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World Applied Programming, Vol (3), Issue (6), June 2013.

ISSN: 2222-2510
2013 WAP journal.

Applying Definition of Cyber Space in

Creating Architectural Spaces
(Future Architecture and Noticing Nonphysical Aspects of Human)
Kaveh Kamali *

F. Bijaripour

M. Torkjazi

Member of Department of
Architecture, Sahneh Branch, Islamic
Azad University, Sahneh, Iran.

Master of architecture
group of golestan institute,

Master of architecture
group of golestan institute,

Abstract: Marks Novak argued liquid architecture in cyber space is an architecture which has no material. It is
a type of an architecture which changes repeatedly with its abstract elements and it has an inclination for
music. The term cyber space provides an image in which technologies can be considered like an environmental
existence. Of characteristics which play important roles in design of cyber spaces, is showing of time and its
effect on creating space, a feature which is paler in actual architecture. Being active is also another feature
which has a great effect on performance and space form of cyber architecture. User is not facing a static space
which does certain action and its result is not predetermined, in experiencing cyber space he/she faces a
phenomenon which repeatedly changes due to different reasons and off course individuals are active and
influential on these changes. In following research, we will deal with definition and applying cyber architecture
and its role in developing architectural space as a modern approach in the field of architecture. The main
question of this research is that what cyber is and how it can be effective in conceptual processing of producing
applicatory space of architecture.
Keywords: cyberspace, cyber architecture, architecture space
Complex virtual space of networks is available for everybody. This space in networks is being formed like a territory
between mind and world, while it is like a new connection between personal minds of individuals. Individual`s mind
is connected to each other through virtual space to other people`s mind. Virtual space which is like neural system of
human and exists under the skin of culture is a space as well, since it has one internal and external part, the section
sent is against the section which was not sent (it has a multilayer depth).
Management of this new space has created a new profession. As architecture deals with creating real space for
people`s activities in a face to face attendance, information architecture is about making connections, designing
figures and patterns and cooperation in networks and architecture is the answer to developing space in perspective,
while virtual architecture is the answer to electronic explosion of space, time and architecture. Coordination is being
formed between designing real space and designing information space through PC technology.
Cybernetic was derived from Kuberznetes word and Cybernetic science argues on leading and adjusting auto
adjusting systems. Cybernetic science is a science in which communication between PC and human is in priority.
The term cyber space was first used with the name Neuromancer by William Gibson in his scientific novel in
1984 [1]. The word cyber here means processing PC and it is mixed with the suffix Space meaning the space which is
processed with computer.
Architecture is a cyberspace which is created in a digital environment and has some ideas of new movements in
digital architecture. In other words, digital architecture is considered creation of space using technology and
graphic complex facilities in PC which can help architects create virtual nature without using physical models or
common maquette so that imagining and conception of space can be possible to a high level.


Kaveh Kamali et al. World Applied Programming, Vol (3), No (6), June 2013.

Also, digital architecture is considered tool of modern PC and technology for presenting and showing geometric
structure of complex spaces which is gained of relation of architecture and PC.

Figure 1. architecture and PC

Marcos Novak may be introduced as the father of researching on cyberspace. He defined architecture in a digital field
and raised liquid architecture theory. He introduces himself as an idealist architect, since his architecture designs are
created via PC and are designed for a virtual field. His creative models are responsive against transferrable reactions
of viewers. In liquid architecture he suggested an architecture which avoids accepting logical forms, perspective and
law of gravity. E.g. when a viewer visits an art gallery, they can look for a virtual museum before walking in the real
building. Right near gate, there is a room full of PCs in which information related to digital pictures on his favorite
works can be searched. Once he finished, he can get a personal manual of laser print, the manual exactly shows him
where to find things in the building he is looking for. In the future, cyber space and using cyberspace lead
decomposition and falling of many types of traditional buildings and recombining of buildings left through computer
softwares, long-way communication networks and some softwares and as a result unprecedented variables will be
produced. Then by creating transformation in the field of changing idea to plan, cyberspace created some
opportunities for presenting designs and inventions which can not be performed in the field of making building.
As mentioned in the introduction, social condition had undeniable effects on the process of architecture development
during the history. Based on this, in the current age architecture made some things possible from a distance through
creating electronic and informational communication systems and appearance of cyberspace, things such as doing life
responsibilities such as job, shopping, entertainments, health care, education, public service, government and things
like this. As a result people try to do their works and their office works from their houses and all this caused by
development of cyberspace in social system of human. Cyberspace which was formed due to IT development, it has
effect on different aspects of modern world`s architecture and has changed it and these effects can be investigated at
one glance in two different fields:

Effect of cyberspace on architectural spaces

Effect of cyberspace on process of architecture designing
Effect of cyberspace on architectural spaces

Since architecture has always been responsive to needs, now in electronic age we need to design spaces which are
raised in the field of digital. As need of industry age was vast places without walls to be responsive to art galleries,
airports and train stations, today`s architecture should also be responsive to spaces such as room, chat rooms and
meeting rooms. But here we have a substantial question. Architecture has always mixed with place and space which
is substance of architecture was accepted as place and time and it is understood and now that space which is mixed
with prefix Cyber, how does it have place and space in itself?


