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World Applied Programming, Vol (3), Issue (6), June 2013.

219-225
ISSN: 2222-2510
2013 WAP journal. www.tijournals.com

The Study of the Causes and Ingredients in


Crime Recommitment by Senior Prisoners:
A Case Study in Kermanshah Province
Hojat Alah Tahmasebian

Bahman Roshani *

Mehdi Hariri

Nadia Amjadian

Department of Psychology,
Kermanshah Branch,
Islamic Azad University,
Kermanshah, Iran
hojat_t47@yahoo.com

Kermanshah University of
Medical Sciences,
Kermanshah, Iran.

The scientific member of


Law group in Payam
Noor University, Iran.

Kermanshah University of
Medical Sciences,
Kermanshah, Iran.

Abstract:
Background: Psychologists and Criminologists define deviation as being out of mental and behavioral balance.
In other words, deviation is any lack of integrity and harmony among the components of character. They regard
deviation as an opposition to social and manner traditions.
This Survey has examined the causes and risk factors among Kermanshah Province Prisoners in Crime
recommitting.
Study Methods: Scientific comparative study and post event consideration. The statistical society is all the
prisoners of Kermanshah Prison. Statistical sample involves 200 prisoners whom were selected randomly.
Measuring instrument is a questionnaire that based on the Linkert Scale grading. The reliability and validity of
the study is tested through Cronbachs Alpha method. Its data are analyzed by SPSS & Soft ware and bi-sample
independent T-test and Friedman test.
Results: In first imprisonment the most significant event is psychological and spiritual stress and then
coexistence with senior criminals and also the sense of failure in life. There is a significant difference between
those who benefit after leaving services and those who dont.
Conclusions: Social deviations are among the most important social problems and issues which depend on
different factors and variables. Hence planning in reducing them must be done by different institutions and
organizations like: family, school, university and also in community level. It can be reduced through purging
family, Public and community moral atmosphere.
Keywords: Crime, Prisoners, Seniority
I. INTRODUCTION
Where ever there is legislation and law. There is crime. Because the simplest definition of crime is: any behavior which
is against the law. [1] Tard defines a crime as an assault to tights and duties. Sociologists and social psychologists define
a crime as any kinds of opposition to social traditions and manners. [2] Criminologists are live that morbid life
environments are influencing factors in criminal commitments and people learn felonious behaviors through the
relationship with criminal groups. So life environments can be regarded as one of the significant influencing factors in
recommitment of crimes among prisoners. In other word the more use of the deviation hall mark by the family, friends
and formal and informal institutions out of the jail results in more probable repletion of crimes and reimprisonment. Any
person who breaks the norms and behavior rules of the society is called deviant and mentally illed in relation to their
commitment. [3]
A safe and secure society is a society which people have a feeling of security in it. Hence security means: assurance of
peace, fear lessens and certainty against any terrorism. More ever security has been considered as the safety from death
risk, threat, illness and act of GOD; on the whole any factor which threatens individuals peace and quiet. [4] So one of
the factor which destroys the feeling of security and blemishes the secure society is the existence of crimes and the back
grounds that prepare it.

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Hojat Alah Tahmasebian et al. World Applied Programming, Vol (3), No (6), June 2013.

Social pathology is defined as the study of disorders, social harms, determining their causes and motivations and also the
ways of preventing and solving these problems and also studying morbid social situations. Since the basic oration of
wickedness. Social deviations and other abnormalities must be sought in the whole society and the proper kind of human
relationships, in this view social deviation is referred to any individual and group activity which is out of the rules and
traditions accepted by public agreement, and hence is against the law and shows opposition to normal and social rules.
[5] On the whole a deviated behavior is any behavior which is not adaptable to social accepted norms and is against
them. [6]
For this, the experts of social and behavioral sciences must detect the social microbes and then cure their diseases. Social
deviations are the most significant social illnesses which are wide spread specially among the young people. The new
conditions of our country after the imposed war. And Islamic Revelation involve a lot of evolutions and in fact those acts
which regarded as anti moral activities in these last de(ade). They are gradually become norms and are finally
normalized among new generations. [7]
Based on the Benhuras social learning theory, the deviated behavior is learnable and is learnt through the process of
human relationships especially in small groups. In the process of learning, the legal rules are defines as the social rights
and wrongs by individuals socialites and she/ he accepts them; and exposing to the definitions which approve anti legal
activities she/he becomes criminal or felon.
On the base of the power theory, the strong motivation for deviations, further chance for deviation and weaker social
control result that those who have power commit deviation which brings much benefit for them while others involve
deviations which are not beneficial.
The hypotheses of this survey include:
- Mental and spiritual poverty is one of the causes of social crimes committed by felons.
- Senior prisoner friends have the most significant effect in persuading in dividuals to commit crimes again.
- There is a meaningful correlation between post-prison cares service centers and crime recommitment and
getting back to prison again.
- The most significant factor in recommitment of the crimes like theft, drug selling is not poverty but easy money
making desire in the shortest possible time.
- Probably there is a meaningful correlation between criminals religion principles and the extent of their social
deviations.
II. STUDY METHOD
The method used in this research is: descriptive/ analytic.
The statistical society in this study is the whole prisoners in Kermanshah province. 200 prisoners have been chosen in
simple random sampling.
Measuring instrument: questionnaire
The questionnaire was based on Liker Scale grading which involves 34 questions categorized in three separate
properties:
First: Prison
Second: the first imprisonment and leaving prison
Third: Care services after leaving prison
The reliability and validity of this study have been analyzed through Crounbachs Alpha Test. The statistical method of
the study includes Friedman T-test; mean while two independent sample have been analyzed through using SPSS
software.
Internal Prison ingredients during first imprisonment:
Based on the acquired results in the following table Alpha Crounbach amount, in relation to the prisoners ingredients,
for present samples is: 0.673 and has a high reliability.

