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International Journal of Engineering Sciences, 2(2) February 2013, Pages: 34-42

TI Journals
ISSN
2306-6474

International Journal of Engineering Sciences


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Cadmium and Lead Pollution in Sediments of Midstream of the


River Karatoa in Bangladesh
H. M. Zakir *1, M. Nazmul Hasan 2, Q. F. Quadir 3, S. Sharmin 4, Istiaq Ahmed 5
1,2,3,5
4

Department of Agricultural Chemistry, Bangladesh Agricultural University, Mymensingh-2202, Bangladesh.


College of Agricultural Sciences, IUBAT, Uttara, Dhaka-1230, Bangladesh.

AR TIC LE INF O

AB STR AC T

Keywords:

In a quantitative analysis, a total of 28 sediment samples were collected from midstream of the
river Karatoa, Bangladesh to assess Cd and Pb pollution level. The concentration of heavy metals
in sediment samples were determined by using an Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer (AAS)
after digestion with aqua regia. The mean concentration of organic matter in sediment samples was
3.29%. The average concentration of Cu, Zn, Pb, Cd, Ni and Cr in the sediment samples were
20.72, 82.27, 69.46, 10.85, 9.48 and 8.37 gg-1, respectively. The investigation revealed that the
average Pb concentration (69.46 gg-1) in sediments collected from the midstream of the river
Karotoa was higher compared with several other rivers of Bangladesh and it was more than twice
compared to geochemical background and toxicity reference value. The distribution of Cd in the
study area was more than hundred times higher compared to standard continental crust, while it
was almost twenty times greater compared to toxicity reference value described by USEPA. The
calculated geoaccumulation index ( Igeo) values for Pb in about 86% sampling sites exhibited Igeo
class 1, indicating uncontaminated to moderately polluted sediment quality. On the other hand, the
calculated Igeo values for Cd were >4.0 in all sampling sites exhibited I geo class 5, indicating
strongly to extremely polluted sediment quality. Similarly, the calculated PLI values ranged from
0.74-2.30 for sediment samples collected from 28 locations of the river Karotoa. The study results
revealed that the contamination factor for Cd and Pb were several times higher than 1.0 for most of
the sampling sites, which also indicates that Cd and Pb were the major pollutants in the sediments
of the midstream of the river Karatoa.

Heavy metal
Sediment pollution
Karatoa river
Bangladesh

2013 Int. j. eng. sci. All rights reserved for TI Journals.

1.

Introduction

Urbanization is of considerable importance for socio-economic growth and is continuously modifying the physical, chemical and biological
composition of our living environment. Intensive urbanization and the concentration of industrial sites have led to a strong risk of heavy
metal contamination in the environment. As a result, millions of people living in and around urban centres are exposed to an unnatural and
unhealthy environment. Thus, environmental monitoring of industrial and mining areas has become an essential facet in the assessment and
control over anthropogenic impacts on urban ecosystems. Natural and anthropogenic anomalies coexist in geochemical environment, so it
is important to distinguish anthropogenic anomaly from natural anomaly in environmental impact assessment (Chaffee and Carlson, 1998).
Sediments are important carriers of different metals in the environment and reflect the current quality of the system. As in natural
environments, urban river sediments have a high potential for storage of different metals. Unlike natural rivers, however, a large proportion
of the element load contained in urban sediments is not associated with the original geologic parent material, but with the steady supply of
those elements, both dissolved and in particulate form. Thus, a river close to an urban centre has the opportunity to be polluted by both
naturally occurring and anthropogenically originated metals. Undoubtedly, natural sources come from physical and chemical weathering of
parent materials (rocks and minerals) of the river area and the anthropogenic sources include industrialization, wastes and sewage effluents
from urban centres, underground deposition of industrial wastes and others. Enhance concentration of heavy metals are found in sediments
from naturally mineralized areas, but more commonly arise where those have become dispersed as a result of human activities such as
industrialization, underground deposition of waste and others (Zakir and Shikazono, 2008; Shikazono et al., 2008).
In Bangladesh, there is a progressive increase in industrial waste and effluents due to the rapid industrialization. Such waste products have
been causing severe contamination to the air, water, sediments and soils, and thus polluting the environment. The experimental sediment
samples were collected from the major polluting areas of the river Karotoa under sadar district of Bogra, Bangladesh. It is one among the
newly industrialized areas of Bangladesh, which is highly susceptible to environmental pollution due to over population, rapid
industrialization and urbanization in last 10 years. There are several types of industrial units including textile, dying, pharmaceuticals,
leather and others. From the different industrial zones of the area, contamination of river water and sediments by various metallic and nonmetallic chemicals are very common. The river Karatoa has already lost its perfect deepness. Local influential people are withdrawing
* Corresponding author. Dr. Md. Zakir Hossen (Professor).
Tel: +880-91-67401-06/2490; Fax: +880-91-61510;
Email address: zakirhm.ac.bau@gmail.com

