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ASSIGNMENT 2

MANAGEMENT
LECTURER : DR KHAIRIL ANNUAR BIN MOHD KAMAL
DAY & TIME : WEDNESDAY ( 11 AM )
NAME
NUR FATIHAH BT ABDUL AZIZ
SARA ZAFIRA SHAFIQA BT HAMDAN

STUDENT ID
48273
43919

Just because managers are not breaking the law that does not necessarily mean they are being ethical. Manager’s need the piece of courage to stand up and correct things right. Most of the ethical dilemma involves a conflict between the interests of different groups or between the needs of the individual itself versus the needs of the organization. In contrast. Richard L. Daft According to this book. the explanation regarding ethics is that. may harm or benefit others. It is just way too subjective to explain. Managers face many pressures that sometimes tempt them to engage in unethical behaviours. this book also explains that an ethical dilemma is a situation in which all alternatives of choices or behaviours have potentially negative consequences.WAN NURULAFAF NAILI BT WAN AZMAN WEE SIEW FONG 49407 49416 New Era of Management. unethical managers seek to serve their own needs and interest at the expense of stakeholders. On the other hand. Right and wrong cannot be clearly distinguished. Ethics is all about making the right choices. People also may hold various divergent perspectives about the most ethically appropriate or inappropriate actions related to a situation. 1 . An ethical issue is present in any situation when the actions of an individual or even organization may harm or benefit others. An ethical issue is present in a situation when the actions of a person or organizational itself. It is quite difficult to define in a precise way though. This book also state that ethics can be more clearly understood when compared with behavioural governed by law and by free choice. they define ethics by the code of moral and principles and values that govern the behaviours of a person or in a group with respect to what is right or wrong. Managers are ethically responsible for observing and make sure that the organizational resources are used and served correctly according to their place.

vision. strategies and goals. Lack in ethical values can cause to irresponsible behaviour. That’s why ethics should be a priority in an organization. managers can use variety of approaches based on norms and values to help them make ethical decisions. In order to attain this ideal. it will affect not only in decision making but also the organization itself. 21st century organization should think that ethical values will give their organization a great opportunity in future instead of ethics values as safe guarding for their reputation or else. there must be a coalition process that incorporate business ethics with mission. vendor. When this happen 2 . For example. justice approach. greed can cause leader to lose his or her rationalities which is one of unethical behaviour.Even so. Ethical values should be acknowledge first among the top managers as most important success factor in a modern organization. virtue ethics approach or even practical approach. For instance. moral rights approach. The Role of Ethics in 21st Century Organizations Ethics have become an organizational precedence. ethics is neither a luxury nor an option. When an organization make ethics values as their priority the organization will attain an ethical cultural image and community are treated well. A good internal relationship between manager and subordinates. Other than that. In the 21st century. An ethical organization bring a bright future to an organization. values. customer. religious background and some other factors give huge influence to the manager’s ability to make ethical choices. through the institutionalization of ethical values. When the society desperate for ethical values this will became every organization in society opportunity to affect social culture of the society. When ethics is set as precedence in an organization. family influence. managers can use utilitarian approach. Ethical values are fundamentally social in nature. and a good external relationship with customer. and society as a prize for an ethical organization. personality characteristics. individualism approach.

In 21st century. however there still no improvement towards an ethical organizations. Lastly. People at all level in an organization need an ethical values in themselves in order to make an organization as an ethical organization. common language. Ethics. by creating rational expectation that work with everyone and then ethics will find it a place to make it a precedence in an organization. Most organization noticed about the critical need of ethics in their cultural environment.Kidder identified four key factors in creating a valued based culture. Together they can comprise how people relate to one and another at every part of the society. lifestyle and culture must become so interlocking so they won’t be separated.society got benefits from the positive affect employees that take from their organization to their families. and commitment at the top and moral courage. Next. a good organization will grab the opportunities to have a better future by influencing the society through institutionalization of ethical values. an organization have to think ethics as social responsibility. and associates. Rushworth M. 3 . friend. First. ethics should not be considerate as a luxury or an option. These factors are shared core values. According to Kidder (2001) “The principle task of this decade is the creation and nurturing of value-based culture”. There still a spaces for improvement towards ethical organization.

