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This paper gives the results of a study aimed at making an analytic definition of the resonance frequencies and the modal forms of vibration of a thin flat circular plate fixed at the central hole of radius r1 and free on the outside circumference of radius r2 . The calculation considers a state of bi-dimensional tension and assumes the vertical movement of each point of the plate to be identical to that of the upper or lower point on the median surface. The theory of vibrating thin plates provides the Dynamic bi-Laplacian Equation which is the analytic representation of the model. The problem was approached using cylindrical geometry to obtain an explicit formulation of the bi-Laplacian operator. The Dynamic bi-Laplacian Equation was integrated by the variable separation method. The paper shows the principal analytic functions obtained by integrating the Dynamic bi-Laplacian Equation in bi-dimensional cylindrical geometry. These functions can solve many kinds of structural problems that involve any different boundary conditions of thin flat circular plates. It is a possibility that they could also allow to analyze any bi-dimensional atomic and nuclear models based on Electromagnetic Atomic Theory (EAT) [Bellotti, Giuseppe (2012). The Ideas Behind the Electromagnetic Atomic Theory. Advances in Natural Science, 5(4), 7?11, DOI: 10.3968/j.ans. 1715787020120504.2014].

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2306-6474

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Using the Dynamic bi-Laplacian Equation

Bellotti Giuseppe

Via S. Gaudenzio 14/C 10015 Ivrea (Torino) Italia

AR TIC LE INF O

AB STR AC T

Keywords:

This paper gives the results of a study aimed at making an analytic definition of the resonance

frequencies and the modal forms of vibration of a thin flat circular plate fixed at the central hole of

radius r1 and free on the outside circumference of radius r2 . The calculation considers a state of bidimensional tension and assumes the vertical movement of each point of the plate to be identical to

that of the upper or lower point on the median surface. The theory of vibrating thin plates provides

the Dynamic bi-Laplacian Equation which is the analytic representation of the model. The problem

was approached using cylindrical geometry to obtain an explicit formulation of the bi-Laplacian

operator. The Dynamic bi-Laplacian Equation was integrated by the variable separation method.

The paper shows the principal analytic functions obtained by integrating the Dynamic bi-Laplacian

Equation in bi-dimensional cylindrical geometry. These functions can solve many kinds of

structural problems that involve any different boundary conditions of thin flat circular plates. It is a

possibility that they could also allow to analyze any bi-dimensional atomic and nuclear models

based on Electromagnetic Atomic Theory (EAT) [Bellotti, Giuseppe (2012). The Ideas Behind the

Electromagnetic Atomic Theory. Advances in Natural Science, 5(4), 711, DOI: 10.3968/j.ans.

1715787020120504.2014].

Vibration of circular plate

Electromagnetic Atomic Theory

Complete Relativity

1.

Introduction

The resonance frequencies of a thin flat circular plate fixed at the central hole of radius r 1 and free on the outside circumference of radius r2

, were calculated by considering a state of bi-dimensional tension. The theory of vibrating thin plates provides the following differential

equation to the partial derivatives as an analytic representation of the model (Reference 1):

0

D 4 w hw

(1)

where:

Eh 3

12 1 2

E = Youngs module

h = thickness of thin plate

= Poissons coefficient

= density of material of the plate

w = w ( r, , t ) = vertical displacement function

r = radial axis (polar coordinates)

= amplitude (polar coordinates)

t = time

The problem was approached using cylindrical geometry to obtain an explicit formulation of the operator 4 . Equation (1) was integrated

by the variable separation method, supposing:

w(r , , t ) R(r )( )T (t )

(2)

where R , , T are each functions of a single independent variable. R( r ) is the deflection along the direction r. ( ) is a corrective

function of R( r ), of the type sin( ), which makes it possible to obtain the configuration of the elastic surface in a given instance in time.

T( t ) defines the alternate flexion motion with angular frequency. This finally leads to an equation of the eigenvalues of the variable r,

which is integrated with the following boundary conditions:

* Corresponding author.

Email address: giuseppe.bellotti@live.it

Vibrational Modes of Thin Flat Circular Plates Calculated Using the Dynamic bi-Laplacian Equation

251

R (r1 ) 0

dR(r1 )

0

dr

r2 M r (r2 ) 0

r2 Q (r2 ) 0

h

2

Mr

where:

rr

dz

is the flexing moment which tends to inflect the disc in the radial direction

h

2

h

2

rz

dz

h

2

This integration makes it possible to define the eigenvalues, and hence, the resonance frequencies of the disc. Since the conditions are

homogeneous, the eigenvalues are obtained by imposing a zero value on the determinant of the linear system of four equations in four

unknowns generated by the boundary conditions. The values of the determinant can be obtained numerically against the frequency. The

intersections with the frequency axis of this function correspond to the resonance frequencies. Finally, it is possible to obtain the

eigenvectors of disc deformations corresponding to each eigenvalue.