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Hojat Alah Tahmasebian et al. World Applied Programming, Vol (3), No (6), June 2013.

The number of studied items


9

Alpha Crounbach
0.673

Inside prison factors after the first condemnation:


The outcomes in the following table shows that Crounbachs alpha for inside factors scale is: 0.789 which shows a
high reliability on the base of the present sample.
The number of studied items
19

Alpha Crounbach
0.789

The affects of instructing care centers after leaving prison: the results of the below table show that Crounbachs alpha for
inside prison factors is: 0.867 which means a high reliability.
The number of studied items
8

Alpha Crounbach
0.867

Redarding above tables, it can be observed that the most significant factors in grading the events occurred in first
imprisonment are mental and spiritual pressures, and then coexistence with senior prisoners and other factors are:
Unsafe residence in prison, unfavorable treatment of prison staff, coexistence with other crimes prisoners, unsafe
feeding, suicide thoughts to end the life and single cell imprisonment in sequence.
It should be mentioned here that single cell imprisonment factor is in the lowest grade, in fact is the most in significant
factor among the others; whilst the outputs show a meaningful correlation among these factors.
For grading the variable related to influencing factors in the first imprisonment, passing the first imprisonment period
and post prison cares that involve 9, 17, 8 factors in sequence (Studied in questionnaires) Friedman Test has been used.
According to the data of table one [1], the most important event in grading the events occurred at the time of leaving
prison after passing the first condemnation is: the feeling of failure; and then the desire to making much wealth and
income, lack of affection, the feeling of living in a fully deviated society, nonattachment to family life, the tendency to
previous friends , in sequence. It must be mentioned that in difference to religion principles and beliefs factor is in the
lowest degree among the other factors, showing that it has the least importance among the other factors, showing that it
has the least importance among other events. Whilst the test shows a meaningful correlation among them. Regarding the
datu of table 2 we can observe that the most influencing factors after leaving the prison and making use of care service
centers are: encouragement and punishment, and then: the process of becoming social, beneficial precautionary
teachings, mental and spiritual sanitation, emotional demands satisfaction, in the lowest degree, in fact it means that
the most in significant event in comparison to the others is this factor. Whilst the test outcomes show a meaningful
correlation among these factors.
On the base of table 3, we see that, in ranking the events occurred in the first condemnation, the most important events
occurred during this period are mental and spiritual pressures. Then coexistence with senior criminals, unsafe residence
in prison, unfavorable treatment by prison staff, coexistence with other crimes felons, unfavorable feeding, suicide
thoughts, unseat is faction of prison welfare facilities and single cell imprisonment are in the lower importance in
sequence. It must be mentioned that single cell imprisonment is in the lowest degree which shows the least importance
among the other factors. Of course the outcome data show a meaningful correlation among them.
Among those who have made use of post prison care centers and those havent, there is no meaningful correlation related
to condemnation records. Regarding table 4 the meaningfulness level of the T-test among these two groups we see a
meaningful difference, since the meaningfulness level of the test is lower than 0.05. So we can result this theory that the
condemnation record of those made use of care centers is lower than the opposite group.

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Hojat Alah Tahmasebian et al. World Applied Programming, Vol (3), No (6), June 2013.