Can ethics bring a winning to an organization when it comes to problem on actual business? How do ethics act? Managers nowadays spent almost all their day in office. Since. there a lot of conflict between employees and employer and organization still think that was the purpose of organizations economic rather than think this as ethical values problem in an organization. But lately search.Overview on business ethics and human resources management ethics Nowadays. But we still can see the difference in rich organization they still did not care about this ethical values that’s because managerial interest has been there for many years. in contemporary business world ethics became the most exciting challenge in an organization. Organization still uncertain about ethics. They live to work and live to attain at least one of organization objective when sun rise. long time ago research have been conducted upon organizational behaviour. Most organization want to gain profit as much as the can and 4 . state the increasing of numbers of managers that using their emotional intelligence or their ethical values to influence others. Lack of ethical values can cause to a conflict between managers and subordinate. Even though.

transitioning from an amoral to a moral management mode of leadership. The challenge is to avoid immoral management." Managers experience ethical issues at the 5 . ethical or unethical.35) "an ethical issue is a problem. Moral management stands on ethical leadership. These people make the rules yet they are the one who broke the rules. The Challenges of Business Ethics . this is because the organization did not make ethic as a priority. situation or opportunity requiring an individual or organization to choose among several actions that must be evaluated as right or wrong. Managers in organizations face ethical issues every day of their working lives as they carry out their leadership responsibilities. Society has developed rules – legitimate and inexplicit – that target businessman in their endeavour to gain profit. whereas consented with rules are useless and emphasize on personal value and judgements. The reason why managers must be ethical is because society expects managers to be ethical and that managers should be responsive to the expectations of society and stakeholders. When this occur in society they did not care whether his situation will bring positive or negative effects to the society. Ethical management practices keep organizations and managers out of trouble. decision making policies and practices. According to Ferrell and Fraedrich(1991. These days. It has been clearly documented by studies and surveys that business and its agents such as managers are expected to be ethical. Whether that was a good way or bad way they did not care.they did not care how they want to attain that. On conceptual level ethics decision is made in order to attain unprecedented decision. behaviour.Management and the Question of Ethics Management ethics has become a vital concern to organizations and society. Management ethics may be seen as a component of corporate social responsibility. ethics enforced in human factor in the process where the subordinates in dilemma on making decision whether to make profit or to listen to community demands and needs. Principles of ethics from moral philosophy and management theory are available to inform interested managers.

organizational. managers need to integrate ethical wisdom with their managerial wisdom and to take steps to create and sustain an ethical climate in their organizations. description of core values. This article had list down ten areas focus on new issues in the Code of Ethics. The current NASW ethnic’s code contains 26 pages which addresses professional standards. There are responsibilities to clients. If the moral management model is to be achieved.personal. When this is done. responsibilities to colleague’s responsibilities in practice settings. The first one is limits to 6 . There are some social worker are not aware of new provisions in code of ethics. the desirable goals of moral management are achievable. Therefore. responsibilities as professionals. several Code of Ethics was provided in company and also ethics model of decision making to solve ethical dilemmas that occurs. In Daft book “Management” define that ethnic is code of moral principles and values that govern the behaviors of right or wrong. What Social Worker Should Know About Ethnics: Understanding and Resolving Practice Dilemmas There are two main objectives about this article which are discuss about the current National Association of Social Workers (NASW) ethnic’s code and provide model for ethical decision making that we can apply when facing ethical dilemmas. responsibilities to the social work profession and responsibilities to society. ethical standards. ethical issues and dilemmas arise in almost every organization. This article mentioned the code of ethics contains standards for social workers in six main areas. Nowadays. trade/professional and global level. inspirational standards and enforceable guidelines for professional conduct.