Cadmium and Lead Pollution in Sediments of Midstream of the River Karatoa in Bangladesh

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Internat ional Jour nal of Engineeri ng Science s, 2(2) Fe br uar y 2013

sands freely with dredging machine. Besides this, the toxic waste and sewerages of more than hundred factories are being added to this
river (Ittefaq, 2010). Nowadays, offensive odor from this river are making nuisance to the people living surrounding area. As a result,
environmental hazards are occurring with different health hazards. Considering the above facts, the research work has carried out to
determine the concentration of Cd and Pb in sediments of midstream of the river Karatoa as well as to assess the pollution level.

2.

Materials and methods

2.1. Collection and preparation of samples


Total 28 sediment samples were collected from the midstream of the river Karatoa near Bogra city, Bangladesh during March 2011 as
described in Table 1. The sampling distance from one station to another was at least about 100 m. The surface sediment samples were taken
from 0-10 cm and quickly packed in airtight polythene bags. The sample mass collected in each case was about 500g. Sub-samples of the
material were oven dried at 500C for 24 hrs and sieved (aperture 125 m). The lower particle size fraction was homogenized by grinding in
an agate mortar and stored in glass bottles for chemical analyses.

2.2. Determination of physicochemical properties of sediments


The pH was measured in 1:2.5 sediment to water ratio by using a Jenway-3505 pH meter. The suspension was allowed to stand overnight
prior to pH determination. The electrical conductivity (EC) was measured in the saturated extract of the sediments, using a WTW LF 521
EC meter. The textural class of the sediments was measured by plotting the results on a triangular diagram following USDA system
designed by Marshall (1947). The organic carbon (OC) was measured by the wet oxidation method of Walkley and Black (1934).

2.3. Determination of heavy metals concentration in sediment samples


Total concentrations of Cu, Zn, Pb, Cd, Ni and Cr in sediment samples were determined by using an atomic absorption spectrophotometer
(AAS), equiped with single elements hollow-cathode lamps at the wavelengths of 324.7, 213.9, 283.3, 228.8, 232.0 and 357.9 nm,
respectively. The instrument was operated at maximum sensitivity with an air-acetylene flame. Lamp intensity and bandpass were used
according to the manufacturers recommendations. For the determination of total heavy metals concentration, exactly 1.00 g of powdered
sediment sample was digested with aqua regia (HNO3 : HCl = 1: 3). All chemicals and reagents were of analytical reagent grade quality
(Merck, Germany). Before use, all glass and plastic ware were soaked in 14% HNO 3 for 24 hrs. The washing was completed with distilled
water rinse.

2.4. Determination of geoaccumulation index (Igeo)


The geoaccumulation index (Igeo) values were calculated for Cu, Zn, Pb, Cd, Ni and Cr as introduced by Muller (1969) is as follows-

Igeo = log2 (Cn / 1.5Bn)


Where Cn is measured concentration of metal in the sediment, and Bn is the geochemical background for the same element which is either
directly measured in precivilization sediments of the area or taken from the literature (average shale value described by Turekian and
Wedepohl, 1961). The factor 1.5 is introduced to include possible variations of the background values that are due to lithologic variations.
According to Muller (1969), there are seven grades or classes of the geoaccumulation index. Class 0 (practically
uncontaminated/unpolluted): Igeo < 0; Class 1 (Uncontaminated to moderately contaminated): 0 < Igeo < 1; Class 2 (moderately
contaminated): 1 < Igeo < 2; Class 3 (moderately to strongly contaminated): 2 < I geo < 3; Class 4 (strongly contaminated): 3 < Igeo < 4; Class
5 (strongly to extremely contaminated): 4 < Igeo < 5; Class 6 (extremely contaminated): Igeo > 5, which is an open class and comprises all
values of the index higher than Class 5.

