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CHAPTER

CHAPTER 25:

25:

Wave properties

Wave

properties of

of particle

particle

(2(2 Hours)

Hours)

CHAPTER CHAPTER 25: 25: Wave properties Wave properties of of particle particle (2 (2 Hours) is
is a phenomenon phenomenon where where under under certain certain circumstances circumstances aa particle particle exhibits
is a phenomenon
phenomenon where
where under
under certain
certain
circumstances
circumstances aa particle
particle exhibits
exhibits wave
wave
properties
properties and
and under
under other
other conditions
conditions aa
wave
wave exhibits
exhibits properties
properties of
of aa particle.
particle.

1

Learning Outcome:

  • 25.1 de Broglie wavelength (1 hour)

¡

¡

At the

At

the end

end of

of this

this chapter,

chapter, students

students should

should bebe able

able to:

to:

(a) State

(a)

State wave-particle

wave-particle duality.

duality.

(b)

(b) Use

Use dede Broglie

Broglie wzvelength,

wzvelength,

h = p
h
=
p

2

25.1 de Broglie wavelength

¡

¡

¡

From the Planck’s quantum theory, the energy of a photon is

given by

E =

hc

(10.1)

(10.1)

¡

From the Einstein’s special theory of relativity, the energy of a

photon is given by

E = mc

2

and mc = p

E =

pc

(10.2)

(10.2)

By equating eqs. (10.1) and (10.2), hence

hc

= pc h p = (10.3) (10.3) wave wave aspect aspect where p : momentum
=
pc
h
p =
(10.3)
(10.3)
wave
wave aspect
aspect
where p : momentum

3

¡

¡

¡

particle

particle aspect

aspect

  • From the eq. (10.3), thus light has momentum and exhibits

particle property. This also show light is dualistic

dualistic inin nature

nature,

behaving in some

some situations

situations like

like wave

wave and in others

others like

like particle

particle

(photon)

(photon) and this phenomenon is called wave

wave particle

particle duality

duality of

of

light light.

  • Table 10.1 shows the experiment evidences to show wave

particle duality of light.

Wave

Particle

Young’s double slit experiment

Photoelectric effect

Diffraction experiment

Compton effect

Table 10.1
Table 10.1
  • Based on the wave particle duality of light, Louis de Broglie

suggested that matter such as electron

electron and

and proton

proton might

might also

also

have aa dual

have

dual nature

nature.

¡

He proposed that for

for any

any particle

particle of

of momentum

momentum pp should

should

have aa wavelength

have

wavelength given

given byby

¡

h

h

 

¡

 

=

=

 

(10.4)

(10.4)

 

¡

p

mv

 

¡

¡

¡

¡

¡

¡

where

: de Broglie wavelength

h : Planck's constant

m :mass of a particle

v : velocity of a particle

Eq. (10.4) is known as dede Broglie

Broglie relation

relation (principle)

(principle).

This wave properties of matter is called dede Broglie

Broglie waves

waves or

matter

matter waves

waves.

The de Broglie relation was confirmed in 1927 when Davisson

and Germer succeeded in diffracting

diffracting electron

electron which shows

that electrons

electrons have

have wave

wave properties

properties.

5

Example 25.1 :

In a photoelectric effect experiment, a light source of

wavelength 550 nm is incident on a sodium surface. Determine the

momentum and the energy of a photon used.

(Given the speed of light in the vacuum, c =3.00 10 8 m s 1 and

Planck’s constant, h =6.63 10 34 J s)

9 Solution Solution :: = 550 10 m By using the de Broglie relation, thus h
9
Solution
Solution ::
=
550
10
m
By using the de Broglie relation, thus
h
=
9
550
10
=
p

34

)

6.63

10

p

and the energy of the photon is given by

E =

hc

Example 25.1 : In a photoelectric effect experiment, a light source of wavelength 550 nm is

E =

(

6.63

10

34

)(

3.00

10

550

10

9

6

Example 25.2 :

Calculate the de Broglie wavelength for

  • a. a jogger of mass 77 kg runs with at speed of 4.1 m s 1 .

  • b. an electron of mass 9.11 10 31 kg moving at 3.25 10 5 m s 1 .

(Given the Planck’s constant, h =6.63 10 34 J s)

Solution

Solution ::

a.

Given

m =

77

kg;

v =

4.1 m s

1

The de Broglie wavelength for the jogger is

h = mv b. Given m = 9.11 10
h
=
mv
b.
Given
m =
9.11
10

=

  • 6.63

10 34

(77)(4.1)

  • 31 kg;

v =

3.25

10

5

m s

1

The de Broglie wavelength for the electron is

=

6.63

10

34

9.11

10

31

3.25

10

5

(

)(

)

Example 25.2 : Calculate the de Broglie wavelength for a. a jogger of mass 77 kg

7

Example 25.3 :

An electron and a proton have the same speed.

