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International Journal of Economy, Management and Social Sciences, 2(10) October 2013, Pages: 793-801

TI Journals

International Journal of Economy, Management and Social Sciences

ISSN
2306-7276

www.tijournals.com

Family Adjustment in an Egyptian Village


Mokhtar Abd-Ella 1, Alham Aly 2, Mohammed Ebad-Allah* 3
1

Agricultural Economics Department, Faculty of Agriculture-Tanta University, Tanta, Egypt.


Department of Rural Family Development, Faculty of Home Economics-Al-Azhar University, Egypt.
3
Agricultural Economics Department, Faculty of Agriculture-Tanta University, Tanta, Egypt.
2

AR TIC LE INF O

AB STR AC T

Keywords:

This study was directed toward investigating family adjustment in rural Egypt using the family as
the unit of analysis. Nine dimensions of family adjustment were identified in the literature. Ten
independent variables were specified and expected to be related to family adjustment in this study.
A quota sample of 300 families was chosen. Husband and wives in samples families were
simultaneously interviewed by a brother sister interviewing teams. The result showed that
religiously, duration and educational level; are the three most effective predictors of most family
adjustment dimensions. Adjust role orientation as a family adjustment dimension is not explained
and predicted by those three factors but is explained by urban contact and mass media exposure.
The relevance of those findings was outlines.

Family adjustment
Multidimensions
Egyptian village

2013 Int. j. econ. manag. soc. sci. All rights reserved for TI Journals.

1.

Introduction

There has been a great concern with the conceptualization and analysis of the quality families. Concepts such as marital adjustment, marital
satisfaction, and marital happiness, are being used by scholars to assess the subjective evaluation of the so called marital component of the
family [1]; [2]; [3]; [5]; [6]; [7]; [8]; [9]; [10]; [11]; [12]; [13]; [14]; [15]; [16]; [17]; [18]; [19]; [20]; [21]; [22]; [23]; and [24]. All the three
above concepts are by definition individual traits. Therefore, they are limited to only one of the two parties involved in marriage. Relying
on such concepts does not enough to assess the quality of the family. It is quite probable that the husband and wife hold different
assessment of their marriage. Other scholars use family adjustment to assess the quality of the family. The concept of family adjustment
concentrates to alteration of conduct to suit family living. The alteration is given by partners to maintain family living.
Methodologically, the mainstream of family studies deal with the evaluation of the quality of the family as an individual trait. If the family
is to be considered as a social system, the family should be taken as the unit of analyses.
Therefore, it is argued that family research suffers three liabilities. First one is concentration on the marital portion of the family, while the
family as a social unit is not confined to this marital portion. There are at least two other components of the family, namely, the parental
component and the kinship component [25]. Second, what family life is based on exchange in the broadest sense, studies focus on one side
of the exchange, i.e. either what is being received happiness or what is being given adjustment. And third, assessment of family life has
been treated as an individual trait, while it is in fact a trait of the whole family as a social unit.
Conceptual framework
As a starting point, the concept family adjustment is chosen to express the quality of the family in this study. This choice is based on that it
seems applicable to the family as a social unit. Various parties are required to adjust to family life. The term adjustment seems to be more
neutral than other alternative. Family adjustment may be defined as the degree to which the two spouses in the family make their conduct
conductive to the smoothness of family life. Family adjustment, as well as it alternatives in the literature is conceptualized as a
multidimensional concept [28]; [31]; [32]; [34]; and [4].
In this study, family adjustment is considered as a nine-dimensional concept. Its nine dimensions are financial adjustment, leisure time
shared activities, adjustment in child rearing, affective communication, problem-solving communication, overall persuasion,
companionship, adjust role orientations, and sexual adjustment. Socio-cultural conditions in the study population made it quite impossible
to receive any response regarding sexual adjustment. Therefore, this dimension was omitted and the inquiry proceeded with the other eight
dimensions.
As for variables related to family adjustment, there are ten independent variables that may affect family adjustment. Those are age
difference, educational level, religiosity, duration, level of living, decision making, division of labor, kinship contact, urban contact and
mass media exposure. The meanings and relevance of those variables are discussed below.
Age differences refer to the time period between birth of the husband and the birth of the wife in the family. In most rural families in Egypt,
husbands are obtaining than wives. The age differences vary considerably. Wider age difference is associated with differences in
* Corresponding author.
Email address: mohammed.ebadallah@agr.tanta.edu.eg