2.5. Assessment of pollution load index (PLI)


The pollution load index (PLI) proposed by Tomlinson et al. (1980) has been used in this study to measure PLI of sediments of Karatoa
river. The PLI for a single site is the nth root of n number of multiplied together contamination factor (CF) values. The CF is the quotient
obtained as follows:

CF = CMetal concentration / CBackground concentration of the same metal and


PLI for a site = nth CF1 CF2 . . . CFn,

H. M. Zakir et al.

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Int ernational Journal of Engi neering Sc iences, 2(2) February 2013

where, n equals the number of contamination factors and sites, respectively.


A number of contamination factors will be derived for different heavy metals at each site, and a site pollution index may then be calculated
by taking the five highest contamination factors and deriving the fifth root of the five factors multiplied together. Such site indices can be
treated in exactly the same way to give a zone or area index (Tomlinson et al., 1980).

Table 1. Detailed information regarding sediment sampling sites at the mid-stream of the river Karatoa, Bangladesh

Sample ID

3.

Sampling area

Possible source of contamination

01

SP ghat

Sewage sludge

02

SP ghat

Sewage sludge

03

SP ghat

Sewage sludge

04

SP ghat

Sewage sludge

05

SP ghat

Sewage sludge

06

SP ghat

Sewage sludge

07

Bogra Mohila Mohabiddaloy

Pharmaceutical waste

08

Bogra Mohila Mohabiddaloy

Pharmaceutical waste

09

Bogra Mohila Mohabiddaloy

Pharmaceutical waste

10

Bogra Mohila Mohabiddaloy

Pharmaceutical waste

11

Bogra Mohila Mohabiddaloy

Pharmaceutical waste

12

Bogra Mohila Mohabiddaloy

Pharmaceutical waste

13

Backside of Bogra DC office

Hide processing waste

14

Backside of Bogra DC office

Hide processing waste

15

Backside of Bogra DC office

Hide processing waste

16

Backside of Bogra DC office

Hide processing waste

17

Backside of Bogra DC office

Hide processing waste

18

Backside of Bogra DC office

Hide processing waste

19

Foteh Ali Bridge

Industrial effluent

20

Foteh Ali Bridge

Industrial effluent

21

Foteh Ali Bridge

Industrial effluent

22

Foteh Ali Bridge

Industrial effluent

23

Foteh Ali Bridge

Industrial effluent

24

Foteh Ali Bridge

Industrial effluent

25

Chashi Bazar

Municipal waste

26

Chashi Bazar

Municipal waste

27

Chashi Bazar

Municipal waste

28

Chashi Bazar

Municipal waste

Results and Discussion

3.1. Physico-chemical properties of sediments


The pH of sediments of the study area ranged from 4.19-6.10, while the EC value ranged from 260-4040 Scm-1 with a mean value of 1772
Scm-1 (Table 2). It is evident from Table 2 that sample ID 21 to 27 were exhibited EC values ranged from 2930 to 4040 Scm-1 and all of
these sediment samples were collected the from areas where municipal and industrial wastes from Bogra city are discharged frequently
without any sorts of treatment ( Table 1). According to Costa et al. (2001), high EC value in soil, might be due to huge quantities of salt,
solid wastes and effluents of tannery and other industries. Organic carbon is determined to assess the role played by the organic fraction of

Cadmium and Lead Pollution in Sediments of Midstream of the River Karatoa in Bangladesh

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Internat ional Jour nal of Engineeri ng Science s, 2(2) Fe br uar y 2013

