flow

3. Significant changes in velocity and pressure result

in density variations throughout a flow field

4. Large Temperature variations result in density

variations.

As a result we now have two new variables we must solve for:

T&

We need 2 new equations.

We will solve: mass, linear momentum, energy and an equation of state.

1. Choked Flow a flow rate in a duct is limited by

the sonic condition

2. Sound Wave/Pressure Waves rise and fall of

pressure during the passage of an acoustic/sound

wave. The magnitude of the pressure change is

very small.

3. Shock Waves nearly discontinuous property

changes in supersonic flow. (Explosions, high

speed flight, gun firing, nuclear explosion)

4. A pressure ratio of 2:1 will cause sonic flow

Applications

diverging nozzles

2. Turbines, fans & pumps

3. Throttles flow regulators, an obstruction

in a duct that controls pressure drop.

4. One Dimensional Isentropic Flow

compressible pipe flow.

Approach

Control volume approach

Steady, One-dimension, Uniform Flow

Additional Thermodynamics Concepts are

needed

Restrict our analysis to ideal gases

Thermodynamics

Equation of State Ideal Gas Law

p = RT

R=

8314 J/(kmol K)

Ru

=

=

= 287 J/(kg K)

Molecular mass of air

28 .97kg/kmol

Mm

(volume per unit mass):

1

v=

Enthalpy

Internal Energy individual particle kinetic energy.

Summation of molecular vibrational and rotational energy.

u~ = u~ (v , T )

u~

u~

d u~ =

dT +

dv

T v

v T

d u~ = cv dT

Enthalpy of an ideal gas: h = u~ + pv

h = h (T )

dh = c p dT

Enthalpy

h = u~ + pv

h = u~ + RT

dh = d u~ + RdT

= RT

Substituting:

dh = c p dT

d u~ = c v dT

dh = d u~ + RdT

c p dT = c v dT + RdT

c p = cv + R

c p c v = R = const

Enthalpy

Define the ratio of specific heats:

Then,

cp

cv

= const

kR

k 1

R

cv =

k 1

cp =

For Air:

cp = 1004 J/kg-K

k = 1.4

Processes

We define entropy by:

Q

ds =

T rev

Combining the 1st and 2nd Laws gives us Gibbs Equation

Tds = dh

dp

Tds = c p dT

2

ds = c

p

dh = c p dT

dp

dT

dp

R

T

p

1

R

p

Processes

s 2 s1 = c p ln

p

T2

R ln 2

p1

T1

We get the following power law relationship

p 2 T2

=

p1 T1

k 1 2

=

1

Pressure Wave

Moving Wave of Frontal Area A

Stationary Wave

Reference frame moving with wave

c

p

p + p

T

V =0

T + T

p + p

T + T

V = c V

V =c

Steady State Continuity Equation (Solve for the induced velocity V):

0=

r

CS

cA = ( + )(c V )A

c = c ( + ) V ( + )

V = c

(A)

+

The Speed of sound (c) is the rate of propagation of a pressure wave of infinitesimal

strength through a still fluid.

Pressure Wave

p

(Find p and c)

V (V n )dA = m& (V

V1 )

T

V =c

p + p

+

T + T

V = c V

CS

pA ( p + p ) A = cA (c V c )

p = c V

(B)

c2 =

p + p

=

c2 =

1 +

in the limit of 0

isentropic and

= const

Pressure Wave

Calculating the Speed of Sound for an ideal gas:

= const

p

p

=k

c=

c=

kRT

Fluid

c (m/s)

kRT

Gases:

For Air:

k=

H2

Air

cp

1 .4

cv

R = 287 J/(kg K)

1,294

340

Liquids:

Water

Ethyl Alcohol

1,490

1,200

Determine the speed of sound in Argon (Ar) at 120 oC. MW = 40

kg/kmol:

c=

R=

k=

kRT

Ru

8314 J/(kmol K)

=

= 207 .9 J/(kg K)

Mm

4 0kg/kmol

cp

cv

1 .668

and wave propagation

Source moves to the right at a speed V

Zone of silence

Mach cone

3 c t

V>c

V<c

V=0

V t

V t

sin =

V t

V

1

=

c M

speed of M=3 passes 200m above an observer. Find

the projectiles velocity and determine how far

beyond the observer the projectile will first be heard

M =3

200 m

speed of M=3 passes 200m above an observer. Find

the projectiles velocity and determine how far

beyond the observer the projectile will first be heard

c = kRT = 1.4(287 )(300 ) = 347.2m/s

V = Mc = 3(347.2 ) = 1041.6m/s

1

1 1

o

= sin = 19.5

M

3

200m

tan =

x

200m

x=

= 565m

tan 19.5

= sin 1

Analysis

Applications where the assumptions of steady,

uniform, isentropic flow are reasonable:

1. Exhaust gasses passing through the blades

of a turbine.

2. Diffuser near the front of a jet engine

3. Nozzles on a rocket engine

4. A broken natural gas line

1

2

h + dh

+ d

T + dT

p + dp

T

p

dx

V + dV

r

0 = V n dA = 1V1 A1 + 2V 2 A2

CS

VA = ( + d )(V + dV )( A + dA )

VA = AV + VdA + VAd + Vd dA + AdV + dAdV + Ad dV + d dAdV

1

2

h + dh

+ d

T + dT

p + dp

h

V

T

p

dx

0=

(V n )dA = V A

r

1 1

V + dV

+ 2V 2 A2

CS

VA = ( + d )(V + dV )( A + dA ) ~ 0

~0

~0

~0

VA = AV + VdA + VAd + Vd dA + AdV + dAdV + Ad dV + d dAdV

0=

dA d dV

+

+

A

By VA

1

2

h + dh

+ d

T + dT

p + dp

h

V

T

p

V + dV

dx

1 inlet & 1 exit:

=

+ g ( z 2 z1 ) + (u~ + pv )2 (u~ + pv )1

m&

2

Neglecting potential energy and recalling: h = u~ + pv

=

+ h2 h1

m&

2

Assuming and ideal gas:

=

+ c p (T2 T1 )

m&

2

1

2

h + dh

+ d

T + dT

p + dp

h

V

T

p

& 1 exit, neglecting potential energy &

assuming Isentropic duct flow:

V + dV

dx

V22

V2

+ h2 = 1 + h1

2

2

Assuming and ideal gas:

V22

V2

+ c p T2 = 1 + c p T1

2

2

V22

k

V2

k

RT1

+

RT 2 = 1 +

2

k 1

2

k 1

Stagnation Conditions

Insolated

walls

h2 =

V12

+ h1 = ho

2

Stagnation enthalpy

there is a corresponding increase in temperature

V22

V2

+ c p T2 = 1 + c p T1

2

2

To =

V2

+T

2c p

Stagnation Temperature

To =

V2

+T

2c p

(+)

then (+) can be solved for the maximum velocity:

V max =

2 c p To

flow through heat transfer or shaft work.

M =

To =

V2

+T

2c p

V

c

1

kR

c pT =

T = kRT

k 1

k 1

c2

cp

k 1 2

To k 1 V 2

M +1

=

+1 =

2

T

2 c

2

2

To

V

=

+1

T

T 2c p

To k 1 2

=

M +1

T

2

density relationships

To k 1 2

=

M +1

T

2

k

p o To k 1 k 1 2

k 1

= =

M + 1

p T

2

o To k 1 k 1 2 k 1

= =

M + 1

T

T* 2

=

To k + 1

k

p * 2 k 1

=

po k + 1

1

* 2 k 1

=

o k +1

1

c* 2 2

=

co k + 1

10

For Air k = 1.4

T* 2

=

= 0 .8333

To k + 1

k

p * 2 k 1

=

= 0 .5283

po k + 1

1

* 2 k 1

=

= 0 .9129

o k + 1

1

c* 2 2

=

= 0 .9129

co k + 1

Critical Velocity: is the speed of sound c*

1

c* 2 2

=

co k + 1

1

V * = c* =

2 2 2 kRT o 2

kRT * = c o

=

k +1

k +1

Air flows adiabatically through a duct. At point 1 the velocity

is 240 m/s, with T1 = 320K and p1 = 170kPa. Compute

(a) To

(b) Po

(c) ro

(d) M

(e) Vmax

(f) V*

11

1

h + dh

+ d

T + dT

p + dp

V + dV

dx

() 0 =

dA d dV

+

+

A

dA

d dV

=

2

(*) 0 = dp + dV = dp + VdV

Bernoullis Equation!

neglecting gravity

dA

d

dp

dp 1

d

=

+

=

V 2

V 2 dp

A

1

h + dh

+ d

T + dT

p + dp

V + dV

dA dp 1

d

V 2 dp

A

2

Recall that the speed of sound is: c =

dA dp 1

dp V 2

1

1 2

=

=

A

V 2 c 2 V 2

c

Substituting the Mach number:

dA

dp

=

(1 M 2 )

V 2

A

M =

V

c

behaves in nozzles and diffusers

under various flow conditions

dA

dp

=

(1 M 2 )

V 2

A

1.

2.

3.

4.

indicating a decrease in pressure in a converging

channel.

Supersonic Flow: M > 1 and dA < 0, then dP > 0:

indicating an increase in pressure in a converging

channel.

Subsonic Flow: M < 1 and dA > 0, then dP > 0 :

indicating an increase in pressure in a diverging

channel.

Supersonic Flow: M > 1 dA > 0, then dP < 0 :

indicating a decrease in pressure in a diverging

channel.

P

P

12

Diffusers and Converging Diverging Nozzles

Describes how the pressure

behaves in nozzles and diffusers

under various flow conditions

dA

dp

=

(1 M 2 )

V 2

A

()

0=

dp

dp

+ VdV

= VdV (**)

dA dV

=

(M 2 1)

A

V

Or,

dA

A

=

M 2 1

dV V

dA dV

=

M 2 1

A

V

1.

2.

3.

4.

indicating an accelerating flow in a converging

channel.

Supersonic Flow: M > 1 and dA < 0, then dV < 0:

indicating an decelerating flow in a converging

channel.

Subsonic Flow: M < 1 and dA > 0, then dV < 0 :

indicating an decelerating flow in a diverging

channel.

Supersonic Flow: M > 1 dA > 0, then dV > 0 :

indicating an accelerating flow in a diverging

channel.

Converging-Diverging Nozzles

Amin

Subsonic

Supersonic

M=1

Amax

Subsonic

Supersonic

M<1

M>1

Subsonic

Supersonic

13

duct occurs when its throat is at the sonic condition

Consider a converging Nozzle:

receiver

po

pr

pe

To

Ve

plenum

Mass Flow Rate (ideal gas):

m& = VA =

m& =

p

M

RT

p

VA

RT

M =

kRT A = p

V

=

c

V

kRT

k

MA

RT

k

MA

RT

m& = p

Choked Flow

Mass Flow Rate (ideal gas):

m& = p

k

MA

RT

k

po k 1 2

k 1

=

M + 1

p 2

m& = p o

To k 1 2

=

M +1

T

2

k +1

k

k 1 2 2 (1 k )

MA 1 +

M

RT o

2

k +1

m& = p o A *

k k + 1 2 (1 k )

RT o 2

A

1

=

A* M

2 + (k 1)M 2

k +1

k +1

2 ( k 1 )

14

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