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perception, experiences and expectations. Therefore, family adjustment may be harmed. A negative relationship is expected between age
difference and family adjustment.
Educational level indicates the amount of formal education achieved by the spouses in the family. The significance of education is that it is
means by which skill to perceive the surroundings and pursue ordinary living in society. Skills acquired through education may increase as
the educational level increases. Acquired skills may be employed in the family to enhance its quality. Therefore, educational level is
positively related to family adjustment. Several researchers report such positive relationship between educational level and family
adjustment [30] and [31]. According educational level is hypothesized to be positively related to family adjustment.
Religiosity means the degree of adherence to religious rules and norms. In Islamic societies, family life is organized around religious rules.
Religion specifies in a great detail all aspects of family life. In such a situation may be good for the family life. In such a situation, making
good for the family is a religious as well as social undertaking. Therefore, religiosity leads to more adjusted family living. Several previous
studies report positive relationships between religiosity and family adjustment in societies dominated by different religions. Religiosity is
hypothesized to be positively related to family adjustment in this study.
Duration for the family stands for the time span from the starting point of family living to the time of the study. Duration reflects the
opportunities offered to the family to function, adapt and pursue mutual goals as a social unit. Increased opportunities mean increased
experience and maturity. Hence, family adjustment may increase through time. Empirical research report conflicting conclusions. For
example, Abdel-Mageed (2002) reported a position relationship between duration and family adjustment [26], whereas, Abdel-Gawad
(1979) reported a negative relationship between the two variables [27]. Because of the theoretical sense of the position relationship, this
study expects a positive relationship between duration and family adjustment.
Level of living refers to the quantity and quality of goods and services enjoyed by the family. In a poor rural community as the majority of
rural communities in Egypt, low level of living means a deep sense of relative deprivation, starvation, more life problems to deal with and
more effort to secure family needs. On the other hand, higher level of living means less problems and better enjoyment. In such a situation,
the probability of consumingly interaction that leads to better family adjustment increases as level of living increases. Therefore, level of
living is expected to be positively related to family adjustment.
Decision making in family refers to the pattern of the family in making decision. Traditionally, Egyptian rural families were patriarchal,
where the oldest male in the family unit makes all decision. Due to the radical social change in the Egyptian society during the second half
of the 20th century, this pattern declined. More and more families make group decision one way on the other. The most common style of
group decision is for the two married persons to share all family decisions. What is new in this style is the overt contribution of the wife to
family decisions. Such contribution is usually made through discussion and interaction. The benefits of this style of decision making are
two-fold. Mutual or democratic decision making on the one hand is a channel of adjusting personal needs and expectations to suit the
family ; it is then an opportunity to enhance family adjustment. On the other hand, mutual decisions will be in acted willingly because
every party treats than as if they were his own. This will enhance the functioning and achievement of the family. Decision making is
expected to be related to family adjustment.
Division of labor refers to the pattern of allocating tasks and duties to members of a social unit. For the family, division of labor means the
allocation of tasks to the husband and the wife in the family. Transitionally, labor in the rural Egyptian family followed rigid sex roles. The
predominance of the extended family system allowed this pattern to survive for long periods of time. However, the extended family system
has declined and a new nuclear family system is dominating. This means that there is only one functioning male and one functioning
female. For the family to survive, it is crucial that when one party is overloaded, he or she should get help from the other party.
Hence, families are required to cross the traditional sex lines in allocating tasks. The degree to which the family life proceeds smoothly
depends on the degree to which it succeeds to re-allocate duties between husband and wife. Abdel-Aziz (2002) states that the clarity of the
division of labor in the family leads to family adjustment [29]. El-Khouly (1986) argues that the willingness of one spouse to reallocate
family tasks is greatly appreciated by the other spouse, and will be reciprocated with valuable consummator interaction. Thus it eventually
enhances family adjustment [33]. Division of labor is expected to be related to family adjustment.
Kinship contact refers to exchange visits with relatives, particularly the two families of orientation. Kinship contact is a mean of keeping
strong social relationship with relatives. Actually, there are still certain mutual obligations with relatives. Those obligations may be
considered as functional residues of the extended family. Discharging those obligations toward the relatives of each spouse is appreciated
by the other spouse. That means of keeping strong social relationship with relatives. Actually, there are still certain mutual obligations with
relatives. Those obligations may be considered as functional residues of the extended family. Discharging those obligations toward the
relatives of each spouse is appreciated by the other spouse. The more kinship contacts may also reflect more adjustment to the closer circle
of people on the part of the family. In addition, family content is a means of getting some port of social assistance. All those effects may
eventually be reflected in better family adjustment.
Urban contact refers to recurrence of visiting urban areas. The significance of urban contact in transitional societies is that it provides
opportunity to know different living conditions and get acquainted with different life styles. This may induce aspirations and/or
reassessment of the own family life. The experiences gained through urban contact may lead to functional family communication. Increased
communication will strengthen family ties and/or lead to decisions to adopt new practices. Eventually family adjustment will increase.
Therefore, urban contact is expected to be related to family adjustment.
Mass media exposure refers to the volume of mass media messages received by the family. Various mass media items deal directly or
indirectly with family life. Exposure to those items is expected to provide the family with more competencies needed for better

