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Agric. sci. dev., Vol(3), No (9), September, 2014. pp.


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Agriculture Science Developments


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Effects of organic and mineral sources of nutrient on quality and

quantity yields of forage barley
Ahmad Ghanbari
Prof., Agronomy Group, Zabol University, Iran.

Ahmad Ghasemi *
Ph.D. Student of crop ecology, Dep.Of Agronomy, Zabol University, Iran.

Baratali Fakheri
Associate Prof., Agronomy Group, Zabol University, Iran.

Mohammad Reza Naroui Rad

Scientific member of Agricultural Research Center of Sistan, Iran.

Hamid Reza Fanaei

Scientific member of Agricultural Research Center of Sistan, Iran.
*Corresponding author:



organic and in organic fertilizer

Organic and mineral fertilizers influences on forage barley production are not well known in Sistan region.
Field experiment was established in autumn 2012 in Sistan research station center to determine the organic
and inorganic manure and mixture of them effect on quality and quantity yield barley (HordeumVulgare l.).
Six treatments were tested in a complete block design: (A) mineral fertilizer (NKP) an optimal dose
(according to the Iran fertilization guidelines), (B) sub fertilization (2/3 of the optimal dose), (C) sub
fertilization (1/3 of the optimal dose), (D) animal manure 60 t h-1( an optimal dose), (E) 1/2 of animal
manure plus 1/2 of mineral fertilizer and (F) control. The treatments have a significant effect on quality and
quantity barley forage. When NKP-fertilization were non-limited (optimal dose) and 1/2 manure plus 1/2
NKP was applied, CP, fresh and dry matter forage have more yielded than those in treatment whit other of
them. The sub fertilization (1/3, 2/3 of optimal dose and control) decrease the fresh and dry matter yields by
19400, 5560 and 26487 kg ha-1 respectively. In conclusion, optimal dose (A) and 1/2 of animal manure plus
1/2 of mineral fertilizer (E) provide effective means to conserve soil fertility and forage production in this
study. Splitting of organic manure inputs in short term did not bring any benefits to soil properties or crop



Cereal is popular annual forages in the Sistan Great Plains and were harvested from 80 thousand ha. Barley (HordeumVulgare l.) has produced
equal or greater amounts of superior quality forage in Sistan arid regions [14]. The superior quality of barley forage compared with oat and other
cereal forages may re suit from a greater proportion of DM occurring as inflorescence in barley. More than 25% of barley forage DM consisted
of inflorescence compared with 20% for oat, triticale, and wheat forage across six maturity stages in sub humid regions [6]. The CP
concentrations of barley and barley-pea forage were superior to those of oat and oat-pea forage in a study at Dickinson, ND [4]. As nitrogen rates
increased, protein increased up to 100 N and then decreased with the 120 rate. Acid detergent fibr (ADF), neutral detergent fiber
(NDF) and relative feed Value (RFV) tended to increase and total digestible nutrient (TDN) tended to decrease with additional nitrogen fertilizer
over the last century, agricultural production has steadily increased, mainly due to improved nutrient availability, crop breeding and crop
protection [21]. McCarthy and Vaage (1993) in investigate of comparative yield and feeding Value of barley, oat and triticale silages reported
that Dry matter and CP digestibility were greatest for barley silage. Soil organic matter is a key element in soil quality because of its positive
impact on physical, chemical and biological soil properties, such as improvement in soil structure, retention of water and plant nutrients, increase
in soil biodiversity and decrease in risks of soil erosion [5]. The influence of fertilizer treatment on whole crop barley was investigated by Harris
(1975), who observed an increased protein content, but a reduction in organic matter digestibility, when the level of N fertilizer was raised. Crop
response to N fertilization depends on soil water availability further than amount and timing of N applications [16]. It is largely proved that the
early developmental processes, such as tiller proliferation, occurring during early growth, depend on the availability of water and N in barley
[10]. Adjustment of NKP fertilization is essential in semiarid and arid areas to obtain an appropriate balance between Vegetative and
reproductive parts of the plants and to avoid the possibility of N Volatilization and leaching losses from the soil [3]. N availability of the
fertilizer is dependent on fertilizer source and placement [18]. Soil organic matter is a key element in soil quality because of its positive impact
on physical, chemical and biological soil properties, such as improvement in soil structure, retention of water and plant nutrients, increase in soil
biodiversity and decrease in risks of soil erosion [5]. Organic manure play critical roles in maintenance of soil structure, degradation of
agrochemicals and pollutants, and control of plant and animal pests [27]. Nielsen and Hal Vorson (1991) found that increasing levels of N
fertilization promoted yield potential by stimulating shoot and root growth. Nitrogen deficiencies diminish grain number and forage yield both in
wheat and barley [1]). In addition, phosphorus (P) deficiency is a main limiting factor for cereal production in many regions of the world [13]. P
decencies also diminished grain number and forage yield in barley [11]. Nitrogen [17] and phosphorus [9] deficiencies diminish biomass
accumulation. Availability of phosphorus in the soil strongly determines the plant growth, metabolism, development, reproduction and crop
yield [2]. Phosphate deficiency is a common stress condition experienced in many different environment. Generally, only inorganic phosphate
(Pi) is freely available to plants and it is absorbed by the root from the soil solution. Other phosphorus containing compounds in the soil are


Effects of organic and mineral sources of nutrient on quality and quantity yields of forage barley
Agriculture Science Developments Vol(3), No (9), September, 2014.

mainly in soluble and un available for plants [19, 24, 2]. Application of phorus rich fertilizers is widely recommended for enhancing
Piavailability. However, the main source for such fertilizers in expensive rock phosphate probably will be soon depleted [28]. The main
objective of the present study was to evaluate effects of organic and inorganic fertilizer rate for forage barley production.