sediments in the transport, deposition and retention of heavy metals (Loring and Rantala, 1992). Organic matter in the sediment played an
important role in the adsorption of heavy metals. Further, it was suggested that the organic matter content in general could be used as a
simple pollution index of the sediment (Jih-Gaw and Shen-Yi, 1998; Ottosen and Villumsen, 2006; Zakir et al., 2008). The organic matter
content in the sediment samples collected from the midstream of the river Karatoa ranged from 0.82-5.05% with a mean value of 3.26%.
Variations of absolute heavy metal concentrations reflected variations in textural and/or carbonate and organic matter content (Rubio et al.,
2000), and heavy metal concentrations correlate closely with distributions of mud (< 63 m) and organic carbon (Hung and Hsu, 2004;
Zakir et al., 2006; Zakir et al., 2008). In present study, a strong positive significant correlation between organic matter and heavy metals
concentration were observed (r values were 0.66, 0.59, 0.58 and 0.49 for Cu, Zn, Pb and Ni, respectively). Table 2 also represents the
textural class of the sediment samples, which were sandy loam and silt loam among the sites of the river Karatoa. The percentage of sand,
silt and clay ranged from 18-73%, 15-74% and 04 -23%, respectively. However, among the sampling sites, about 82% sediment samples
showed silt loam textural class. Zhao et al. (2007) stated that fine loamy, sandy clay loam, clay laom and clay textures had a major
influence on the concentrations of Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Ni and Zn, and the medians were 3-5 fold higher in clayey than in sandy soils. Horowitz
(1991) reported that trace metal concentrations showed a general increase with the increase in clay minerals content and a decrease in the
quartz content in the sediments. He also stated that fine silt and clay fractions were good enough to accumulate higher quantities of trace
metals in the sediments.

3.2. Heavy metals concentration in sediment samples


The concentration of Cu in sediment samples ranged between trace to 34.01 g g-1, having an average value of 20.72 g g-1 (Table 3). The
level of Cu in the sediment was less than the maximum acceptable concentration of 100 g g-1 for crop production (Kabata-Pendias and
Pendias, 1992). It was found that out of 28 samples, 16 samples had the values greater than the mean, which indicates the anthropogenic
pollution load in the respective study site. The results of the present study were almost similar to those obtained in the earlier study of
Domingo and Kyuma (1983) who reported that the Cu status in some selected Bangladesh paddy soils ranged from 6-48 g g-1. The present
study revealed that for most cases the average Cu level in sediments collected from the midstream of the river Karatoa was low compared
with several other Bangladeshi rivers as well as geochemical background (average shale and continental crust). However, the mean
concentration of Cu in sediments of Karatoa river was higher than the toxicity reference value as reported by USEPA (Table 4).
The total concentration of Cd in sediments collected from the midstream of the river Karatoa ranged between 9.38 to 13.13 g g-1, having
an average value of 10.85 g g-1. When a comparison was made with average shale value as described by Turekian and Wedepohl (1961), it
was found that all samples had Cd content about 30 times higher, which indicates the anthropogenic pollution load in the respective study
area. Similarly, the average Cd levels in sediments collected from Karatoa river were more than hundred times higher compared to
geochemical background value of continental crust, while it was twenty times higher compared to toxicity reference value described by
USEPA (Table 4). However, according to Adriano (2001), Cd concentration in natural soils and sediments is largely influenced by the
amount of Cd in the parent rocks. Based on the concentration reported for common rocks, one can expect on the average, soils derived from
igneous rocks would contain the lowest Cd (< 0.10 to 0.30 g g-1), soils derived from metamorphic rocks would be intermediate (0.10 to
1.0 g g-1) and soils derived from sedimentary rocks would contain the largest amount of Cd (0.30 to 11.0 g g -1). On the basis of the metal
contents in the bedrocks, the inherited levels of Cd in the soils and sediments are likely to be anomalous near mineralization depending on
the nature of weathering and other environmental factors. According to GOC (1994), Cd mobility in aquatic environments and soils is
greatly enhanced by low pH (5.0 to 6.5). The pH of sediments of the river Karatoa ranged from 4.19-6.10, which may influence on the Cd
mobility in the river system. Recent studies have focused on the affects of Cd on the biochemistry of various marine organisms. Toxic
metals, including cadmium and lead, can generate reactive oxygen species that are highly toxic to marine organisms (Kumar et al., 2010;
Messaoudi et al., 2009; Dang and Wang, 2009; Wang and Wang, 2009; Chora et al., 2008).