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performance. In addition, some items may present ready-made solutions to problems similar to those faced by the family. Besides, certain
mass media items may present different family life styles that may help motivate the family to set future goals to enhance its living
conditions. The outcome of those affects an increase in family adjustment. Therefore, mass media exposure is expected to be related to
family adjustment.
Hypothesis
On the basis of the above discussion, the following hypothesis is formulated to be tested in this study:
Hypothesis 1: Educational levels, religiously, duration, level of living, decision making, division of labor, kinship contact, urban contact,
and mass media exposure are related to family adjustment; whereas, age differences is negatively related to family adjustment.
Hypothesis 2: Age differences, educational level, religiosity, duration, level of living, decision making, division of labor, kinship contact,
urban contact and mass media exposure, combined, are related to family adjustment.

2.

Methodology

This study is conduct in the village of Tokh El-Khail, Menia Governorate in Upper Egypt. The study population is all the two-parent
families with permanent residence in the village. The population size is 4938 families. A quota sample of 300 families was chosen. Quotas
were allocated to the different neighborhood in the village, and to farm and non-farm families in each neighborhood.
An interviews schedule was prepared for purpose of data collection. Data were collected by a two-person team composed of a brother and
his sister. The team held simultaneous interview with the husband and the wife in two different rooms in the family dwelling. Collected
data were then coded and analyzed.
The study variables were measured as follows:
1. Age differences were measured by subtracted wife age from husband's age in years.
2. Educational level was measured for each spouse on an eight point scale. The mean of the two spouses was taken to be the
educational level of the families.
3. Religiosity was measured by a sixteen-item scale for each spouse. The family score is the mean of the scores assigned to the
husband the wife in the family.
4. Duration was measured as the number of years from the wedding date to the time of interviewing.
5. Level of living was measured by a thirty one-item scales pertaining to the quality of the family dwelling and possession of home
appliances. Responses were scored and summed up. The family score is the mean of the scores assigned to the response of the
husband and the wife.
6. Decision making was measured by eight-item scales. Responses of each spouse were coded in such a way that gives shard
decision making higher scores. Scores were then summed up and mean of the husband score and the wife score was taken to
stand for the family.
7. Division of labor was measured by twelve-item scales. Responses of each spouse were coded in such a way that gives up and the
mean of the husband score and wife score was taken s family division of labor score.
8. Kinship contact was measure by an eight-item scale dealing with contacts with relatives on both sides. Responses were scored
and summed up for each respondent. The mean of the scores of the two spouses was computed and considered to be the family
kinship contact score.
9. Urban contact was measured as the frequency of travelling to Menia, Cairo and Alexandria. The mean score of the two spouses
was taken as the family urban contact score.
10. Mass media exposure was measured three items. Thos items are frequency or radio listing, television watching, and press reading.
The three items were summed up for each spouse, and the mean of the scores of the two spouses was computed to stand for the
family mass media exposure.
11. Family adjustment was measured by a one hundred fifty one-item inventory. Items were grouped under the eight dimensions of
family adjustment. Scores of each dimension were reached as follows:
a.
b.
c.
d.

e.
f.

