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Int. j. econ. manag. soc. sci., Vol(3), No (10), October, 2014. pp.

589-594

TI Journals

International Journal of Economy, Management and Social Sciences


www.tijournals.com

ISSN:
2306-7276

Copyright 2014. All rights reserved for TI Journals.

Investigation of Components of Organizational Culture based on


Denisons Model in Social Security Organization of Kurdistan Province
Abbassali Felagari*
M. A. Student in Management, Islamic Azad University, Sanandaj Branch, Iran.

Fardin Batmani
Assistant Professor, Islamic Azad University, Sanandaj Branch, Iran.

*Corresponding author: felegari.abasali@yahoo.com


Keywords
Organizational Culture
Denisons Model
Job Involvement
Compliance
Adaptation
Mission

1.

Abstract
Organizational culture is a collection of key values, instructing beliefs and difference which are common to members
of an organization. Different modes and theories of organizational culture have been provided by scholars and
theorists. In the present study, Denisons model was used to describe components of organizational culture in Social
Security Organization of Kurdistan Province. Based on findings of present study, organizational culture and its
components were higher than mean values in Social Security Organization of Kurdistan Province.

Introduction

Organizational culture is an environmental variable which affects all members of an organization in a different manner and so, a proper
understanding of such a structure is highly significant for management of an organization or a business. Organizational members provide new
members with training items so as to solve the issues of external compliance (e.g. the best way to be in international markets) and generate internal
integration (the best way of coordination and fortification of organizational processes in an organization) as the ultimate method to solve different
problems and to teach verbal and written culture of an organization. So, achievement of necessary capacity for transformation of an organizational
culture and modification of actions, thoughts and feelings constitute a major part of what members seek to do [3].
Most of scholars have consensus on this concept that organizational culture is consisted of a system of common interpretations and inferences which
members have towards an organization and this characteristics creates difference between two organizations. It is an inferential system which the
members respect. Organizational culture is the internal basis and non-organized organizational structure which is generated based on objectives,
technology, structure, performance and products of an organization the most obvious manifestation of which is employees behavior.
Organizational culture is a set of key values, guiding beliefs and differences common in an organization [4].
Different models and theories of organizational culture are introduced by different scholars and theorists but Denisons model is among new models
of organizational culture which is emphasized due to its distinctive characteristics in the present paper. In the present study, the level of
organizational culture in Social Security Organization of Kurdistan Province is described based on Denisons model.

2.

Denisons Model

Denisons model is a new model the behavioral basis of which is its comprehensiveness due to measurement variables, measurement of dimensions
of organizational culture and its application in all organizational level. In recent years, this model was widely used by management consultation
agencies for evaluation of organizational culture of companies and organizations outside of the country. Of other advantages of Denisons model is
its graphic plot which defines the characteristics of organizational culture in two aspects with internal and external focus as well as its flexibility,
stability and using 12 variables of organizational culture [1]. In the following table, Denisons model is compared with common models of
organizational culture:
Comparison of Denisons Model with Other Models of Organizational Culture
Denisons Model
It has behavioral basis.
It is designed and generated in business environment.
Business language is used to express business concepts.
Business achievements of different organizational sections are connected

Executed quickly and easily.


It can be implemented in all organizational levels.
(Source: Industrial Management Studies Magazine (2007), 5th Year, No.14, p.211)

Other Models of Organizational Culture


The basis of such models is personal and psychological.
Design and generation of such models are done in academic settings.
Non-business language is used to obtain and explain business concepts.
Ambiguity of distinctive communication of business achievements and if
there are short studies on position of cultural factors, they are usually
associated with performance.
Spending a lot of time to execute measurement or results are explained in
business environment.
Often designed for implementation in higher levels of an organization.

Abbassali Felagari *, Fardin Batmani

590

International Journal of Economy, Management and Social Sciences Vol(3), No (10), October, 2014.