Table 2. Physicochemical properties of sediment samples collected


from the midstream of the river Karatoa, Bangladesh

Sample
ID
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15

pH

EC (Scm-1)

OM (%)

Sand
(%)

Silt (%)

Clay (%)

Textural class of soil

5.27
5.20
5.26
5.31
5.41
5.41
5.30
4.19
4.94
5.10
5.13
5.55
5.66
5.60
5.64

872
1378
1374
1508
1578
1140
1290
2870
1230
1270
1200
400
260
530
970

3.72
3.85
4.31
4.11
3.72
3.85
4.05
3.49
3.82
3.62
3.56
0.86
0.82
1.01
2.48

58
68
72
64
73
30
24
35
21
32
22
28
27
29
28

28
20
16
26
15
60
72
60
68
74
68
56
60
50
54

14
12
12
10
12
10
04
05
11
11
10
16
23
19
18

Sandy loam
Sandy loam
Sandy loam
Sandy loam
Sandy loam
Silt Loam
Silt Loam
Silt Loam
Silt Loam
Silt Loam
Silt Loam
Silt Loam
Silt Loam
Silt Loam
Silt Loam

H. M. Zakir et al.

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Int ernational Journal of Engi neering Sc iences, 2(2) February 2013

16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
Max.
Min.
Mean

5.57
5.51
5.46
5.50
5.40
5.87
6.03
6.08
6.10
6.00
6.00
5.96
6.00
6.10
4.19
5.49

750
1020
1280
930
1000
2930
3920
3800
3570
3640
3310
4040
800
4040
260
1772

3.20
2.84
4.41
3.56
3.30
3.43
4.73
5.05
5.03
1.01
5.03
1.01
1.96
5.05
0.82
3.26

18
33
23
30
31
26
22
34
18
23
44
37
33
73
18
35.11

70
55
70
48
60
58
70
60
70
64
48
52
61
74
15
54.04

12
12
07
22
09
06
08
06
12
13
08
11
06
23
04
11.39

Silt Loam
Silt Loam
Silt Loam
Silt Loam
Silt Loam
Silt Loam
Silt Loam
Silt Loam
Silt Loam
Silt Loam
Silt Loam
Silt Loam
Silt Loam
Sandy loam- Silt Loam

Table 3. Total heavy metal concentrations in sediment samples collected


from the midstream of the river Karatoa, Bangladesh

Total heavy metal concentrations (g g-1 )


Sample ID

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
Range
Mean

Cu

Zn

Pb

Ni

Cr

Cd

33.99
30.88
27.58
28.96
29.51
34.10
29.61
25.38
31.08
29.30
30.29
2.00
0.36
Trace
16.49
15.88
20.26
22.51
22.92
19.10
8.21
17.37
19.71
21.38
14.08
26.04
23.17
Trace
Trace-34.1
20.72

99.50
102.00
91.00
101.00
102.50
110.50
101.00
93.00
104.00
100.00
123.00
42.00
40.00
37.50
77.50
76.50
91.00
92.00
89.00
85.00
51.00
71.50
74.00
83.00
69.00
89.50
88.00
19.50
19.5-123
82.27

94.44
91.66
86.10
97.21
94.44
99.99
88.88
83.33
94.44
88.88
15.83
9.70
48.45
57.08
71.13
77.77
77.77
86.10
72.22
54.83
69.88
85.81
72.69
63.06
83.63
67.13
6.44
5.94
5.94-99.99
69.46

11.53
11.33
10.18
11.68
11.00
12.18
11.58
10.53
11.93
11.48
7.85
7.60
7.83
5.58
9.25
9.35
9.80
8.90
9.90
9.58
7.78
8.38
8.70
8.45
8.30
9.05
8.68
6.93
5.58-12.18
9.48

10.68
10.90
9.08
11.30
9.05
10.85
10.18
9.38
9.48
11.40
6.40
8.93
5.15
20.95
7.88
8.85
7.68
8.15
7.80
4.78
6.00
6.95
6.38
6.10
7.40
6.08
2.75
3.90
2.75-20.95
8.37

9.38
10.00
9.38
10.00
9.38
10.00
10.63
10.00
10.00
10.63
10.63
10.00
10.63
10.63
11.88
11.25
11.25
11.25
11.25
12.50
10.63
11.88
11.88
11.88
11.25
13.13
11.88
10.63
9.38-13.13
10.85

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Internat ional Jour nal of Engineeri ng Science s, 2(2) Fe br uar y 2013

