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# Hours)

is a phenomenon
phenomenon where
where under
under certain
certain
circumstances
circumstances aa particle
particle exhibits
exhibits wave
wave
properties
properties and
and under
under other
other conditions
conditions aa
wave
wave exhibits
exhibits properties
properties of
of aa particle.
particle.

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h
=
p

2

¡

# hc

=
pc
h
p =
(10.3)
(10.3)
wave
wave aspect
aspect
where p : momentum

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## particle duality of light.

 Wave Particle Young’s double slit experiment Photoelectric effect Diffraction experiment Compton effect
Table 10.1

¡

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# Example 25.1 :

## Planck’s constant, h =6.63 10 34J s)

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Solution
Solution ::
=
550
10
m
By using the de Broglie relation, thus
h
=
9
550
10
=
p

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h
=
mv
b.
Given
m =
9.11
10

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8

h
m
v
e
=
h
m
v
p
m
p
=
m
e
27
1.67
10
=
31
9.11
10

10

graphite film
anode
diffraction
screen
pattern
cathode
electron

U = K
eV =
• # v =

1
2
mv
2
2
eV
m

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• ## ¡ By substituting the eq. (10.6) into eq. (10.5), thus

h
=
2
eV
m
m
h
=
(10.7)
(10.7)
2
meV
Note:
Note:
¡
Electrons are not the only particles which behave as waves.
¡
The diffraction
diffraction effects
effects are
are less
less noticeable with more massive
massive
particles
particles because their
their momenta
momenta are generally much
much higher
higher and
so the wavelength
wavelength is correspondingly shorter
shorter.
¡
Diffraction of the particles are observed when the wavelength
wavelength isis of
of
the
the same
same order
order asas the
the spacing
spacing between
between plane
plane of
of the
the atom
atom.

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h
2
meV

34

31

• 10

19

14

15

9
10
m
24
1
p =
3.16
10
kg m s
hc
E =
p
(
34
)(
8
)
6.63
10
3.00
10
=
9
0.21
10
16
9.47
10
=
19
1.60
10

16

2
meV

# =

2
mK

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Solution
Solution ::
K
= K
= K
e
p
Therefore the ratio of their de Broglie wavelengths is
h
2 m K
e
e
=
p
h
2 m K
p
m
p
=
m
e
27
1.67
10
=
31
9.11
10

19

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Figure
Figure 10.2
10.2
Figure
Figure 10.3
10.3
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