The experiment was conducted on a field site at Sistan Agricultural and Natural Resource Research Station in 2012. The soil was lomy sand. The
area has a temperate hot and arid climate with rainfall that is highly variable and ranges from less 50-120 mm. (means from the last 30 years).
The rainfall distribution has two peaks, in winter and early spring, respectively with little rain in the autumn months. Before starting the
experiment, the area was fallow. Some selected physico chemical characteristics of soil and animal manure are presented in table 1.
Table 1. Chemical and physical soil properties at the beginning of the experiment.








Loamy sand







Mg kg-1






Table 2. Chemical composition of cattle manure (AM) applied in this experiment

Ash (%)

Nitrogen (%)

K (%)

Phosphorus (%)

C (%)

The experimental design was a randomized completed blocks with six treatment, and three replications (A) mineral fertilizer (NKP) an optimal
dose (according to the Iran fertilization guidelines), (B) sub fertilization (2/3 of the optimal dose), (C) sub fertilization (1/3 of the optimal dose),
(D) animal manure 60 t h-1( an optimal dose) (E) 1/2 of animal manure plus 1/2 of mineral fertilizer and (F) control. Each plots measured 58m.
Different rate of organic and inorganic fertilizers, were evaluated. Organic and inorganic fertilizers (animal manure, AM) Nitrogen, N
Potassium, K and phosphorus, P) Were compared fertilizers rate were as follow: (A)165 kg ha-1 N + 75 kg ha-1 K + 90 kg ha-1 P; (B)110 kg
ha-1 N + 25 kg ha-1 K + 60 kg ha-1 P; (C) 55 kg ha-1 N + 25 kg ha-1 K + 30 kg ha-1 P; (D) 60 t ha-1 AM; (E) 30 t ha-1 AM + 82/5 kg ha-1 N +
37/5 kg ha-1 K + 45 kg ha-1 P and (F) control. Nitrogen, phosphor and potash were applied as ammonium nitrate, triple super phosphate and
potassium chloride. The chemical N fertilization (NH4NO3) was applied in two or three times during the growing period. Superphosphate and
salt of potash (KCL) were applied prior to sowing. Animal manure was applied at a rate of 60 t ha-1 and 30 t ha-1 on D and E treatments. This
was spread and incorporated into the soil before sowing. The characteristics of the manure are presented in table 2. Additional fertilizers were
applied before sowing based on soil testing. Barley was sown in late October in this experiment. The cultivar was Nimruze. It is grown widely
and is highly representative and adapted for this location. The sowing rate was 150kg ha-1 in rows spaced 10 cm apart. Harvesting was done
with a standard, medium size combine. Total above ground biomass was measured for each plot by removing all plants from three randomly
selected 1m2 samples at the milking growth stages. Samples of whole forage crop from individual plots were analyzed with respect to dry matter
(oven drying at 65c for 48 h (fal et al., 2004)), K Jeldahl N, Neutral detergent fiber (NDF) were determined according to Goering and van
soest (1970) other factor such as plant height, stem diameter, tiller number, leaf number were determined. Data were analyzed using SAS [26].
Significant differences between treatments are reported at the p 0.05 level.



The different fertilizers resource had significant (p< 0.05) effects on the CP of the forage (Table 3). When the rate of singly applied (NPK) were
raised from control to (A) treatment (165 kg ha-1, 90 kg ha-1, 75 kg ha-1 ), the average CP was a raised by 11/6 and 14/76%, respectively, the
effect being of comparable size for all amount of Nitrogen (Table 3). This high percentage of CP was accompanied by significant decreases in
the NDF contents of the barley forage. ADF decreasing on average by 46 and 54/33% respectively. NDF also decrease significantly in response
to fertilization, but only down to amount of (A) treatment. Thus under conditions of the present study, the application of (A) treatment of (A)
treatment of mineral fertilizer was sufficient to maintain CP content. Parham far (2009) reported that, in relation to organic fertilizer, mineral
fertilizer over short term increased CP contents, since they contain significant amount of mineral fertilizer. Nutrition in mineral fertilizer form is
generally more easily available than in manure and therefore has more effect on CP storage than manure (Rudrapa et al., 2006). There were
interactions with other of fertilizers. For total applications of zero and 165kgN ha-1, the NKP mixture application approach had beneficial effects
on forage quality (Table 4).