  • a. Which has the longer de Broglie wavelength? Explain.

  • b. Calculate the ratio of e / p .

(Given c =3.00 10 8 m s 1 , h =6.63 10 34 J s, m e =9.11 10 31 kg,

m p =1.67 10 27 kg and e=1.60 10 19 C)

Solution Solution ::

v

e

= v

p

= v

  • a. From de Broglie relation,

h

=

mv

the de Broglie wavelength

wavelength isis inversely

inversely proportional

proportional toto the

the

mass of the particle. Since the electron

mass

electron lighter

lighter than

than the

the mass

mass

of

of the

the proton

proton therefore the electron

electron has

has the

the longer

longer dede Broglie

Broglie

wavelength wavelength.

8

Solution

Solution ::

v

e

= v

p

= v

Therefore the ratio of their de Broglie wavelengths is

 

e

p

h m v e = h m v p m p = m e 27 1.67
h
m
v
e
=
h
m
v
p
m
p
=
m
e
27
1.67
10
=
31
9.11
10

Learning Outcome:

  • 25.2 Electron diffraction (1 hour)

At the

At

the end

end of

of this

this chapter,

chapter, students

students should

should bebe able

able to:

to:

  • ¡ Describe Describe the

the observations

observations of

of electron

electron diffraction.in

diffraction.in

Davisson-Germer

Davisson-Germer experiment.

experiment.

  • ¡ Explain Explain the

the wave

wave behaviour

behaviour of

of electron

electron inin anan electron

electron

microscope

microscope

  • ¡ State State the

the advantages

advantages of

of electron

electron microscope

microscope compared

compared

toto optical

optical microscope.

microscope.

  • ¡ (Relate (Relate dede Broglie

Broglie wavelength

wavelength of

of electron

electron with

with the

the

resolving

resolving power

power of

of the

the electron

electron microscope)

microscope)

10

26.2.1Davisson-Germer experiment

  • Figure 10.1 shows a tube for demonstrating electron diffraction by Davisson and Germer.

graphite film anode diffraction screen pattern cathode electron
graphite film
anode
diffraction
screen
pattern
cathode
electron

diffraction

Figure 10.1: electron diffraction tube

  • A beam of accelerated electrons strikes on a layer of graphite which is extremely thin and a diffraction pattern consisting of rings is seen on the tube face.

¡

This experiment proves that the de Broglie relation was right

and the wavelength of the electron is given by

¡

¡

¡

¡

¡

¡

¡

¡

¡

=

h

(10.5)

(10.5)

mv

where m : mass of an electron

v : velocity of an electron

If the velocity

velocity of

of electrons

electrons isis increased

increased, the rings

rings are seen to

become narrower

narrower showing that the wavelength

wavelength of

of

electrons decreases

electrons

decreases with increasing

increasing velocity

velocity as predicted

by de broglie (eq. 10.5).

The velocity of electrons are controlled by the applied voltage V

across anode and cathode i.e.

U = K eV =
U = K
eV =
  • v =

1 2 mv 2 2 eV m
1
2
mv
2
2
eV
m

(10.6)

(10.6)

12

  • ¡ By substituting the eq. (10.6) into eq. (10.5), thus

h = 2 eV m m h = (10.7) (10.7) 2 meV Note: Note: ¡ Electrons
h
=
2
eV
m
m
h
=
(10.7)
(10.7)
2
meV
Note:
Note:
¡
Electrons are not the only particles which behave as waves.
¡
The diffraction
diffraction effects
effects are
are less
less noticeable with more massive
massive
particles
particles because their
their momenta
momenta are generally much
much higher
higher and
so the wavelength
wavelength is correspondingly shorter
shorter.
¡
Diffraction of the particles are observed when the wavelength
wavelength isis of
of
the
the same
same order
order asas the
the spacing
spacing between
between plane
plane of
of the
the atom
atom.

13

Example 25.4 :

a. An electron is accelerated from rest through a potential

difference

of 2000 V. Determine its de Broglie wavelength.

b. An electron and a photon has the same wavelength of 0.21 nm.

Calculate the momentum and energy (in eV) of the electron and

the photon.