Table 1. Grading the events happened in the first imprisonment


Grading in the far out
of/ priority
2
5
8
3
6
4
9
1
7

Grad
mean
5.82
5.04
4.03
5.25
4.85
5.18
3.38
6.78
4.68

reason

mean

Criterion deviation

Coexistence with senior prisoners


Coexistence with other crimes felons
Un satisfaction of welfare facilities
Unsafe prison residence
Unsafe feeding
Unfavorable behavior of prison staff
Single cell imprisonment
Mental and spiritual pressures
Suicide thoughts

3.22
2.78
2.13
3.01
2.78
2.78
1.65
3.91
2.61

1.58
1.502
1.613
1.467
1.532
1.532
1.91
1.108
1.804

Table 2. Grading the events after passing the first imprisonment and leaving the prison
Grading in the far out
of/ priority
17
10
6
8
5
1
3
9

Grad
mean
5.44
8.94
9.2
9.15
9.4
12.4
11.55
8.96

16

5.85

12
15

8.63
7.09

10.39

7
2
13
11

9.17
11.83
8.39
8.66

14

7.96

reason

mean

Criterion deviation

Indifference to religion principles and beliefs


Emotional demands un satis faction
Senior friends tendency
Life un satis faction
Non attachment to family life
Feeling failure in life
Feeling lack of affection
Unacceptability by the society
Existence of deviation in other members of
society
Humility feeling
Felon habits
The feeling of much deviation done in society
and life environment
Power and money acquiring desire
Much wealth desire
Desire to less work and indolence
Deviation labeling by society
Feeling of peace and in fluency among old
friends

1.48
2.81
2.77
2.65
2.96
3.85
3.53
2.65

1.689
1.528
1.656
1.619
1.557
1.397
1.493
1.753

1.59

1.66

2.68
2.15

1.818
1.786

3.08

1.43

2.74
3.45
2.44
2.66

1.737
1.724
1.815
1.56

2.3

1.689

Table 3. Grading the rate of influence of care centers services after leaving the prison
Grading in the far out
of/ priority
6
7
3
1
4
8
2
5

Grad
mean
4.13
3.86
4.89
5.27
4.86
3.68
4.95
4.37

reason

mean

Criterion deviation

Economical improvement
Occupation development
Good precautionary teachings
Punishment and encouragement
Mental health
Social security
Social scoria
Emotional satisfaction

0.92
0.69
1.31
1.5
1.25
0.64
1.33
0.99

1.329
1.258
1.63
1.626
1.536
1.178
1.684
1.451

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history

history

group
Those used care centers
Those not used care centers

Variants equality
Variant unequality

Table 4
population
68
132

Loon Test for Variants equality


F
Meaningfulness level
20.816
0.001

mean
6.91
5.03

Standard deviation
5.36
2.75

T-test for the quality of the means


t
Freedom degree Meaningfulness degree
3.284
198
0.001
2.719
85.615
0.008

III. DISCUSSION
A research has been done by Dr. Kafashi Majid and Islami Enayat in the field of the influencing causes and factors for
crime recommitment in North Khorasan Province. In this research they had used of social and pathological theories and
principal attitudes including cultural transmit ion and communication difference, social learning, subcultures, mutual
action deviation, social lab ling, social control to view this social problem. The goal of this research was to identify
the reduction ways of crime commitment and reimprisonment of released prisoners. By standard applying the principles
of categorization and parting the prisoners in prison, development of the province conditions and also prison services
improvent, informal and formal lab ling deletion and giving influencing services to the prisons and family acceptation
they saw a good reduction in crime recommitment and prevention. In another research in this field which has been done
by Miss Alah Panah Jale, the influence of post prison cares on crime recommitment among female social clients was
studied at Owin prison in Tehran. In the research the relation among the variables like: sanitation and teaching services,
emotional supports and also job making and social adaptability of these prisoners was considered and showed a
reduction in crime recommitment. This research was done in 1388.
The findings and considerable and inconsiderable hypothesizes of the research showed that post prison cares for female
prisoners after leaving prison had significant effects on crime recommitment reeducation so that the more cares the more
reeducation in crime recommitment can be observed among released female criminals. But there isnt a meaningful
correlation between them. Family researches have been done in crimin. Loy surveys for two principle reasons:
First: For identifying and considering probable differences between activities of the family of criminals and non
criminals and second for evaluating the similarity degree of criminals behavior and their gene a logical relatives. [10]
Studying female criminals families shows that social deviations among these felons relatives are more than other
female individuals mean while their family hurts are more than male criminals; whilst family influences are similar in
both sexes. [11]
Researches show that among the twinborns, the dispermous homological twins (mz) have similar genotype while
dispermous no homological twins (dz) are similar just in half of the genes like other sisters and brothers. Some of the
researchers believe that in genetic surveys me should not seek just the in adequacies but genetic adequate mutabilities
must be regarded as specifying factors for behaviors. [12]
In 1385 a research was done by Dr Hezar Jaribi Jafar and Safari Shali Reza among the prisoners of Markazi Province
prisons. It was a corralive and casual research. There were 10 variable in their research which were taken to considered
on the base on regression analysis [17][18]. According to the findings these 10 variables had influenced the prisoners
donations which were ordered on the amount of regression coefficient as so: family deviation prevalence (%29), family
attachment feeling (-%28) unsafe social conditions (%26), being under aged status of the women during the first
imprisonment (%25), religious belief of the family and individual (-%18), unemployment (%17), friend group (%10),
life satisfaction (-%18), emotional satisfaction (-%10) deprivation feeling (%9).
The variables with negative factor had decreasing effect on prisoners social deviations and those with positive factor
had increasing effect on social deviations.
In one of the researches done among the step children they resulted that %50 of the children of criminal mothers
committed crime before the age of 18 while law deviation among the control group (non criminal mothers) was only %5.
[13]