Rewriting equation (1), we obtain:

0

4 w w

(3)

where:

D

h

and

w(r , , t ) R(r )( )T (t )

2

2

2 1 RT 1 RT RT

r

r 2 2

r

t 2

r r

1 1 2 1 I

1

II

II

II

r 2 2 R T R T 2 R T RT 0

r

r

r

r

1 1 I

1 II

2

1 I II

III

II

r 2 R T r R T R T 3 R T 2 R T

r

r

r r r

II

RT 0

1 1 R I II T R II II T 1 R IV T

r 2 r

r2

1 1

r 2

r r r r

IV

2 R III 1 R II 1 R I

2 II R II 1 R I 1 IV

II T II

R

2

3

2

4

0

4

r R r R r R r R r R r

T

R

(4)

(5)

(6)

(7)

Since the term in curly brackets does not depend on the time and T(t) does not depend on and r, we could put:

T II

2

T

(8)

T (t ) S cos t T sin t

(9)

where - is a constant.

The solution of equation (8) is:

with S, T numeric constants, and this represents the harmonic oscillation, at resonance angular frequency , of the modal form associated

with the angular frequency .

If we change to + 2 , the function

( ) b1 sin b2 cos

(10)

which represents a possible solution of

() ,

and hence the deflection at a generic point of the elastic surface

w(r , , t ) R(r )( )T (t ) , need not change. This condition is translated by putting m N . The case = - m may be ignored

since it implies only a change of sign which can be absorbed within the arbitrary constant. Supposing, then:

( ) b1 sin m b2 cos m

(11)

we obtain:

II m 2

IV

(12)

(13)

Bellotti Giuseppe

252

Substituting in equation (7) and bearing in mind equation (8), we thus obtain:

d 4 R 2 d 3 R 1 2 m2 d 2 R 1 2m 2 dR m

dr

dr 4 r dr 3

r2

dr 2

r3

where:

m

r

R R

(14)

With m fixed there are infinite values of which satisfy equation (14) for defined boundary conditions. In order to integrate equation (14)

we use the series integration method with generalized series of the type:

R ( r ) an r s n

(15)

n 0

R I (r ) an s n r s n 1

(16)

n0

R II (r ) an s n s n 1 r s n 2

(17)

n0

R III (r ) an s n s n 1 s n 2 r s n 3

(18)

n0

R IV (r ) an s n s n 1 s n 2 s n 3 r s n 4

(19)

n0

We substitute these generalized series in equation (14) and make equal the terms of equal power. If we assume n = 0 , the left-hand side of

equation (14) starts from the power rs-4 and the right-hand side starts from rs. In the same way, supposing n = 1, n = 2 and n = 3, terms are

generated on the left-hand side with the powers rs-3, r s-2 and rs-1. These terms must be equal to zero, which happens if the coefficients a3, a2,

a1 and a0 of rs-1, rs-2, rs-3 and rs-4 are zero or for particular values of s obtainable by known mathematical procedures, i.e. for n = 0 the

coefficient of rs-4 is equal to zero only if:

a0 s s 1 s 2 s 3 2s s 1 s 2 2m 2 1 s s 1 2m 2 1 s m 2 m 2 4 0

(20)

And this happens if, and only if, a0 = 0 or if the expression in curly brackets is equal to zero, i.e. when:

s=m; s=2-m; s=-m; s=2+m

(21)

If we assume s = m , two arbitrary constants can be introduced: a0 and a2 ; while a1 and a3 must be presumed to be equal to zero. The

generalized series (15) would then only be formed by powers of r where its coefficients are linked to a0 and a2, whereas all the coefficients

of terms of the type rm + (2t+1) for t N are zero. Expressing all the coefficients of powers of the series against a0 and a2 [making equal,

term for term, the coefficients of the series to the left-hand and right-hand sides of equation (14)], we discover that the series which solves

equation (14) are:

t m 1 ! r 4 t

t m ! r 4t

Rm (r ) r m a0 t

a2 r 2 t

a0 S m (r ) a2 Pm (r )

t 0 32 t ! 2t m 1 ! 2t 1 !!

t 0 32 t ! 2t m ! 2t 1 !!