Table 4. Comparison of mean heavy metals concentration (gg-1) in sediments of the river Karatoa
with reference values and those in some other rivers of Bangladesh

Reference Values
Heavy
metals

ASV

CUC

Cr

90

Pb

Other Bangladeshi Rivers


c

Jamuna

Burigonga

Meghna

Brahmaputra

Present
study

TRV

Turag

Padma

92

26

97

97

110

610

62

101

8.4

20

17

31

24

17

19

476.5

08

10

69.5

Zn

95

67

110

111

76

83

835.5

46

78

82.3

Cu

45

28

16

49

25

28

231.5

20.5

Ni

68

47

16

42

28

33

125

37

80

9.48

Cd

0.30

0.09

0.60

5.3

10.85

Note: aAVS-Average Shell Value proposed by Turkian and Wedepohl (1961), b CRC continental upper crust proposed by Rudnick and Gao (2003), cTRVToxicity Reference Value proposed by USEPA (1999), dZakir et al. (2006), e Datta and Subramanian [36], fMohiuddin et al. (2011), gRamesh et al. (2000),
respectively.

The status of Pb in sediments ranged between 5.94 to 99.99 g g-1, having a mean value of 69.46 g g-1 (Table 3). Out of 28 samples, 19
samples had Pb concentration above the mean value and the rest 9 samples had lower concentration than the average. The observed status
of lead in sediments collected from the study area except 5 sites were lower than maximum acceptable concentration of 50 g g-1 for crop
production (Kabata-Pendias and Pendias, 1992). The present study results were almost thrice than other reports published earlier for soils of
Bangladesh. Bibi et al. (2003) reported that Pb concentration of soils of different depths of Bangladesh ranged 19-24 g g-1 and Jahiruddin
et al. (2000) stated that the range of Pb content of 20 calcareous soils was 17.8-26.8 g g-1 with a mean value of 22.8 g g-1. On the other
hand, the present study revealed that for most cases the average Pb level in sediments collected from the midstream of the river Karatoa
was higher compared with several other rivers of Bangladesh and it was more than twice compared to geochemical background (average
shale concentration), continental crust and toxicity reference value (Table 4). Chakraborty et al. (2012) reported that increase in
bioavailability of Pb and Cd with increasing total metals concentrations in the sediments can be a potential threat to benthic organisms and
aquatic biota in the system. They also stated that accumulations of Pb and Cd in sediments are influenced by trace metal competitions.
The total concentration of Zn in sediment samples ranged between 19.50 to 123.00 g g-1, having an average value of 82.27 g g-1. Zinc
concentration in sediment samples was lower than the maximum acceptable concentration (150 g g-1) for crop production (Kabata-Pendias
and Pendias, 1992). The results of the present study were little bit higher to those obtained in the earlier study of Domingo and Kyuma
(1983) who reported that the Bangladesh soils had 10-110 mg Zn kg-1, with a mean of 68 g g-1. Jahiruddin et al. (2000) reported that the
mean value of Zn content of Gangetic alluvium and Brahmaputra alluvium were 78.50 and 66.4 g g -1 , respectively. The total concentration
of Ni and Cr in sediment samples ranged between 5.58 to 12.18 and 2.75 to 20.95 g g-1, respectively (Table 3). The average Zn, Ni and Cr
levels in sediment samples were lower than several other Bangladeshi rivers as well as geochemical background and toxicity reference
values (Table 4), which indicates the study area is not polluted yet by these heavy metals.

3.3. Correlation coefficient matrix for physicochemical properties and heavy metals
The Pearson correlation matrix for analyzed parameters of sediments were calculated to see if some of the parameters were interrelated
with each other and the results are presented in Table 5. Examination of the matrix also provides clues about the carrier substances and the
chemical association of heavy metals in the study area (Jaquet et al., 1982). The results highlighted close association among different
metals and their relationship with sediment physicochemical parameters. pH showed significant positive correlation with EC and Cd.
Similarly, EC showed positive relationship with Cd; organic matter showed positive relationship with Cu, Zn, Pb and Ni. On the other
hand, considering the relationship between the combinations sand vs Cu, sand vs Ni, silt vs Cd, Cu vs Zn, Cu vs Pb, Cu vs Ni, Zn vs Pb, Zn
vs Ni, Pb vs Ni, Pb vs Cr showed positive significant correlation (Table 5), which indicates the parameters were interrelated with each other
and may be originated from the same source to the study area. On the contrarary, the combinations pH vs Cu, pH vs Zn, pH vs Ni, pH vs
Cr, EC vs clay, EC vs Cr, OM vs clay, sand vs silt, sand vs Cd, Ni vs Cd and Cr vs Cd showed negative significant correlation with each
other. Other relationships among the constituents of sediments were not significant (Table 5).