In this issue. The next issue is impairment and incompetence of colleagues. The third issue is confidentiality to family and group work. They should avoid from disclosure of identifying information whenever possible. The fifth issue is cultural competence. Social workers are advised to protect confidentiality when using the computer. substance abuse interfered with practice effectiveness was advised to consult with that colleague or to take action through employees. Therefore. This stressed that social worker have to be ethical. The ninth issue is application to administrators. social worker practitioners can be active as client advocates in preserving client’s rights in a managed care environment. social workers was asked to develop a knowledge base of their clients’ culture and denstronstrate competence. Second issue about confidentiality in technological age. To deal with this issue and the next issue which is sexual relationship. there is a role stated in Daft book “New Era Management” which is moral agent. social worker should carry ethical responsibility. However. Daft stated that ethical responsibility included behaviors that are not necessarily codified into law and may not serve the corporations direct economic interest. physical contact and sexual harassment. Social workers should ask agreement with all their clients about the importance of maintaining confidentiality and also inform them that it cannot be guaranteed. To provide services to clients from different cultures. social workers should maintain confidentiality except when it is necessary to prevent harm to their client. Daft define that moral agent is the individual who must take an ethical choice in an organization. and fax machines. The last issue is 7 . many social workers indicated that avoiding dual relationship with clients was impossible. In this case. The current Code of Ethics state that social workers cannot haven dual relationship with their clients because there is a risk of exploitation and potential harm to the client. do what is right and avoid all kinds of harm to their clients. email. Next issue is about managed care. The next issue is regarding dual relationship. Social worker who behaved a colleague’s impairment due to personal problems. Social work practitioner have to be alert when managed care conflict with social work ethics.confidentiality. In this situation. One way that social worker can do to maintain confidentiality is by explaining the importance of confidentiality and discuss with the family how they will handle confidential information. social work administrators have to play their roles to advocate for resources of agencies to meet client needs. psychosocial distress.

To resolve ethical dilemmas among social workers. as well as relevant laws and case decisions. 8 . In the order to make ethical decision making fast and apply to ethical dilemmas. social workers should assess their own personal values. To avoid making decision based on their personal. The following model includes: E. H. societal. Social worker can make ethical decisions naturally if they develops good character traits and being a virtuous person. agency. Social work educators should provide instruction only in their areas of competence based on the most current knowledge and information. client and professional values. social workers can apply virtue ethics approach which says that moral behavior stems from personal virtue. professionals. fairness and impartiality.Hypothesize about possible consequences of different decisions. In the meanwhile. profession. the ETHIC model of decision making was developed. Social workers should apply justice approach which holds that the decision and responsibilities must be based on standards of equity. state and local laws that may affect the ethical dilemmas they encounter. They frequently rely on two main philosophical models: deontological and teleological. practice settings.about education and training. They can list pros and cons about maintaining confidentiality versus breaking confidentiality. Social workers should be aware of relevant federal. Deontologist’s thinkers believe that social work values are so definitive of the profession that to deny them would lead to destruct of the professional. A discrepancy between agency and professional values can also produce conflict for the social worker. teleological approach used in situation that involves examining the consequences of the situation. In this case. Social worker who relies only on professional values is not likely to have a full understanding of important contextual issues to use in making decisions. T.Examine relevant personal. There are six ethical standards in the NASW Code of Ethic which are social workers’ ethical responsibilities to clients. colleagues. This model use teleological reasoning to resolve ethical dilemmas.Think about what ethical standard of the NASW code of ethics applies. The standards can be viewed as deontological (absolute) principles for the social work profession. and broader society. Social worker should think about different scenarios if protecting confidentially is a concern. they often guided by two main principles which are between (positive obligation) and normal finance (negative obligation).

consult with supervisor and colleagues is very crucial. Questions about ethical dilemmas can be shared with colleagues as informal consultation and also presented as part of case conference. The second purpose is to present applicable model of ethical decision making. social work has had a lengthy tradition of concern. continuing education progress and NASW can also be resource to face with complex ethical dilemmas 9 . C.Identify who will benefit and who will be harmed in view of social work’s commitment to the most vulnerable. this may distinguish social worker from other profession. social workers should act to expand chance and opportunity for all persons. Besides that. The first purpose is to inform practitioners and educator about main new provisions in current Code of Ethics. When facing thorny dilemmas. To resolving ethical dilemma. disadvantaged. we can apply the ETHIC model. oppressed and exploited persons and group.Consult with supervisor and colleagues about the most ethical choice. Most of vulnerable in our society. especially when the Code of Ethics seems to support contradictory decisions.I. They could consider the effect of each choices they make and choose the best one that optimize the benefits for the greatest number of people. Social worker that has a supervisor can use this person as a first resource in ethical decision making. this journal had two main purpose. In a work environment that is increasingly demanding. The alternative that social workers decide may elicit very convincing reasons for or against different courses of action. As a conclusion. Social work educators must strive to educate future social workers about how to identify and resolve professional dilemmas. Social workers can used utilitarian approach which means that moral behavior produces the greatest good for the greatest number. with special regard for vulnerable.