(22)

having considered (-1)!!=1. With the ratio criterion it is possible to check that the above series are convergent and that their convergence

radius is infinite. It is possible to confirm that equation (22) is a solution to equation (14). Let us consider, for example, the series:

S m (r )

t 0

t m ! r 4t m

f m, , t r 4t m

32t t ! 2t m ! 2t 1 !! t 0

(23)

It is easy to obtain S mI , S mII , S mIII and S mIV and substitute these in equation (14). Each term of the resulting series on the left-hand side must

be exactly equal to each term of equal power on the right-hand side. Thus, the following identity is confirmed:

4t m 4t m 1 4t m 2 4t m 3 f m, , t r 4t m 4 2 4t m 4t m 1 4t m 2 f m, , t r 4 t m 4

(24)

2m 2 1 4t m 4t m 1 f m, , t r 4 t m 4 2m 2 1 4t m f m, , t r 4 t m 4 m2 m2 4 f m, , t r 4t m 4

4t m 4

f m, , t 1 r

When t = 1 on the right-hand side, we can obtain the initial term of the series (in rm) which exactly corresponds to the left-hand side where

we have an equal term (in rm). On the left-hand side a residual term (in rm-4) would remain, but this is zero. If we presume s = - m we obtain

solutions which are linearly dependent on equation (22). If we define to be a number which is neither whole nor partially whole and we

assume s = and s = - in the generalized series, we can satisfy the following differential equation:

d 4 R 2 d 3 R 2 2 1 d 2 R 2 2 1 dR

dr

dr 4 r dr 3

r2

dr 2

r3

R R

(25)

S (r ) r

t 0

t 1 r 4 t

32t t ! 2t 1 !! 2t 1

(26)

Vibrational Modes of Thin Flat Circular Plates Calculated Using the Dynamic bi-Laplacian Equation

253

P (r ) r

t 2 r 4t

32 t ! 2t 1 !! 2t 2

(27)

t 0

t 1 r 4t

S (r ) r

t 0

P ( r ) r

(28)

32 t ! 2t 1 !! 2t 1

t

t 2 r 4t

32 t ! 2t 1 !! 2t 2

(29)

t 0

Any solution of equation (25) is:

R (r ) C1 S (r ) C2 S (r ) C3 P (r ) C4 P (r )

(30)

2.

2.1 Case m = 0

In order to obtain two solutions which are linearly independent of S0( r ) and P0( r ) we must solve the following two limits:

S (r ) S (r )

H 0 (r ) lim

(31)

sin

P (r ) P (r )

K 0 (r ) lim

(32)

sin

x 1 x x

(33)

n n 1 !

(34)

0

(35)

(36)

(37)

We also have to remember that:

x x1 x x2 x x3 x xn x n xl x n 1 (1)n 1 xl

l 1

l 1

l 1

n

1

n

x (1) xl

xl

l 1

(38)

When the limits (31) and (32) are carried out we obtain:

H 0 (r )

2t

2

2

t r 4t

1

log(r ) log(r ) t

t 1

l 1 l 32 t !(2t )!(2t 1)!!

(39)

K 0 (r )

2 2

2r 2

r log(r )

(40)

2t 1

l 1

t r 4t

t 1

With the ratio criterion it is possible to check that these two above series are convergent with infinite convergence radius and that they

solve the differential equation:

d 4 R 2 d 3 R 1 d 2 R 1 dR

R

dr 4 r dr 3 r 2 dr 2 r 3 dr

(41)

A solution of the eigenvalue equation (41) is therefore:

R0 r AS 0 r BP0 r CH 0 r FK 0 r

(42)

with A, B, C and F numeric constants to be decided by the boundary conditions. For a thin flat circular plate fixed at the central circular

hole, the boundary conditions are [Reference 1 , equations (6.130) (6.134)]:

Bellotti Giuseppe

254

R r1 0

R I r1 0

rM r r r r r D I

2

r

r r2

I

rQ r r r r D II

0

2

r r 2

r r2

since the vibrating plate is not loaded and its deformations are small, then [in accordance with equation (6.134) of reference 1 where Q = 0

] we can assume:

RI r

then the boundary conditions are:

d2R

dR

rM r r r r r 2

0

2

dr r r

dr

2

d 3 R d 2 R 1 dR

rQ r r r r 3 2

0

2

r dr r r

dr

dr

2

Making successive derivatives of equation (42) and substituting in the four boundary conditions, we obtain a homogeneous linear system of

four equations in the four unknowns A, B, C and F. The solution of this system is significant only if the determinant of the coefficients is

equal to zero. Since R0( r ) contains the coefficient =(), we may proceed to the calculation of the determinant against the frequency.