H. M. Zakir et al.

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Int ernational Journal of Engi neering Sc iences, 2(2) February 2013

Table 5. Pearson correlation coefficient matrix for heavy metals


and other properties of sediment samples collected from midstream of the river Karatoa, Bangladesh

Parameter
EC (S cm-1)
OC (%)
Sand (%)
Silt (%)
Clay (%)
Cu (g g-1)
Zn (g g-1)
Pb (g g-1)
Ni (g g-1)
Cr (g g-1)
Cd (g g-1)

pH
0.40*
-0.11
-0.23
0.15
0.08
-0.47**
-0.50**
-0.33
-0.57**
-0.38*
0.58**

EC

OC

Sand

Silt

Clay

Cu

Zn

Pb

Ni

Cr

0.30
-0.08
0.15
-0.45*
0.13
0.07
0.03
-0.12
-0.39*
0.46*

0.20
-0.07
-0.52**
0.66**
0.59**
0.58**
0.49**
-0.04
0.11

-0.95**
-0.01
0.40*
0.28
0.29
0.43*
0.18
-0.48**

-0.20
-0.27
-0.18
-0.23
-0.29
-0.23
0.47**

-0.32
-0.24
-0.13
-0.20
0.24
-0.09

0.96**
0.56**
0.84**
0.07
-0.20

0.50**
0.77**
0.07
-0.14

0.70**
0.42*
-0.25

0.15
-0.39*

-0.45*

Legend: ** = Significant at 1% level; * = Significant at 5% level; Tabulated values of r with 26 df is 0.468 at 1% level of significance and 0.365 at 5% level
of significance

3.4. Assessment of pollution level


3.4.1. Index of geoaccumulation (I geo)
A geoaccumulation indexing approach is used to quantify the degree of anthropogenic contamination, and to compare the different heavy
metals in sediments (Forstner et al., 1993). The geoaccumulation index (Igeo), introduced by Muller (1969), was also used to assess heavy
metal pollution in sediments of mid-stream of the Karatoa river, Bangladesh. In this study, the Igeo values were calculated for different
elements with respect to standard shale composition as described by Turekian and Wedepohl (1961) because there is no pre-civilization
sediment standard data available for the mentioned area. The calculated Igeo for heavy metals of sediments of the study area and their
corresponding contamination intensity are illustrated in Fig. 1. The Igeo values for Pb in 24 sampling sites exhibited Igeo class 1, indicating
uncontaminated to moderately contaminated sediment quality. The Igeo values for Cu, Zn, Ni and Cr were negative indicating unpolluted
sediment quality. However, the Igeo index values for Cd were within the range of 4.35-4.84 among the sampling sites exhibited Igeo class 5,
indicating strongly to extremely polluted sediment quality. Finally, it can be concluded from the present study result that heavy metals like
Cd and Pb may be originated from anthropogenic sources in the study area.
3.4.2. Pollution load index (PLI)
The PLI can provide some understanding to the public of the area about the quality of a component of their environment and it can indicate
the trends over time and area. In addition, it also provides valuable information and advice for the policy and decision makers on the
pollution level of the area. While computing the contamination factor (CF) for pollution load index (PLI) of sediments of the studied
region, standard shale concentration introduced by Turekian and Wedephol (1961) for each heavy metal was considered as background
concentration values. The concept of a baseline is a fundamental issue to the formation of a PLI (Tomlinson et al., 1980). The PLI values
ranged from 0.47-2.30 with a mean value of 1.69 for sediment samples collected from 28 locations of the midstream of Karatoa river (Table
6).
The index as presented provides a simple, comparative means for assessing a site quality: a value of zero indicates perfection, a value of
one that only baseline levels of pollutants are present, and values above one would indicate progressive deterioration of the site (Tomlinson
et al., 1980). It can be seen from Table 6 that out of 28 sampling sites, only 3 sites had PLI value lower than 1.0, which indicates 89% sites
are in polluted condition. On the other hand, it is evident from Table 6 that the contamination factor for Cd, Pb and Zn were higher, which
indicates that Cd, Pb and Zn were the major pollutants in the sediments of the midstream of the river Karatoa giving rise to PLI values for
the study area.