Kaveh Kamali et al. World Applied Programming, Vol (3), No (6), June 2013.

In digital field, place is a liquid identity which travels in an open space between zero and one space and lack of
space, so we have to accept that it travels in the space and space definition changes by being mixed with cyber. So
we witness an activity and a new space which didnt exist in the past. In this space, time is substantially important.
Space production of virtual architecture does not have a logical, predictable approach, it is not based on basis of
architecture; environmental structure and efficiency, space production does indicate transformation and
metamorphosis is considered as culture and flow of informational and digital revolution which deals with applying
macro surfaces. Experience of virtual architecture is focused on organizing environmental complex variable sand
controlling designing parameters [2].
Experience in virtual space is an intellectual experience and nature of space in virtual space is cognitive, cognition
which is forms without physical appearance of an individual and it with the help of their mind. Virtual space is a
place for placing minds, trading thoughts and cognitive experiences, so its nature is nonmaterial like mind.
Regarding difference between cyberspace(virtual space) with which supervisor communicates through PC screen and
that real space which was inspired by comparing architecture and cinema mentioned by Aizenshtein in the late 1930s,
it can be argued that during monitoring, opposite effects and thoughts pass by supervisor but in the space of a real
city supervisors move inside total phenomena which can be seen and with their sixth sense they perceive them with a
system based on intellectual structure which were systemized before [3].
Formation of virtual space can cause new definitions of architectural space and these developments should be used
for increasing quantitative and qualitative efficiency of architectural spaces in daily life. To do this, some
investigations and researches must be done so that we can use contemporary technology achievements ASAP and
simultaneously we should try to find some definitions and new formation of individual, social and office
communication and on the other hand we should optimize spaces present, especially furniture and things present and
gradually we can reduce production and distribution of some products such as large, unsuitable and useless furniture
by applying some methods and policies and then we can increase production and distribution of products, small, light
and optimum furniture by applying right cultural policies. This way, people can carry their virtual office by a small
computer which has a quick processor, more memory and a better graphic. This space will be in 3D and will be
presented with accurate and real details and a full-colored perspective. He /she can move toward it as they do it in the
office. They even will be able to provide a face to face meeting from a distance and through a video conference. If
they have enough power and some suitable softwares and if they wear a type of hat (similar to headsets playing
stereo), then they flow themselves into virtual office instead of having to look at it. With something like a pair of
glove, they can touch things there and even they may be able to experience the power which makes them constant.
Headsets in their ears can create a coordinated studio sound so that the feeling of acoustic sound could be simulated.
These days virtual space is not just for looking; like a theatre science which is seen from front. Virtual space is
existed between them and their physical environment and real architecture hides their back. Researchers in
architecture field expressed special information with their exclusive studies for virtual spaces, e.g.:




Removing material: it is replacing big things with minimized equitation which does the same duty, for
example replacing a letter with email which can help in reducing usage of paper or fiber optic which were
replaced with heavy and thick cables.
Removing movement: moving bits in an apparent way is more efficient that movement of people and
products. For example, watching film at home instead of going to the movies.
Optimizing buying: by applying IT, automatic submitting of products to customers and especially giving
what is needed become possible. Such as requesting a certain newspaper, on time submitting of fruits and
vegetables, electronic management of paying accounts.
Smart running: by placing smart remote controls in water systems, fuel and electric energy we can prevent
from wasting them and also we can insert flowing pricing solutions which effectively manages needs and
encourages frugality such as smart irrigation, electronic sensors for turning on lights, opening doors, etc.
Software changing: in most developed areas, pretty different needs from the past will be met by coordinating
present building of public spaces and transportation infrastructure.


Kaveh Kamali et al. World Applied Programming, Vol (3), No (6), June 2013.