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Hojat Alah Tahmasebian et al. World Applied Programming, Vol (3), No (6), June 2013.

Xyy Syndrom: in 1960 crucial crimes were identified according to a proper genetic deviation called xyy Sympom.
Human beings normally have 46 chromosomes which 42 of them determine body structure and the remaining 2
determine the Sey of the person. 46xx discriminates feminine and 46xy discriminates masculine. Additional y
Chromosome in men results in increasing height and border intelligence while some relate it to crime commitment. The
relationship of xyy to crimes is the result of those researches which show an intendancy to crimes among these type of
men. [15] Others belive that the presence of this chromosome probably can increase risk of crime commitment up to a
much little amount. In other word there isnt not only a meaningful correlation between additional chromosome and
crime commitment but also there are people with this symptom who are not criminal and show no deviations related to
this syndrome.
Different developmental back grounds (social, economical, cultural, political) require a safe and secure society. Another
survey, which was done by Woskui Hamid in 1386, applied in Noushahr prison. According to it, the average of
intentional crime commitment was %42. The survey showed that in the consideration of crime recommitment
phenomenon, the social, cultural and environmental of the criminals lives must taken into account. Unfortunately in
most researches although there are a lot of there are a lot of unities among crime recommitment factors in different parts
of the country bout the results of the research show that over generalizing the findings of a research in an area to other
areas because of their different features is not valid. In other hand, it is clear that we cannot define the canes of this
phenomenon in some limited factors. Since many factors are involved in relation to their effects from different point of
views. The average of reimprisonment in Iran in comparison to other countries was 30 percent in 1386. Of course this
figure is lower than the average of crime recommitment of the country because of different reasons. (The office of
Prisons organization). Moreover, according to a statistical survey on crime recommitments in America, it was identified
that recommitment rate in different states is not the same according to some variables including being old or young, the
complexity and professional status of the crimes, psychological disorders record. It is usually between 26 to 48.
IV. CONCLUSIONS
As we have done a comprehensive research in identifying the crime causes in which statistical community are the
prisoners of Kermanshah province. Since every region can be regarded as a social and cultural symbol of the other
regions, we can bravely claim that these hypothesizes are deduced in all parts of the country with a little details.
Although we have many different Kinfolk under their proper cultures but it cannot be denied that common features in
these subcultures specially national and religious imminence over show the differences.
In old judicial system the only punishment was to frighten the criminals and it was performed in the form of torture in
public. Those punishments which were not performed in public were not efficient, so whatever collective conscience of
the society is more powerful then we observe severe public rage against crime commitment. So one of the goals of
punishments in present age is crime improvement as so crime recommitment reduces. Variables like educations,
employments, residence environments and family an organization are significant in crime recommitment among
prisoners.
Addiction record to drugs can be regarded as one of the most influencing factors in crime recommitment. As the
prisoners say the basic motivation for crime recommitting is providing drug expenses. Certainly, regarding the effective
factors of crime commitment as something fixed, another factor interfering prisoners social acceptance is family and
social ejectment. Of the prisoners who have commited a crime for the first time in accident and then have been released
atter passing their condemnation.
Here it should be mentioned that crime recommitment and reimprisonment are influenced by different conditions so as
they are different from a person to another even in a family. So the hypothesizes are just some propositions among so
many different causes for crime recommitment which make it impossible to reach a crimeless community and just we
can hope to reduce and also control them.

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