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Introduction to Compressible

Flow
D
0
Dt
The density of a gas changes significantly along a streamline

Compressible Flow
Definition of Compressibility: the fractional change in
volume of the fluid element per unit change in pressure
p + dp

p + dp

v dv

p + dp

p + dp

Compressible Flow
1. Mach Number:

M =

V
local velocity
=
c speed of sound

2. Compressibility becomes important for High Speed


Flows where M > 0.3
M < 0.3 Subsonic & incompressible
0.3 <M < 0.8 Subsonic & compressible
0.8 <M < 1.2 transonic flow shock waves appear
mixed subsonic and sonic flow regime
1.2 <M < 3.0 - Supersonic shock waves are present
but NO subsonic flow
M > 3.0 Hypersonic Flow, shock waves and other
flow changes are very strong

Compressible Flow
3. Significant changes in velocity and pressure result
in density variations throughout a flow field
4. Large Temperature variations result in density
variations.
As a result we now have two new variables we must solve for:
T&
We need 2 new equations.
We will solve: mass, linear momentum, energy and an equation of state.

Important Effects of Compressibility on Flow


1. Choked Flow a flow rate in a duct is limited by
the sonic condition
2. Sound Wave/Pressure Waves rise and fall of
pressure during the passage of an acoustic/sound
wave. The magnitude of the pressure change is
very small.
3. Shock Waves nearly discontinuous property
changes in supersonic flow. (Explosions, high
speed flight, gun firing, nuclear explosion)
4. A pressure ratio of 2:1 will cause sonic flow

Applications

1. Nozzles and Diffusers and converging


diverging nozzles
2. Turbines, fans & pumps
3. Throttles flow regulators, an obstruction
in a duct that controls pressure drop.
4. One Dimensional Isentropic Flow
compressible pipe flow.

Approach
Control volume approach
Steady, One-dimension, Uniform Flow
Additional Thermodynamics Concepts are
needed
Restrict our analysis to ideal gases

Thermodynamics
Equation of State Ideal Gas Law
p = RT
R=

Universal Gas Constant


8314 J/(kmol K)
Ru
=
=
= 287 J/(kg K)
Molecular mass of air
28 .97kg/kmol
Mm

Temperature is absolute and the specific volume is


(volume per unit mass):
1

v=

Thermodynamics Internal Energy &


Enthalpy
Internal Energy individual particle kinetic energy.
Summation of molecular vibrational and rotational energy.
u~ = u~ (v , T )
u~
u~
d u~ =
dT +
dv
T v
v T

For an ideal gas u~ = u~ (T )


d u~ = cv dT

Recall from our integral form of the Energy Equation for


Enthalpy of an ideal gas: h = u~ + pv
h = h (T )

dh = c p dT

Thermodynamics Internal Energy &


Enthalpy
h = u~ + pv
h = u~ + RT
dh = d u~ + RdT

= RT

Substituting:

dh = c p dT

d u~ = c v dT

dh = d u~ + RdT
c p dT = c v dT + RdT
c p = cv + R
c p c v = R = const

Thermodynamics Internal Energy &


Enthalpy
Define the ratio of specific heats:
Then,

cp
cv

= const

kR
k 1
R
cv =
k 1
cp =

For Air:
cp = 1004 J/kg-K
k = 1.4

The 2nd Law of Thermodynamics & Isentropic


Processes
We define entropy by:

Q
ds =

T rev
Combining the 1st and 2nd Laws gives us Gibbs Equation

Tds = dh

dp

Tds = c p dT
2

ds = c
p

dh = c p dT

dp

dT
dp
R
T
p
1

R
p

The 2nd Law of Thermodynamics & Isentropic


Processes
s 2 s1 = c p ln

p
T2
R ln 2
p1
T1

For an Isentropic process: adiabatic and reversible


We get the following power law relationship

p 2 T2
=
p1 T1

k 1 2
=
1

Control Volume Analysis of a Finite Strength


Pressure Wave
Moving Wave of Frontal Area A

Stationary Wave
Reference frame moving with wave

c
p

p + p

T
V =0

T + T

p + p

T + T

V = c V

V =c

Steady State Continuity Equation (Solve for the induced velocity V):

0=

(V n )dA = cdA + ( + )(c V )dA


r

CS

cA = ( + )(c V )A
c = c ( + ) V ( + )

V = c
(A)
+

The Speed of sound (c) is the rate of propagation of a pressure wave of infinitesimal
strength through a still fluid.