Cyberspace has been able to provide architecture a new aspect and created new insight and tool. Day to day architects
deal with a wide range of data for producing their products. This daily increase of data can reduce their controlling
ability every moment. Formation of softwares and expressing data, information and systems and organizing them in
the field of architecture are all based on structure and abilities of previous systems and they are new abilities against
architecture. These softwares have nearly been able to be replaced with a wide range of previous systems and they
were able to do responsibility of logical load of architectural space [4]. Computers and computer softwares provides
some new opportunities for architects from the advent of applying them in the working field. Computers as tool for
designing during acceleration and presenting of expressing, made architects calculate, show and make every
experience of architects` styles [5]. Also, PC acts as an intermediate element in the process of changing idea to form
so that Eskis of architect is given to PC like data and after processing, it changes to final size. Right now,
representing mental idea of architects with a low speed was not possible without using PC, especially on ideas in
which complexity could be observed has become possible. Frank A. Gary`s using a certain software in designing
Bilbao Museum is one of the cases which set the stage for changing idea to plan for presenting plans and inventions
which cannot be researched and performed in the field of making building and also [6].

Figure 2. Bilbao Museum. Frank A. Gary

Providing pre-showing of architecture made which is closer to reality is of applications of cyber space in the
architecture, a wish which many architects are looking for since the start of using perspective maps to using bits in
PCs at the present time.
At the present time, architectural softwares set the stage for showing architectural model in virtual PC environment
and they rebuild architecture in architecture in real form.
Also, specialized softwares and modeling a building in virtual environment made some things possible such as
possibility of scientific analyzing of acoustic problems, lighting, heating and structural problems before using them in
building. So, with the change which will be created after watching background picture, final production will be much
different with the first plan.
According to effects of cyberspace on process of designing architecture which was mentioned above, in the current
age we can differentiate three types of architecture:


Real architecture which is called actual architecture or produced architecture can be made with physical
Architecture on the paper which is called conceptual and imaginative architecture, representation plans and
maps of buildings and cities which have not been made before. This architecture can be introduced as
architecture in conceptual level.
Virtual architecture is achievement of modern technologies related to cyber space. Virtual architecture
space is represented space using PC. Virtual architecture provides a change for producing a plan aside
from Euclidean space limitations, background, texture , attraction and rules and it is used as a more


Kaveh Kamali et al. World Applied Programming, Vol (3), No (6), June 2013.

advanced tool for assessing a plan before being made compared to map and architecture on paper. In
virtual architecture cyberspace is used as a tool for presenting or representing physical and real space. In
this space, architecture significantly changes so that it hasnt anything to do with designing physical
elements and investigating structural joints of building and response to weather condition. What is called
making a building in cyberspace, is not related to brick and mortar, it is in contact with computer
programming. Following table is a comparative comparing among features of real and virtual space.
Table 1. Comparative comparing between feature of real space and virtual space

Virtual Space

Real Space

Digital/ Abstract
Global/ Network
Dynamic/ Motion/ Flux
Logical Space

Actual/ Physical
Local/ Territory
Static/ Fixedness
Euclidean Space

Electronic Realleation

Material Realleation

Role of information technology in creating contrast between real space and digital one (cyber) and creating a
combinational space called cyberspace provides a new definition of Place in architecture. According to effect of new
infrastructure of information technology and communication, space, architecture and structure and process of developing
a place will be improved. Architecture of virtual space sort of indicates transformation and metamorphosis of culture and
it is considered flow of information and digital revolution which applies macro levels. Information Architecture in can be
defined in interrelations of three space environments: mind world, real world and network, virtual Architecture gathers
these three environments and defines relations among them.
Today, we are witnessing a new field of which has not existed before. This new space field which has a direct relation
with internet and world wide web makes us review space relations which we are used to using them; real and mind
On the other hand, virtual architecture is simultaneous management of mind and virtual physical spaces. If problem of
virtual architecture was the only software used by PC, then the only duty would be judging about programs` being
suitable or unsuitable for the objective specified.
Today`s problem is thinking on the formation of these spaces, it can`t be argued that it is the duty of architecture or the
duty of an expert in processing information, but undoubtedly architects can plan a key role in creating new spaces for
human, the human which is located in the point of contact in space environment.
Today, speed of changes and developments in technology in digital field has a direct influence on many sciences and
technologies and architecture is not aside from it. For architecture developments won`t be left behind from scientific
developments, some solutions should be found for architecture developments to be able to change them from place space
to virtual spaces and performances and the most important result that we can achieve here is that architects should be
creative and make some developments in architecture by obtaining enough knowledge from cyberspaces.


Kaveh Kamali et al. World Applied Programming, Vol (3), No (6), June 2013.


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