If there is a culture in an organization and it is intended to be analyzed, definite dimensions should be defined for it and it should be measured [6].
There are different approaches and models of organizational culture. Some scholars emphasize the environmental factors as the main determinants of
organizational culture such as Charles Hindi, Hersey and Blanchard or Lorsch and Lawrence. Some other have studies the organizational culture with
emphasis on intercultural approach such as Geert Hofstede and Kluckhohn and Strodtbeck. Still, others emphasize the organizational spotlight such
as Richard Hall and Robert Quinn. There are some other groups of scholars which pay attention to reward systems and internal mechanisms such as
Marvin Vaysburd, Gordon, Harvey and Brown. Scholars such as Stanley, Davis and Roi Pine emphasize psychological issues and strategy. The
model which the present model uses is Denisons which was introduced in 2000.
The main basis of this model alludes to this fundamental issue that how an organizational culture can affect present performance. This model is used
to manage organizational changes and highlights elements of organizational culture which demand modification so that their priority can be revised.
Denisons model consists of comprehensive and deeply thought aspects of organizational culture.
Daniel Denison did outstanding studies on organizational culture and change in an organization. In this model, he defines the aspects of culture in
organizations in four domains of job involvement, consistency, adaptability and mission each of which is measured by three indexes [2].

Figure 1. Model of Denisons Organizational Culture

2.1 Involvement
This characteristic is measured through three variables of empowerment, team orientation and development capability. Effective organizations
empower their members, construct the organization based on work teams and develop the capabilities of human resources in all of its levels. So,
commitment of members will increase so that consider themselves a part of the whole organization. People of different levels and positions feel that
they have a significant role in decision making and such decisions affect their works so that their work is directly associated with organizational
objectives.
In this model, this characteristic is measured through three variables:
-

Empowerment: individuals have the authority, innovation and ability to manage their affairs and this generates a sense of ownership and
responsibility in them.
Team orientation: In organization, team orientation is considered as valuable so that employees and managers feel that they are responsible
in their workplace. These organizations depend on their own groups for doing different affairs.
Capability Development: Organizations continuously develop their employees skills so as to satisfy existing needs and to remain
competitive [5].

2.2 Consistency
This characteristic is measured through three variables of core values, agreement and coordination and integration.
Previous studies have shown that relatively effective organizations are stable and employees behaviors originate from core values. Leaders and
followers are sufficiently skilled to attain agreement (even when they have opposite views) and organizational activities are well-coordinated and
integrated. Organizations with such characteristics have distinctive and strong culture with sufficient influence over employees behavior.
This characteristic is measured through three variables:

591

Investigation of Components of Organizational Culture based on Denison's Model in Social Security Organization of Kurdistan Province
International Journal of Economy, Management and Social Sciences Vol(3), No (10), October, 2014.

Core Values: Members of an organization are partners of a set of values which constitute their identity and expectations.
Agreement: Organizational members can get to an agreement when serious disputes occur. This agreement includes a consensus in lower
levels and ability to get to agreement in other levels.
Coordination and Integration: Organizational units of different functions can cooperate to obtain common values. Organizational
boundaries will not be disrupted in this manner [5].

2.3 Adaptability
This characteristic is measured through three variables of creating change, customer focus and organizational learning. Organizations which are
integrated will hardly change. Therefore, internal integration and external adaptability generate advantage for an organization. Adaptable
organizations are guided by clients, they are risk takers, take lessons from past mistakes and possess the capacity and experience to make changes.
They are constantly improving the capability of an organization to pay higher tribute to clients. These organizations usually experience growth of
sales and stock value.
This characteristic is investigated through the following measures:
-

Creating Change: Such organization can provide methods for satisfaction of needs to change. It can identify the environment of an entity,
response to current stimuli and move ahead of future changes.
Customer Focus: The organization understands the clients and answers them. It attempts to secure the future so that customer focus shows
the degree to which organizations are guided to satisfy clients.
Organizational Learning: It measures the environmental signs which organizations receive, translate and interpret as well as opportunities
which are created to motivate innovation, knowledge style and capability development.