Control Volume Analysis of a Finite Strength


Pressure Wave
p

Steady State Momentum Equation:


(Find p and c)

V (V n )dA = m& (V

V1 )

T
V =c

p + p
+
T + T
V = c V

CS

pA ( p + p ) A = cA (c V c )
p = c V

(B)

Now combine A & B and solve for the speed of sound:

c2 =

p + p
=

c2 =


1 +

in the limit of 0

Small Amplitude moderate frequency waves are


isentropic and

= const

Control Volume Analysis of a Finite Strength


Pressure Wave
Calculating the Speed of Sound for an ideal gas:

= const

p
p
=k

c=

c=

kRT

Typical Speeds of Sound


Fluid
c (m/s)

kRT

Gases:

For Air:
k=

H2
Air

cp

1 .4
cv
R = 287 J/(kg K)

1,294
340

Liquids:
Water
Ethyl Alcohol

1,490
1,200

Data From White 2003

Example 1: Speed of sound calculation


Determine the speed of sound in Argon (Ar) at 120 oC. MW = 40
kg/kmol:

c=
R=

k=

kRT
Ru
8314 J/(kmol K)
=
= 207 .9 J/(kg K)
Mm
4 0kg/kmol

cp
cv

1 .668

c = 1 .668 (207 .9 J/kgK )(393 K ) = 318 .8 ms -1

Movement of a sound source


and wave propagation
Source moves to the right at a speed V

Zone of silence
Mach cone

3 c t

V>c

V<c

V=0
V t

V t

sin =

V t

V
1
=
c M

Example 2: a needle nose projectile traveling at a


speed of M=3 passes 200m above an observer. Find
the projectiles velocity and determine how far
beyond the observer the projectile will first be heard
M =3

200 m

Example 2: a needle nose projectile traveling at a


speed of M=3 passes 200m above an observer. Find
the projectiles velocity and determine how far
beyond the observer the projectile will first be heard
c = kRT = 1.4(287 )(300 ) = 347.2m/s

V = Mc = 3(347.2 ) = 1041.6m/s

1
1 1
o
= sin = 19.5
M
3
200m
tan =
x
200m
x=
= 565m
tan 19.5

= sin 1

Steady Isentropic Flow Control Volume


Analysis
Applications where the assumptions of steady,
uniform, isentropic flow are reasonable:
1. Exhaust gasses passing through the blades
of a turbine.
2. Diffuser near the front of a jet engine
3. Nozzles on a rocket engine
4. A broken natural gas line

Steady Isentropic Flow


1

2
h + dh
+ d
T + dT
p + dp

T
p

dx

Steady State Continuity Equation:

V + dV

r
0 = V n dA = 1V1 A1 + 2V 2 A2
CS

VA = ( + d )(V + dV )( A + dA )
VA = AV + VdA + VAd + Vd dA + AdV + dAdV + Ad dV + d dAdV

Steady Isentropic Flow


1

2
h + dh
+ d
T + dT
p + dp

h
V

T
p
dx

Steady State Continuity Equation:

0=

(V n )dA = V A
r

1 1

V + dV

+ 2V 2 A2

CS

VA = ( + d )(V + dV )( A + dA ) ~ 0
~0
~0
~0
VA = AV + VdA + VAd + Vd dA + AdV + dAdV + Ad dV + d dAdV
0=

dA d dV
+
+
A

Only retain 1st order differential terms & divide


By VA

Steady Isentropic Flow


1

2
h + dh
+ d
T + dT
p + dp

h
V

T
p

V + dV

dx

Steady State Energy Equation with


1 inlet & 1 exit:

Q& W& s V 22 V12


=
+ g ( z 2 z1 ) + (u~ + pv )2 (u~ + pv )1
m&
2
Neglecting potential energy and recalling: h = u~ + pv

Q& W& s V 22 V12


=
+ h2 h1
m&
2
Assuming and ideal gas:

Q& W& s V 22 V12


=
+ c p (T2 T1 )
m&
2

Steady Isentropic Flow


1

2
h + dh
+ d
T + dT
p + dp

h
V

T
p

Steady State Energy Equation with 1 inlet


& 1 exit, neglecting potential energy &
assuming Isentropic duct flow:

V + dV

dx

V22
V2
+ h2 = 1 + h1
2
2
Assuming and ideal gas:

V22
V2
+ c p T2 = 1 + c p T1
2
2
V22
k
V2
k
RT1
+
RT 2 = 1 +
2
k 1
2
k 1

Stagnation Conditions

Insolated
walls

Assume the area A2is so big V2 ~ 0, then

h2 =

V12
+ h1 = ho
2

Stagnation enthalpy

Similarly, as we adiabatically bring a fluid parcel to zero velocity


there is a corresponding increase in temperature
V22
V2
+ c p T2 = 1 + c p T1
2
2
To =

V2
+T
2c p

Stagnation Temperature

Stagnation Conditions maximum velocity


To =

V2
+T
2c p

(+)

If the temperature, T is taken taken down to absolute zero,


then (+) can be solved for the maximum velocity:
V max =

2 c p To

No higher velocity is possible unless energy is added to the


flow through heat transfer or shaft work.