Financial adjustment was measured by a twelve-item scale. Responses of each spouse were scored and summed up. The
means of the scores assigned to the two spouses was computed to stand for the family financial adjustment.
Leisure time shared activities was measured by a sixteen-item scale. Responses of each spouse were scored and
summed up. The mean of the scores assigned for the two spouses was computed and taken to be the family score.
Adjustment in child rearing was measured by an eleven-item scale. Responses of each spouse were scored and summed
up. The mean of the scores assigned to the husband and to the wife was computed to stand for the family score.
Affective communication was measured by a twelve-item scale. Responses of each spouse were scored and summed
up. The mean of the scores assigned to the husband and to the wife was computed to get the family effective
communicative score.
Problem-solving communication was measured by a sixteen-item scale. Response of each spouse were scored and
summed up. The mean of the scores assigned to the husband and to the wife was computed to get the family problemsolving communication score.
Overall persuasion was measured by a thirty four-item scale. Responses of each spouse were scored and summed up.
The means of the scores assigned to the husband and to the wife was computed to get the family overall persuasion
score.

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Int ernational Journal of Economy, Mana ge ment and Soci al Sci ences , 2(10) October 2013

g.
h.

Companionship was measured by a thirty-item scale. Responses of each spouse were scored and summed up. The mean
of the scores assigned to the husband and to the wife was computed to get the family companionship score.
Adjust role orientation was measured by a twenty-item scale. Responses of each spouse were scored and summed up.
The mean of the scores assigned to the husband and two the wife was computed to get the family role orientation score.

Simple correlation and multiple linear regressions were used to analyze the data and test the hypotheses.

3.

Results and discussion

3.1 Correlation coefficients results


Table (1) presents the simple person correlation coefficients between the independent variables and the dimension of family adjustment.
Figures in the table show that age difference is not correlated significantly with any of the eight of age differences are not statistically
significant. It should, therefore, be concluded that age difference is not related to family adjustment. The hypothesized negative relationship
between age differences and family adjustment is not supported.
Figures in the table show that educational level is correlated with financial adjustment, leisure time shared activities, adjustment in child
rearing, affective communication, problem-solving communication, overall persuasion, companionship and adjust role orientation with
correlation coefficients of 0.25, 0.19, 0.16., 0.22, 0.24, 0.29, 0.26 and 0.22, respectively. All those correlation coefficients are statistically
significant at the 0.01 of significance. This means that educational level is related to all the dimensions of family adjustment. It may
therefore, be concluded that educational level is related to family adjustment. This finding supports the hypothesized positive relationship
between educational level and family adjustment.
Table 1. Pearson Correlation Coefficients between the Independent Variables and the Dimensions of Family Adjustment
Family adjustment dimensions
Financial
adjustment