When the frequency f has been chosen, we can calculate:

48 2 f 2 1 2

Eh 2

and thus calculate the numeric coefficient of the unknowns A, B, C and F allowing to calculate the determinant of the coefficients and by

making f vary, we can define the frequency at which it becomes zero. In such way the resonance frequencies are defined. Once A, B, C and

F, have been found (unless there is a constant of proportionality) it is possible to substitute in equation (42) and find the profile of

R0 j r , f j (where j N ) along the radius. In order to obtain the elastic vibrant surface it is necessary to multiply by () and T(t) the

function R0 j r , f j

j

2.2 Case m =1

Equation (14) becomes:

d 4 R 2 d 3 R 3 d 2 R 3 dR 3

R R

dr 4 r dr 3 r 2 dr 2 r 3 dr r 4

(43)

S1 (r ) r

t 0

t r 4t

32 t ! 2t 1 ! 2t 1 !!

t

t r 4t

32t t ! 2 t 1 ! 2t 1 !!

P1 (r ) 2r 3

t 0

(44)

(45)

We needs to find two more solutions linearly independent of these. Supposing = 1 + with 0 , we obtain from equations (26)

(29):

t 2 r 4 t 1

S (r ) r

t 0

32t t ! 2t 1 !! 2t 2

t 3 r 4t 3

P (r ) r

t 0

32 t ! 2t 1 !! 2t 3

t

S ( r ) r

t 0

P ( r ) r

t 0

t r 4t 1

32t t ! 2t 1 !! 2t

t 1 r 4t 1

32t t ! 2t 1 !! 2t 1

(46)

(47)

(48)

(49)

Vibrational Modes of Thin Flat Circular Plates Calculated Using the Dynamic bi-Laplacian Equation

255

H1 (r ) lim

0

S (r ) P (r )

(50)

sin

32

S ( r )

sin

P (r )

K1 (r ) lim

0

(51)

H1 (r )

K1 ( r )

2

2

r log(r )

2t

t r 4t 1

t 1

l 1

2 t 1

32 2

3t 2

t r 4t 3

1

2 log(r )

2 t

r t 0

2t 2

l 1 l 32 t !(2t 2)!(2t 1)!!

(52)

(53)

2.3 Case m = 2

Supposing = 2 + we may solve the limits:

32

S (r )

sin

S (r )

H 2 (r ) lim

0

96

P ( r )

sin

(54)

P (r )

K 2 (r ) lim

0

(55)

and find the functions which confirm equation (14) for m = 2. In Section IV we will calculate K2 ( r ).

2.4 Case m = 3

Supposing = 3 + we may solve the limits:

96

P (r )

sin

S (r )

H 3 ( r ) lim

0

322

S (r )

2

sin

(56)

P ( r ) 12

K 3 (r ) lim

0

(57)

2.5 Case m = 4

Supposing = 4 + we may solve the limits:

32 2

S (r )

2

sin

S (r ) 36

H 4 (r ) lim

0

322

P (r )

2

sin

(58)

P (r ) 60

K 4 (r ) lim

0

And so on.

(59)

Bellotti Giuseppe

256

3.

4.

K 2 (r ) lim

P (r ) P (r )

sin

(60)

K 2 r lim

0

t 1 1 r 4t 4

r

1

t

t 1

t 0 32 t ! 2t 1 !! 2t 4

t 0 32 t 1 ! 2t 3 !! 2t 2

sin

r

K 2 r lim

0

t 4 r 4t 4

t r 4t

r

1

t

t

t 0 32 t ! 2t 1 !! 2t 4

t 1 32 t ! 2t 1 !! 2t

sin

(61)

t 4 r 4t 4

(62)

r

K 2 r lim

0

t 0

t r 4t 4

32t t ! 2t 1 !!

G 1

r 1

2t 4

t 0 32 t 1 2t 3 2t 2

sin

(63)

G 4

(64)

Vibrational Modes of Thin Flat Circular Plates Calculated Using the Dynamic bi-Laplacian Equation

257

1 log r

G 3 2 1 1

2t 4

t0

K 2 r lim

sin

G 1

1 log r 1

t 0 32 t 1 2t 3 2t 2

sin

(65)

G 3 2 1 1 c

G 1 c

1 log r

1 log r

t 0 2t 3 2t 2 2t 2

t 0 32 t 1 2t 3 2t 2

1 log r

K 2 r lim

0

sin

sin

sin

(66)

If we define:

from equation (66) we obtain:

K 2 r lim

0

1 log r

sin

16 log r 3 2 1 1 c

2 log r 1 c

(67)

lim G

G

0

sin

16

2

t

2

t

2

t

sin

16

2

t

2

2

t

2

t

t 0

16 3 2 1 1 c

2 1 c

lim G

G

0

sin 16 2t 2 2t 3 2t 2

t 0

sin 16 2t 3 2t 2 2t 2

K2 r

96log r log r

16

2

t

3

2

t

2

2

t

1

!

t 0

2

16 3 2 1 1 c 2t 2 2t 3 2t 3 1 c 2t 3 2t 2 2t 2

lim G

0

sin 16 2t 2 2t 3 2t 2 2t 3 2t 2 2t 2

t 0

(68)

If we remember equation (63) and define:

96

(69)

K2 r

96 12

t r 4t 4

log r t

t0

32 t ! 2t 3 ! 2t 1 !!

6 11 1 c 2t 2 2t 3 2t 1 1 1

G

sin 2t 3 2t 2 2t 2 2t 2 2t 3 2t 2

lim

0

6 1 c 2t 3 2t 2 2t 1 1 1

t 0

G

sin 2t 3 2t 2 2t 2 2t 2 2t 3 2t 2

K2 r

(70)

96 12

t r 4t4

log r t

32

t

!

2

t

3

!

2

t

1

!!

t0

11

1 6 1 c 2t 2 2t 3 2t 1 1 1 c

G

6

2t 3! 2t 3!

lim

0 sin

t 0

1 c 2t 3 2t 2 2t 1 1 1 c

2t 3! 2t 3!

(71)

Bellotti Giuseppe

258

K2 r

96 12

t r 4t4

log r t

t0

32 t ! 2t 3 ! 2t 1!!

11

2 2

1 6 2t 2 2t 3 2t 1 1 1 c

G

6

2t 3! 2t 3 !

lim

0 sin

t 0

2t 3 2t 2 2t 1 1 1 c 2 2

2t 3! 2t 3!

(72)

K2 r

96 12

t r 4t 4

log r t

t0

32 t ! 2t 3 ! 2t 1 !!

2 t 1

11

1 2t 2 2t 3 2t 1! 2t 1!

l 1 l

G

2t 3 ! 2t 3!

6

lim

2 t 1

0 sin

1

t 0

2t 3 2t 2 4t 5 2 2t 1! 2t 1!

l 1 l

2t 3! 2t 3!

K2 r

96 12

t r 4t4

log r t

t0

32 t ! 2t 3 ! 2t 1!!

2 t 1

11

2 t 1

4t 5

1

6

l 1 l

l 1 l

G 2t 3 2t 2

lim

G

0 sin

2

t

3

!

2

t

3

!

t 0

K2 r

5.

(73)

2 t 1

4t 5

96 12 11

1

t r 4t 4

log r

t

t 0 12

2 2t 3 2t 2 l 1 l 32 t ! 2t 3 ! 2t 1 !!

(74)

(75)

Conclusions

The theory of vibrating thin circular plates provides the Dynamic bi-Laplacian Equation which is a useful analytic model. In order to

calculate the resonance frequencies and the modal forms of vibration, this paper considered a thin flat circular plate fixed at the central hole

of radius r1 and free on the outside circumference of radius r 2. By an explicit formulation of the bi-Laplacian operator in cylindrical

geometry, the Dynamic bi-Laplacian Equation was integrated using the variable separation method in order to solve the principal functions

of this dynamic problem. These functions can solve many other structural symmetrical problems that involve different boundary conditions.

A complete vibrational modal analysis of rotating discs might be achieved using the parameter m = . Since these modal forms show a

single nodal radial line, many asymmetrical shapes of vibration appear when the ratio between the angular frequencies of resonance linked

to m = and the angular frequency of rotation of the disc is a suitable whole. Moreover, since the vibrating thin circular plate can also

simulate a bi-dimensional e.m. standing wave in cylindrical coordinates, there is a possibility that the results obtained in the paper could

allow to analyze any bi-dimensional atomic and nuclear models based on the Electromagnetic Atomic Theory (reference 2 and reference 3).

Acknowledgement

Reviewed by Sally Pitt.

References

[1]

[2]

[3]

Dym, C.L., & Shames, I.H. (1973). Solid Mechanics. New York: MecGraw-Hill Book Company.

Bellotti, Giuseppe (2012). The Ideas Behind the Electromagnetic Atomic Theory. Advances in Natural Science, 5(4), 711. DOI: 10.3968/j.ans.

1715787020120504.2014

Bellotti, Giuseppe (2009). The dynamic bi-Laplacian equation in polar coordinates and the magic numbers of atomic nucleus. Physics Essays, 22(3),

268-287. DOI: 10.4006/1.3141024

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