2.4 Mission
This characteristic is measured through three variables of strategic direction and intent, goals and objectives and vision. One might say that mission is
the most important feature of an organization. Organizations which dont know where they are heading and what their current status is will usually go
astray. Successful organizations have a clear vision of their goals and direction so that they codify organizational and strategic objectives and clearly
define future vision. Organizations which have to constantly change their primary mission are the most troublesome ones. When an organization is
constantly forced to modify its missions, it has to modify present strategy, structure, culture and behavior. In such a condition, strong leadership will
define the vision of organization and generates a supportive culture for the new vision [5]. This characteristic is measured through the following
variables:
-

3.

Strategic Direction and Intent: Clear strategic directions show the orientation of organizational objectives so that each individual can
participate in a section (or industry).
Goals and Objectives: The existing goals are integrated with strategy, mission and vision of an organization and define the direction of
individuals.
Vision: The organization has a common vision of future status, express on core values and motivates the thinking and mental capacity of
human resources and defines the direction, too.
Constant-Flexible Spectra and Internal-External Emphasis: As it can be observed in Denisons model, this model has two horizontal and
vertical axes which divide the model into four parts. The vertical axis includes the level and type of focus of organizational culture. This
axis has two endings of internal and external focus. The horizontal axis points to flexibility level the endings of which are stable and
flexible cultures.

Methodology

The present study is of descriptive type the statistical population of which consists of all employees of Social Security Organization of Kurdistan
Province in 2013 which amounted to 1098 individuals. The sample size was defined to be 285 individuals through quota sampling. In the present
study, the standard questionnaire of organizational culture [2] the content validity of which was confirmed by associated experts and professors and
its reliability was verified by Cronbachs alpha method (0.95). The present study used SPSS software to examine the status of organizational culture
in Social Security Organization of Kurdistan Province.

4.

Findings

A-Organizational Culture
In sum, four items were used to evaluate the variable of organizational culture in Social Security Organization of Kurdistan Province (i.e.
Involvement, Consistency, Adaptability and Mission). This variable id constitute by 60 items in the level of ordered assessment and within Likert
scale into five-choice questions. After summing up the scores of such items, a Distance factor with a range of 240 scores was obtained. 300 showed
a high level of organizational culture while 60 showed a case in which organizational culture of Social Security Organization of Kurdistan
Province was in a very low level. Based on table.1, one can say that the level of organizational culture in the analyzed population is higher than the
mean value.
Table 1. Descriptive Statistics of Organizational Culture of Social Security Organization of Kurdistan Province
Mean
192.9

SD
34.11

Variance
1163.7

Range
187

Min Statistics
93

Max Statistics
280

Number
253

Abbassali Felagari *, Fardin Batmani

592

International Journal of Economy, Management and Social Sciences Vol(3), No (10), October, 2014.

B-Items of Organizational Culture:


4.1-Involvement:
In sum, the evaluation of the variable of Involvement of employees working in Social Security Organization of Kurdistan Province was dome
through the three variables of empowerment, team orientation and capability development. This variable consisted of 15 items in the level of
ordered assessment and designed in Likert scale with a format of 5-choice questions which summing up ordered items led to a range of 30 scores.
75 showed a very high level of involvement while 15 implied a very low level of involvement in Social Security Organization of Kurdistan
Province. Based on table.2, one can say that the level of involvement in the studied population is higher than mean values.
Table 2. Descriptive Statistics of Involvement in Social Security Organization of Kurdistan Province
Mean
47.9