10 . it is quite difficult for one organization to achieve its goal. this article said that ethics in social organization is more related to the psychology within the employee or the person itself. from our personal point of view. For this article that we had already chose. Somehow. Due to that. ethics is actually the main element that effects and influence the whole politics-administrations. administrators should either follow the policies of organization or resign from office. which is. If we see this in the administrative ethic’s scope itself. we can see how administrative ethics is possible and forms it should take.The Administrative Ethics between Professionalism and Individual Conscience As we all know. they discuss about the tension between professionalism and individual conscience in the context of dichotomy. Without positive ethics. it assumes that individuals in organizations can make moral judgments and can be the objects of moral judgements. They argued that neither professional standards nor individual conscience are able to be alone in the framework of administrative ethics. we chose this article because it explains specifically and gives a clearer picture to us regarding this issue. Two common views of administrations. By understanding how these views themselves are mistaken.

Public officials can deal with administrative problems effectively through internal checks. uncertainty and vagueness that includes. The thoughts. Too much relying on individual conscience can lead to conflicts in administration because men have different values. Some people also criticize those who believe in the role of individual conscience because of the subjectivity. but it should be to their colleagues who have the same technical knowledge and standards. From this point. we can conclude that the professional’s responsibility cannot be held or solely give to politicians and elected legislators. political and social environment also play the important role in deciding the administrative ethics. Some people are just relying on professionalism to determine the framework of administrative ethics. Administrative ethics should take into consideration the individual conscience of public officials because it is the actual source that helps officials to make judgements. Besides. cultural. to ensure the efficient performance. In other words. mission statements. Values and human experiences are the most critical elements to grasp and understand. the anti-rational view believes that in the role of human beings can never have the complete knowledge to control social order. rules and regulations which are the ethical instrument to distinguish between what is appropriate and what is inappropriate. the complexity of public administrations requires professionals to deal with ethical decisions because they are the only ones who have the knowledge to enclose the proper understanding on how to deal with ethical issues.The rationalist view believes in the power of science and the ability of reason to reach reality. If some reasons is properly used. administrations should build its ethical framework based on professional standards to avoid this conflict. In contrast. Those checks are created by professional and technical knowledge to ensure one’s accountability. 11 . then human behaviour are able to be predict and control. official must follow goals. On the other hand. There should be a trusted code to guide. Thus. All in all. that formal fixed code that are built on technical knowledge will strengthen the role of ethics in public administrations. public administrators cannot neglect neither professionals’ standards nor conscience and values when they face ethical conflicts. Even so. ethics in public administrations have been shaped by the two different main streams in terms of whether to depend on professional standards or on individual conscience to structure the administrative ethics.

general welfare and humanity. Both professionalism and individual conscience are very important elements that should No Author(s)’ Name(s) Article Title Name of Journal Volume Number Pages be considered if we want to establish an effective framework for administrative ethics. democracy.As a conclusion. all at the same time. public administrators should have strong obligations to self. 12 . This is the appropriate balance that always should be observed.

D.1 Stephen E. Ph. Al-Habil The Administrative Ethics Between Professionalism And Individual Conscience Elaine P.Congress What Social Worker Should Know About Ethnics: Understanding and Resolving Practice Dilemmas The Details of the Journal Articles 13 . Cãtãlina The Role of Ethics in 21st Century Organizations 3 4 5 Fall 2007 Issue 11 6 Management No. Brimmer Prof.7 . 2008 Issue 7 4 Tourism and Hospitality Management Volume 17 Issue 1 12 Business and Management Review Volume 1 Issue 10 3 Advances In Social Work Volume 1 Issue 1 26 Overview on business ethics and human 2 Bonciu Leadership Advance Online resources management ethics Anton Jamnik The Challenges Of Business Ethics – Management And The Question Of Ethics Wasim I.