Leisure
time shared
activities

Adjustment
in child
rearing

Affective
communication

Problem-solving
communication

Overall
persuasion

Companionship

Adjust role
orientation

Age
difference

.09

.01

-.04

-.06

-.07

-.07

-.09

.08

Educational
level

.25*

.19**

.16**

.22**

.24**

.29**

.26**

.22**

.47**

.42**

.39**

.49**

.52**

.55**

.53**

.17**

.35**

.35**

.26**

.41**

.39**

.37**

.31**

-.11

Level of
living

.26**

.28**

.13*

.25**

.31**

.29**

.29**

.13*

Decision
making

.09

.14*

.19**

.16**

.12*

.12*

.12**

.08

Independent
variables

Religiosity
Duration

Division of
labor

-.13*

-.04

-.11

-.11

-.06

-.08

-.06

-.13*

Kinship
contact

.10

.18**

.07

.06

.09

.07

.15**

.07

Urban
contact

.31**

.29**

.16**

.29**

.31**

.30**

.31**

.28**

Mass media
exposure

.26**

.26**

.19**

.23**

.25**

.26**

.27**

.27**

*p < .05

**p < .01 (two-tailed tests)

Figures in the table show that religiosity is correlated with financial adjustment, leisure time shared activities, adjustment in child rearing,
affective communication, problem-solving communication, overall persuasion, companionship and adjust role orientation with correlation
coefficients of 0.47, 0.42, 0.39., 0.49, 0.52, 0.55, 0.53 and 0.17, respectively. All those correlation coefficients are statistically significant at
the 0.01 of significance. This means that religiosity is related to all the dimensions of family adjustment. It may therefore, be concluded that
religiosity is related to family adjustment. This finding supports the hypothesized positive relationship between religiosity and family
adjustment.
The correlation coefficients between duration and finical adjustment, leisure time shared activities, adjustment in child rearing, affective
communication, problem-solving communication, overall persuasion, and companionship are 0.35, 0.35, 0.26, 0.41, 0.39, 0.37 and 0.31,
respectively. All those correlation coefficients are statistically significant at the 0.01 level and are in the expected direction. On the other
hand, the correlation coefficient between duration and adjust role orientation is - 0.11 which statistically insignificant. This means that
duration is not related to role orientation. Those results show that duration is related to seven of the eight dimensions of family adjustment.
This lends a good support of the hypothesized positive relationship between duration and family adjustment.

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Internat ional Jour nal of Economy, Mana ge ment and Social Sciences , 2(10) October 2013