Figure 1. Geoaccumulation index (Igeo) of heavy metals in different sediment samples collected from the midstream of the river Karotoa, Bangladesh.

Cadmium and Lead Pollution in Sediments of Midstream of the River Karatoa in Bangladesh

41

Internat ional Jour nal of Engineeri ng Science s, 2(2) Fe br uar y 2013

Table 6. The contamination factor (CF) for each heavy metal at each sampling site of
sediment samples collected from the midstream of the river Karatoa, Bangladesh

Sampling ID
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
Range

4.

Contamination factor
Cu
Zn
0.76
1.05
0.69
1.07
0.61
0.96
0.64
1.06
0.66
1.08
0.76
1.16
0.66
1.06
0.56
0.98
0.69
1.09
0.65
1.05
0.67
1.29
0.04
0.44
0.01
0.42
0.00
0.39
0.37
0.82
0.35
0.81
0.45
0.96
0.50
0.97
0.51
0.94
0.42
0.89
0.18
0.54
0.39
0.75
0.44
0.78
0.48
0.87
0.31
0.73
0.58
0.94
0.51
0.93
0.00
0.21
0-0.76
0.21-1.29

PLI
Pb
4.72
4.58
4.31
4.86
4.72
5.00
4.44
4.17
4.72
4.44
0.79
0.49
2.42
2.85
3.56
3.89
3.89
4.31
3.61
2.74
3.49
4.29
3.63
3.15
4.18
3.36
0.32
0.30
0.30-5.00

Ni
0.17
0.17
0.15
0.17
0.16
0.18
0.17
0.15
0.18
0.17
0.12
0.11
0.12
0.08
0.14
0.14
0.14
0.13
0.15
0.14
0.11
0.12
0.13
0.12
0.12
0.13
0.13
0.10
0.08-0.18

Cr
0.12
0.12
0.10
0.13
0.10
0.12
0.11
0.10
0.11
0.13
0.07
0.10
0.06
0.23
0.09
0.10
0.09
0.09
0.09
0.05
0.07
0.08
0.07
0.07
0.08
0.07
0.03
0.04
0.03-0.23

Cd
31.25
33.33
31.25
33.33
31.25
33.33
35.42
33.33
33.33
35.42
35.42
33.33
35.42
86.38
39.58
37.50
37.50
37.50
37.50
41.67
35.42
39.58
39.58
39.58
37.50
43.75
39.58
86.38
31.25-86.38

2.17
2.15
1.96
2.15
2.10
2.30
2.15
1.96
2.19
2.14
1.47
0.61
0.60
1.13
1.69
1.69
1.86
1.90
1.87
1.72
1.28
1.71
1.73
1.73
1.60
1.92
1.14
0.47
0.47-2.30

Conclusion

The present study evaluated the heavy metal concentration in sediment samples collected from the midstream of the river Karotoa,
Bangladesh. The calculated geoaccumulation index (Igeo) values for Pb in about 86% sampling sites exhibited Igeo class 1, indicating
uncontaminated to moderately polluted sediment quality. On the other hand, the calculated I geo values for Cd were >4.0 in all sampling sites
exhibited Igeo class 5, indicating strongly to extremely polluted sediment quality. Similarly, PLI indicates 89% sampling sites are in polluted
condition of the study area. So, it can be inferred from the study results that Cd and Pb contamination may lead to a potential danger for the
health of human, animal and aquatic populations in the vicinity of the sampling sites. The degree of contamination of these heavy metals in
the study area is comparatively high, so it is desirable to take necessary initiative to minimize the pollution level as well as to monitor their
concentrations in water and sediments routinely in future. Comparing the concentration of other heavy metals with the several other rivers
of Bangladesh and geochemical background, it can be concluded that the sediment of the study area has not so far polluted yet, but if it is
continued, the concentration of these heavy metals in the study area will increase and this may have bad impact on the aquatic environment
as well as others.

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