Stagnation Conditions Mach number relations


M =

Recall, that the Mach number is defined as:


To =

V2
+T
2c p

V
c

For Ideal gases:

1
kR
c pT =
T = kRT
k 1
k 1
c2
cp
k 1 2
To k 1 V 2
M +1
=
+1 =
2
T
2 c
2
2

To
V
=
+1
T
T 2c p

To k 1 2
=
M +1
T
2

Stagnation Conditions Isentropic pressure &


density relationships
To k 1 2
=
M +1
T
2
k

p o To k 1 k 1 2
k 1
= =
M + 1
p T
2

o To k 1 k 1 2 k 1
= =
M + 1
T

Critical Values: conditions when M = 1


T* 2
=

To k + 1
k

p * 2 k 1
=

po k + 1
1

* 2 k 1
=

o k +1
1

c* 2 2
=

co k + 1

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Critical Values: conditions when M = 1


For Air k = 1.4
T* 2
=
= 0 .8333
To k + 1
k

p * 2 k 1
=
= 0 .5283
po k + 1
1

* 2 k 1
=
= 0 .9129
o k + 1
1

c* 2 2
=
= 0 .9129
co k + 1

In all isentropic flow, all critical values are constant.

Critical Values: conditions when M = 1


Critical Velocity: is the speed of sound c*
1

c* 2 2
=

co k + 1
1

V * = c* =

2 2 2 kRT o 2
kRT * = c o
=

k +1
k +1

Example 3: Stagnation Conditions


Air flows adiabatically through a duct. At point 1 the velocity
is 240 m/s, with T1 = 320K and p1 = 170kPa. Compute
(a) To
(b) Po
(c) ro
(d) M
(e) Vmax
(f) V*

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Steady Isentropic Duct Flow


1

h + dh

+ d
T + dT

p + dp

V + dV

dx

Recall, for Steady isentropic flow Continuity:

() 0 =

dA d dV
+
+
A

dA
d dV
=

For compressible, isentropic flow the momentum equation is:


2
(*) 0 = dp + dV = dp + VdV

Bernoullis Equation!
neglecting gravity

Substitute () into (*)

dA
d
dp
dp 1
d

=
+
=

V 2
V 2 dp
A

Steady Isentropic Duct Flow


1

h + dh

+ d
T + dT

p + dp

V + dV

dA dp 1
d

V 2 dp
A
2
Recall that the speed of sound is: c =

dA dp 1
dp V 2
1
1 2
=
=

A
V 2 c 2 V 2
c
Substituting the Mach number:

dA
dp
=
(1 M 2 )
V 2
A

M =

V
c

Describes how the pressure


behaves in nozzles and diffusers
under various flow conditions

Nozzle Flow Characteristics


dA
dp
=
(1 M 2 )
V 2
A

1.

2.

3.

4.

Subsonic Flow: M < 1 and dA < 0, then dP < 0:


indicating a decrease in pressure in a converging
channel.
Supersonic Flow: M > 1 and dA < 0, then dP > 0:
indicating an increase in pressure in a converging
channel.
Subsonic Flow: M < 1 and dA > 0, then dP > 0 :
indicating an increase in pressure in a diverging
channel.
Supersonic Flow: M > 1 dA > 0, then dP < 0 :
indicating a decrease in pressure in a diverging
channel.

P
P

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Steady Isentropic Duct Flow Nozzles


Diffusers and Converging Diverging Nozzles
Describes how the pressure
behaves in nozzles and diffusers
under various flow conditions

dA
dp
=
(1 M 2 )
V 2
A

()

Recall, the momentum equation here is:


0=

dp

dp

+ VdV

= VdV (**)

Now substitute (**) into () :


dA dV
=
(M 2 1)
A
V

Or,

dA
A
=
M 2 1
dV V

Nozzle Flow Characteristics

dA dV
=
M 2 1
A
V
1.

2.

3.

4.

Subsonic Flow: M < 1 and dA < 0, then dV > 0:


indicating an accelerating flow in a converging
channel.
Supersonic Flow: M > 1 and dA < 0, then dV < 0:
indicating an decelerating flow in a converging
channel.
Subsonic Flow: M < 1 and dA > 0, then dV < 0 :
indicating an decelerating flow in a diverging
channel.
Supersonic Flow: M > 1 dA > 0, then dV > 0 :
indicating an accelerating flow in a diverging
channel.

Converging-Diverging Nozzles
Amin
Subsonic

Supersonic

M=1

Amax
Subsonic
Supersonic

M<1
M>1

Subsonic
Supersonic

Flow can not be sonic

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Choked Flow The maximum possible mass flow through a


duct occurs when its throat is at the sonic condition
Consider a converging Nozzle:
receiver
po

pr

pe

To

Ve

plenum
Mass Flow Rate (ideal gas):
m& = VA =

m& =

p
M
RT

p
VA
RT

M =

kRT A = p

V
=
c

V
kRT

k
MA
RT

k
MA
RT

m& = p

Choked Flow
Mass Flow Rate (ideal gas):
m& = p

k
MA
RT

Recall, the stagnation pressure and Temperature ratio and substitute:


k

po k 1 2
k 1
=
M + 1
p 2

m& = p o

To k 1 2
=
M +1
T
2
k +1

k
k 1 2 2 (1 k )

MA 1 +
M
RT o
2

If the critical area (A*) is where M=1:

k +1

m& = p o A *

k k + 1 2 (1 k )

RT o 2

The critical area Ratio is:


A
1
=
A* M

2 + (k 1)M 2

k +1

k +1

2 ( k 1 )

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