The correlation coefficient between level of living and financial adjustment, leisure time shared activities, affective communication,
problem-solving communications, overall persuasion, and companionship are 0.26, 0.28, 0.25, 0.31, 0.29 and 0.29, respectively. All those
correlation coefficients are statistically significant at the 0.01 level. And the correlation coefficients between level of living and adjustment
in child rearing and adjust role orientation are 0.13, and 0.13, respectively. The two correlation coefficients are statistically significant at the
0.05 level. Those results indicate that level of living is related to all the eight dimensions and stand to support the expected positive
relationship between level of living and family adjustment.
The correlation coefficients between decision making and adjustment in child rearing and affective communication are 0.19, and 0.16,
respectively. The two correlation coefficients are statistically significant at the 0.01 level. And the correlation coefficient between decision
making and leisure time shared activities, problem-solving communications, overall persuasion, and companionship are 0.14, 0.12, 0.12,
and 0.12, respectively. All those correlation coefficients are statistically significant at the 0.05 level. On the other hand, the correlation
coefficient between decision making and financial adjustment and adjust role orientation is 0.09 and 0.08, respectively. The two correlation
coefficients are statistically insignificant. Those results show that decision making is related to eight of the ten dimensions of family
adjustment. This lends a good support of the hypothesized positive relationship between decision making and family adjustment.
Also, the correlation coefficient between division of labor and the most dimensions of family adjustment is not significant. However, only
two of the eight correlation coefficients are statistically significant, namely correlation coefficients with financial adjustment and adjust role
orientation and mean that division of labor is not related to family adjustment.
The correlation coefficients of kinship contact and dimensions of family adjustment are all in the expected positive direction. However,
only two of the eight correlation coefficients are statistically significant. Those are the correlations with leisure time shared activities and
companionship. These results provide a weak support to the hypothesized positive relationship between kinship contact and family
adjustment.
Urban contact is correlated with financial adjustment, leisure time shared activities, adjustment in child rearing, affective communication,
problem solving communication, overall persuasion, companionship and adjust role orientation by correlation coefficients of 0.31, 0.29,
0.16, 0.29, 0.31, 0.30, 0.31 and 0.28, respectively. All correlation coefficients are statistically significantly at the 0.01 level of significance.
This means that urban contact is related to all dimensions of family adjustment in the expected positive direction. It may be concluded that
urban contact is positively related to family adjustment.
Mass media exposure is correlated with financial adjustment, leisure time shared activities, adjustment in child rearing, affective
communication, problem solving communication, overall persuasion, companionship and role orientation by correlation coefficients of
0.26, 0.26, 0.19, 0.23, 0.25, 0.26, 0.27 and 0.27, respectively. All the correlation coefficients are statistically significant at the 0.01 level of
significance. This means that mass media exposure is correlated will all the dimensions of family adjustment in the expected direction. The
supports the hypothesized relationship and allow us to conclude that mass media exposure is related to family adjustment.
Correlation analysis as a whole shows that seven of the independent variables are correlated with family adjustment in the expected
direction. Those are educational level, religiosity, duration, level of livening, decision making, urban contact, and mass media exposure.
On the other hand, the three independent variables of age differences, division of labor, and kinship contact are mostly not related to family
adjustment. Therefore, seven of the ten relationships specified in hypothesis 1 are supported. This may be considered as a moderate support
for hypothesis 1.
3.2 Multiple liner regression results
Table (2) and Table (3) present the results of linear regression analysis of dimensions of family adjustment on the ten independent
variables, combined. Figures in Table (2) show that age differences, educational level, religiously, duration, level of living, decision
making, division of labor, kinship contact, urban contact, and mass media exposure, combined are correlated with financial adjustment with
a multiple regression coefficient of 0.582 which is statistically significant at the 0.01 level. This provides some support to hypothesis 2. The
ten independent variables combined explain about 33.8 % of the observed variance in financial adjustment. There independent variables
make significant unique contributions to the regression equation. Those are educational level, religiously and duration. The stepwise
regression procedure yielded a reduced equation with the three variables of educational level, religiosity and duration that explains 31.7 %
of the observed variance in financial adjustment (table 3). This means that the other seven independent variables explained 2.1% of the
variance in financial adjustment. Beta coefficients show that the three independent variables may be ordered on the basis of their unique
contributions as follows, religiosity followed by duration, then educational level.
Figures in Table (2) show that age differences, educational level, religiously, duration, level of living, decision making, division of labor,
kinship contact, urban contact, and mass media exposure, combined are correlated with leisure time shared activities with a multiple
correlation coefficient of 0.548 which is statistically significant at the 0.01 level. The supports hypothesis 2 and means that the ten
independent variables combined, explain about 30% of the observed variance in leisure time shared activities. Only three independent
variables make significant unique contribution to the regression equation. Those are religiosity, duration and kinship contact. The stepwise
regression procedure yielded a reduced regression equation with the four independent variables of religiosity, duration, kinship contact and
urban contact. Those four variables explain about 25.1% of the variance in leisure time shared activities (Table 3). Beta coefficients show
that religiously is the best predictor of leisure time shared activities, followed by duration, kinship contact and urban contact in that order.
Figure in Table (2) show that the independent variable of age differences, educational level, religiously, duration, level of living, decision
making, division of labor, kinship contact, urban contact, and mass media exposure, combined are correlated with adjustment in child
rearing with a multiple correlation coefficient of 0.453 which is statistically significant at the 0.01 level. This supports hypothesis 2 and

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Int ernational Journal of Economy, Mana ge ment and Soci al Sci ences , 2(10) October 2013

indicates that the ten independent variables combined explain about 20.5% of the observed variance in adjustment in child rearing. The
three independent variables of religiously, duration and decision making make significant unique contributions to the regression equation.
The stepwise regression procedure yielded a reduced regression equation with the four independent variables of educational level,
religiosity, duration and decision making (Table3). Those four variables explain about 19.6% of the variance in adjustment in child rearing.
Beta coefficients show that religiosity is the best predictor of adjustment in child rearing following by duration, decision making and
educational level in that order.
Table 2. Standardized Regression Coefficients for Multivariate Relationship between the Independent Variables and Dimensions of Family Adjustment
Family adjustment dimensions
Financial
adjustment