(Given c =3.00 10 8 m s 1 , h =6.63 10 34 J s, m e =9.11 10 31 kg and

e=1.60 10 19 C)

Solution

Solution ::

a. Given

V

= 2000 V

The de Broglie wavelength for the electron is

=

h 2 meV
h
2
meV
Example 25.4 : a. An electron is accelerated from rest through a potential difference of 2000

=

6.63

10

34

Example 25.4 : a. An electron is accelerated from rest through a potential difference of 2000

10

31

  • 10

19

2(9.11

)(1.60

)2000

14

Solution

Solution ::

b. Given

e

=

p

=

0.21

10

9

m

For an electron,

Its momentum is

and its energy is

p =

h

Solution : : b. Given e = p = 0.21 10 9 m For an electron,

p =

e

K =

=

1

2

m v

e

2

p

p =

  • 2 and

6.63

10

34

0.21

10

9

24

  • 3.16

10

kg m s

v =

p

m

e

=

=

2m

(

e

  • 24 )

2

  • 31 )

3.16

(

10

2

9.11

10

5.48

10

18

1.60

10

19

1

15

Solution

Solution ::

b. Given

e

=

p

=

For a photon,

0.21

Its momentum is

and its energy is

9 10 m 24 1 p = 3.16 10 kg m s hc E = p
9
10
m
24
1
p =
3.16
10
kg m s
hc
E =
p
(
34
)(
8
)
6.63
10
3.00
10
=
9
0.21
10
16
9.47
10
=
19
1.60
10

16

Example 25.5 :

Compare the de Broglie wavelength of an electron and a proton if

they have the same kinetic energy.

(Given c =3.00 10 8 m s 1 , h =6.63 10 34 J s, m e =9.11 10 31 kg,

m p =1.67 10 27 kg and e=1.60 10 19 C)

Solution Solution ::

K

e

= K

p

= K

By using the de Broglie wavelength formulae, thus

 

h

and eV = K

 

=

 
2 meV
2
meV

h

=

2 mK
2
mK

17

Solution Solution :: K = K = K e p Therefore the ratio of their de
Solution
Solution ::
K
= K
= K
e
p
Therefore the ratio of their de Broglie wavelengths is
h
2 m K
e
e
=
p
h
2 m K
p
m
p
=
m
e
27
1.67
10
=
31
9.11
10

25.2.2 Electron microscope

  • ¡ A practical device that relies on the wave properties of electrons

is electron microscope.

  • ¡ It is similar to optical compound microscope in many aspects.

  • ¡ The advantage

advantage of the electron microscope over the optical

microscope is the resolving

resolving power

power of the electron

electron

microscope is much

microscope

much higher

higher than that of an optical

optical

microscope microscope.

  • ¡ This is because

because the electrons can be accelerated to a very high

kinetic energy giving them a very

very short

short wavelength

wavelength λ

typically 100 times shorter than

than those of visible

visible light

light.

Therefore the diffraction

diffraction effect

effect of electrons

electrons as a wave is

much less

much

less than that of light

light.

  • ¡ As a result, electron microscopes are able to distinguish details

about 100 times smaller.

19

  • ¡ In operation, a beam of electrons falls on a thin slice of sample.

  • ¡ The sample (specimen) to be examined must be very thin (a few

micrometres) to minimize the effects such as absorption or

scattering of the electrons.

  • ¡ The electron beam is controlled by electrostatic

electrostatic or

or magnetic

magnetic

lenses to focus

lenses

focus the beam

beam to an image.

  • ¡ The image is formed on a fluorescent screen.

  • ¡ There are two types of electron microscopes:

    • l Transmission Transmission – produces a two-dimensional

two-dimensional image

image.

  • l Scanning Scanning – produces images with a three-dimensional

three-dimensional

quality

quality.

  • ¡ Figures 10.2 and 10.3 are diagram of the transmission electron

microscope and the scanning electron microscope.

20

Figure Figure 10.2 10.2
Figure
Figure 10.2
10.2
Figure Figure 10.3 10.3 21
Figure
Figure 10.3
10.3
21

Exercise 25.1 :

Given c =3.00 10 8 m s 1 , h =6.63 10 34 J s, m e =9.11 10 31 kg and

e=1.60 10 19 C

  • 1. a.

An electron and a photon have the same wavelengths

and

the total energy of the electron is 1.0 MeV. Calculate

the energy of the photon.

  • b. A particle moves with a speed that is three times that of

an electron. If the ratio of the de Broglie wavelength of this

particle and the electron is 1.813 10 4 , calculate the mass

of the particle.

ANS.

ANS. ::

1.62 1010 1313 J;

1.62

J; 1.67

1.67 1010 2727 kgkg

  • 2. a.

An electron that is accelerated from rest through a

potential difference V 0 has a de Broglie wavelength 0 . If

the electron’s wavelength is doubled, determine the potential

difference requires in terms of V 0 .

  • b. Why can an electron microscope resolve smaller objects than a light microscope?

22

(Physics, 33 rdrd edition,

(Physics,

edition, James

James S.

S. Walker,

Walker, Q12

Q12 && Q11,

Q11, p.1029)

p.1029)