Table 3. Analysis of variance for treatment

Source of


Plant height

Stem diameter



CP (%)


(kg ha-1)











































(kg ha-1)

Ns: not significant, * significant at the 0.05 level, ** significant at the 0.01 level. CP: crude protein; NDF: Neutral detergent fiber; DW: Dry weight; FW: Fresh

Ahmad Ghanbari, Ahmad Ghasemi *, Mohamadreza Naruierad, Baratali Fakheri, Hamid Reza Fanaie


Agriculture Science Developments Vol(3), No (9), September, 2014.

Table 4. The effects of chemical fertilizer and cattle manure on quantity and quality barley forage yield.
Chemical and
cattle manure

diameter (cm)

Plant height




Tiller number

Leaf number

CP (%)


FW (kg ha-1)

DW (kg ha-1 )















































Mean values (n = 3), Means within each column followed by the same letter do not differ significantly (p = 0.05). (A) mineral fertilizer (NKP) an optimal dose
(according to the Iran fertilization guidelines), (B) sub fertilization (2/3 of the optimal dose), (C) sub fertilization ( 1/3 of the optimal dose), (D) animal manure 60 t
h-1( an optimal dose) (E) 1/2 of animal manure plus 1/2 of mineral fertilizer and (F) control.

CP was raised by 14/76% on average, while the contents of NDF were reduced by 46%. The average fresh and dry matter of the forage differed
by 26487 and 2998 kg ha-1, reflecting the influence of organic and inorganic manure. Quality and quantity were poorer in control factor than in
others factors. Possibly owing to wet conditions with near normal mineral nutrition's in manure factors. Low soil nutrition intensity is known to
have an adverse effect on the quality and quantity of forage [15]. NKP applications had their most detrimental effect on the CP, fresh and dry
matter content of forage, when the level was generally low (fig 1).

Fig. 1.Crude protein and neutral detergent fiber of forage constituent of barley with different organic and inorganic fertilizer rate

(A) mineral fertilizer (NKP) an optimal dose (according to the Iran fertilization guidelines), (B) sub fertilization (2/3 of the optimal dose), (C) sub fertilization (
1/3 of the optimal dose), (D) animal manure 60 t h-1( an optimal dose) (E) 1/2 of animal manure plus 1/2 of mineral fertilizer and (F) control.

A possible explanation of the detrimental effects of NKP fertilization on forage quality may rest with the path way of lignin synthesis, as
suggested by Kaltofen (1998) for grass crops. Increased uptake of N by the plant could raise its content of free amino acids, there by stimulating
the production of CP. Alternatively, the high application of NKP might be expected to induce the development of lateral shoots, these being
immature and highly tiller number at the time of whole crop harvest (Table 4) Evidence of such shoots was observed [10]. The observed effect
of NKP fertilization on the barley forage seems to be more pronounced than in the case of grasses, in which an increase in leaf content, induced
by normal NKP (A) application, is always associated with increasing in digestibility (Table 4). Raising the amount of NKP in the seedbed
increase the height of barley forage (Table 3). Application of the normal rates of NKP (A) and animal manure produced a slightly positive
conditions with normal nutrition's. Evidence of such height was observed [27]. The result of the quantity assessment for the fresh forage are
given in table 4. Significant effects of NKP and Animal manure on fresh and dry matter forage were detected (Table 3). Table 4 illustrates that
the analytical data for the fresh and dry matter forage beneficial from much larger of the NKP (A) and animal manure plus NKP (E) than those
of the low amount NKP and control. The fresh and dry matter of whole forage crop differed considerably among the treatments of fertilizers.
The means of fresh and dry matter forage being 26487 and 2998kg ha-1 higher than in control respectively. Moreover, in accordance with the
results for forage, NKP rate and animal manure produced its greatest positive response in forage yield. The average fresh forage of (A)
treatments and NKP + Animal manure (E) thus differed by 41940 and 38780 kg ha-1 in this experiment respectively. As expected, the crude
protein content of the whole crop increase in response to NKP (A) and Animal plus NKP (E) manure applications. Split application also had a
positive effect on this parameter, in agreement with the findings of (Harris, 1995) plant height, tiller number and leaf number rose throughout
each treatment with increased of NKP rate and also increase moderately in response to increasing animal manure application(Table 4). Yields of
DM, CP, fresh forage, leaf number and tiller number, increase up to and including the NKP + Animal manure and normal NKP treatment (A) of
fertilizer but the effects of other fertilization were modest and not significant. Increasing the amount of NKP (A) and animal manure plus NKP
(E) to a forage of barley stimulated fresh forage and reduce the NDF of its forage component. It also increased the proportion of CP. The extent
to which barley DM was increased seemed to be affected by fertilizations. However, the increasing was partly alleviated by normal NKP and
NKP + animal (E) manure application of fertilizers. Consequently the crop should be normal fertilizered when fresh forage and CP is considered
to be important. Furthermore, the protein content can be boosted and NDF slightly reduced by increasing the application of NKP and NKP +
animal manure.


Effects of organic and mineral sources of nutrient on quality and quantity yields of forage barley
Agriculture Science Developments Vol(3), No (9), September, 2014.

We thank Dr. Koohkan for his helpful cooperation.


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