Leisure
time shared
activities

Adjustment
in child
rearing

Affective
communication

Problem-solving
communication

Overall
persuasion

Companionship

Adjust role
orientation

.06

-.00

-.02

-.04

-.07

-.04

-.01

-.12

Educational
level

.19**

.09

.09

.16*

.17*

.22**

-.17*

.12

Religiosity

.29**

.19**

.28**

.29**

.30**

.35**

-.33**

.04

Duration

.26**

.31**

.17*

.34**

.31**

.29**

.27**

.08

Level of
living

-.03

.02

-.07

-.05

.03

.02

.02

-.03

Decision
making

-.02

.06

.13*

.04

.02

.01

.03

.06

Division of
labor

-.10

.02

-.03

-.07

-.02

-.05

-.02

-.10

Kinship
contact

.09

.20**

.09

.09

.10

.07

.16**

.01

Urban
contact

.12

.12

.01

.12

.12

.06

.09

.17**

Mass media
exposure

.11

.05

.05

-.02

-.03

-.04

-.01

.14*

.582

.548

.453

.599

.608

.629

.617

.380

R2

.338

.30

.205

.358

.37

.395

.381

.146

12.22**

10.26**

6.17**

13.34**

14.05**

15.64**

14.71**

4.05**

Independent
variables
Age
difference

*p < .05

**p < .01 (two-tailed tests)

Figures in Table (2) show that the independent variables of age differences, educational level, religiously, duration, level of living, decision
making, division of labor, kinship contact, urban contact, and mass media exposure, combined are correlated with affective
communications with a multiple correlation coefficient of 0.599 which is statistically significant at the 0.01 level. This gives support to
hypothesis 2 and indicates that the ten independent variables, combined explain about 35.8% of the observed variance in affective
communication. The three independent variables, combined explain about 35.8% of the observed variance in affective communication. The
three independent variables of educational level, religiosity and duration make significant unique contributions to the regression equation.
The stepwise regression procedure yielded a reduced regression equation with the three variables of educational level, religiously and
duration that explains about 29.1% of the variance in affective communication (Table 3). Beta coefficient shows that religiosity is the
strongest prediction affective communication, followed by duration and education level, in that order.
Figures in Table (2) show that the independent variables of combined are correlated with problem solving communication with a multiple
correlation coefficient of 0.608 which is statistically significant at the 0.01 level. This lends support to hypothesis 2 and indicates that the
ten independent variables, combined, explain about 37% of the observed variance in problem-solving communication. The three
independent variables of educational level, religiously and duration make significant unique contributions to the regression equation. The
stepwise regression procedure yielded a reduced equation with the four variables of educational level, religiosity, duration and kinship
contact. Those four independent variables combined explain about 29.9% of the variance in problem solving communication (Table 3).
Beta coefficient shows that religiosity is the strongest predictor of problem solving communication, followed by educational level, duration
and kinship contact, in that order.
Figures in Table (2) show that the independent variables of age differences, educational level, religiously, duration, level of living, decision
making, division of labor, kinship contact, urban contact, and mass media exposure, combined are correlated with overall persuasion with a
multiple correlation coefficient of 0.629 which is statistically at the 0.01 level. This supports hypothesis 2 and indicates that the ten
independent variables, combined, explained about 39.5% of the observed variance in overall persuasion. The three independent variables of
educational level, religiously and duration make significant unique contribution to the regression equation. The stepwise regression
procedure yielded a reduced regression equation with the three impendent variables of educational level, religiosity and duration. The three

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impendent variables, combined, explain 33.4% of the variance in overall persuasion (table 3). Beta coefficients show that religiosity is the
strongest predictor of overall persuasion, followed by educational level and duration in that order.
Table 3. Results of Stepwise Regression Procedure for Dimensions of Family Adjustment on Independent Variables
Family adjustment dimensions
Independent
variables

Financial
adjustment

Leisure
time shared
activities

Adjustment
in child
rearing

Affective
communication

Problem-solving
communication

Overall
persuasion

Companionship

Adjust role
orientation

Educational
level

.195

__

.114

.218

.219

.259

.218

__

Religiosity

.325

.227

.295

.229

.301

.3361

.329

__

Duration

.323

.207

.175

.230

.208

.169

.187

__

Decision
making

__

__

.135

__

__

__

__

__

Kinship
contact

__

.10

__

__

.099

__

.147

__

Urban
contact

__

.172

__

__

__

__

__

.187

Mass media
exposure

__

__

__

__

__

__

__

.169

.592

.501

.443

.539

.547

.578

.558

.314

R2

.317

.251

.196

.291

.229

.334

.311

.099

45.6

24.7

17.98

40.5

31.5

49.5

33.3

16.3

Figures in Table (2) show that the independent variables of age differences, educational level, religiously, duration, level of living, decision
making, division of labor, kinship contact, urban contact, and mass media exposure, combined are combined are correlated with
companionship with a multiple correlation coefficient of 0.617 which is statistically significant at the 0.01 level. This supports hypothesis 2
and indicates that the ten independent variables, combined, explain about 38.1% of the observed variance in companionship. The four
variables of educational level, religiosity, duration and kinship contact make significant unique contributions to the regression equation.
The stepwise regression procedure yielded a reduced regression equation that explains about 31.1% of the variance in companionship with
the four independent variables of educational level, religiosity, duration and kinship contact (table 3). Beta coefficients show that religiosity
is the strongest predictor of companionship, followed by educational level, duration and kinship contact in that order.
Figures in Table (2) show that the independent variables of age differences, educational level, religiously, duration, level of living, decision
making, division of labor, kinship contact, urban contact, and mass media exposure, combined are correlated with adjust role orientation
with a multiple correlation coefficient of 0.38 which is statistically significant at the 0.01 level. This lends support to hypothesis 2 and
indicates that the ten independent variables, combined explain about 14.6% of the variance in adjust role orientation. Two independent
variables make significant unique contribution to the regression equation. Those are urban contact and mass media exposure. The stepwise
regression procedure yielded a reduced regression equation with the two independent variables of urban contact and mass media exposure.
The reduced regression equation explains about 9.9% of the variance in adjust role orientation (table 3). Beta coefficients show that urban
contact is the strongest predictor of role orientation, followed by mass media exposure.

4.

Conclusion

The above findings warrant the following conclusion:


1- The independent variables of this study combined are related to all the eight dimension of family adjustment. However, the
independent variables are of relatively little utility in explaining the two dimension of adjustment in child raring and adjust role
orientation
2- Religiosity is the best predictor of all family adjustment dimensions expects adjust role orientation. Religiosity may then be
highly appreciated in mate selection when new families are constructed. As a matter of fact, Islamic doctrines advice both males
and females to seek mates who adhere to religious orders. Results of this study proved that relying on the Islamic advice is
functional for the family as a social unit.
3- Educational level is an effective predictor of all dimension of family adjustment, expect leisure time shared activated and adjust
role orientation. This has two distinct implications. First, prison seeking mates should be advised to take into consideration the
educational level of probable mates. When applicable, the highest relevant educational level should be sought. Second, well

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4-

5-

6-

educated families are better off. Should there be family assistance programs, they have to be directed toward the less educated
families.
Duration is a good predictor of all family adjustment dimensions expects adjust role orientation. This means that time is able to
enhance family adjustment what is needed is good will and persistence when the first years raise some problems and/or conflicts.
It is worth noting that religious and well educated families stand to get better adjustment through time. For families with lower
education and less religiously may need some assistance to get better adjusted through time.
Kinship contact is of utility in predicting the three family adjustment dimensions of leisure time shared activities, problem
solving and companionship. This means that exacted kinship ties are still useful for rural families in Egypt. This is quite
understandable in rural communities. Kinship and neighborhood gatherings are ultimately the only way to entertain within the
community. Those gathering enhance companionship and problem-solving communication in addition to entertainment.
Adjust role orientation seems a unique family adjustment dimension. It is being predicted by a completely different set of
variables. Variables that explain and predict other dimensions are of no utility in explaining adjust role orientation. This may be
explained by the fact the flexible adjust role orientations are not part of the traditional orientary family life. Knowledge about
those adjust role orientations have to come from outside the rural community. Urban contact may give access to such role
orientation more common in urban areas. Through urban contact rural families may become aware of new flexible roles. Mass
media materials present various materials that demonstrate how families are oriented to the new roles. Exposure to those
materials may be another of getting acquainted with role orientations. This result indicates the utility of mass media in helping
rural families in areas of family life needed but not common in rural family life.

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