SD
10.69

Variance
114.4

Range
55

Min Statistics
20

Max Statistics
75

Number
249

Table 3. Descriptive Statistics of Involvement


Items
Empowerment
Team Orientation
Capability
Development

Mean
16.8
16.2
14.9

SD
3.9
4.4
3.8

Variance
15.6
19.1
14

Range
20
20
20

Min Stat
5
5
5

Max Stat
25
25
25

Item No
5
5
5

4.2 Consistency
In sum, the evaluation of the variable of consistency of employees working in Social Security Organization of Kurdistan Province was dome
through the three variables of core values, agreement and coordination and integration. This variable consisted of 15 items in the level of
ordered assessment and designed in Likert scale with a format of 5-choice questions which summing up ordered items led to a range of 30 scores.
75 showed a very high level of consistency while 15 implied a very low level of consistencyin Social Security Organization of Kurdistan
Province. Based on table.4, one can say that the level of consistency in the studied population is higher than mean values.
Table 4. Descriptive Statistics of Involvement in Social Security Organization of Kurdistan Province
Mean
47.2

SD
8.6

Variance
73.2

Range
46

Min Statistics
25

Max Statistics
71

Number
253

Table 5. Descriptive Statistics of Consistency


Items
Core Values
Agreement
Coordination
Integration

and

Mean
16.2
15.5
15.5

SD
3.6
3.44
3.3

Variance
12.6
11.8
10.9

Range
17
20
19

Min Stat
8
5
6

Max Stat
25
25
25

Item No
5
5
5

4.3 Adaptability
In sum, the evaluation of the variable of adaptability of employees working in Social Security Organization of Kurdistan Province was dome
through the three variables of creating change, customer focus and organizational learning. This variable consisted of 15 items in the level of
ordered assessment and designed in Likert scale with a format of 5-choice questions which summing up ordered items led to a range of 30 scores.
75 showed a very high level of adaptability while 15 implied a very low level of adaptability in Social Security Organization of Kurdistan
Province. Based on table.6, one can say that the level of adaptability in the studied population is higher than mean values.
Table 6. Descriptive Statistics of Involvement in Social Security Organization of Kurdistan Province
Mean
48.2

SD
8.1

Variance
65.6

Range
50

Min Statistics
19

Max Statistics
69

Number
250

Table 7. Descriptive Statistics of Adaptability


Items
Creating Change
Customer Focus
Organizational
Learning

Mean
14.9
15.3
17.9

SD
3.5
3.1
3.4

Variance
11.9
9.8
11.7

Range
20
20
20

Min Stat
5
5
5

Max Stat
25
25
25

Item No
5
5
5

593

Investigation of Components of Organizational Culture based on Denison's Model in Social Security Organization of Kurdistan Province
International Journal of Economy, Management and Social Sciences Vol(3), No (10), October, 2014.

4.4 Mission
In sum, the evaluation of the variable of mission of employees working in Social Security Organization of Kurdistan Province was dome through
the three variables of strategic direction and intent, goals and objectives and vision. This variable consisted of 15 items in the level of ordered
assessment and designed in Likert scale with a format of 5-choice questions which summing up ordered items led to a range of 30 scores. 75
showed a very high level of mission orientation while 15 implied a very low level of mission orientation in Social Security Organization of
Kurdistan Province. Based on table.8, one can say that the level of attention to mission in the studied population is higher than mean values
(mean=49.77).
Table 8. Descriptive Statistics of Mission Orientation in Social Security Organization of Kurdistan Province
Mean
49.7

SD
9.9

Variance
98.8

Range
52

Min Statistics
23

Max Statistics
75

Number
241

Table 9. Descriptive Statistics of Mission


Items
Strategic Direction and Intent
Goals and Objectives
Vision

Mean
16.2
16.7
16.4

SD
3.7
3.6
3.9

Variance
13.4
12.9
15.5

Range
18
19
20

Min Stat
7
6
5

Max Stat
25
25
25

Item No
5
5
5

Figure 2. A Radar Chart of Condition of Organizational Culture in Social Security Organization of Kurdistan Province based on Denisons Model

5. Conclusion
In order to identify the basic characteristics of an organization and performance level of organizational members, awareness of organizational culture
is a fundamentally significant step.so, attention to prevailing organizational culture is vital before doing any new action because by culture, one can
facilitate the occurrence of changes and embed the new organizational direction. In fact, any change will fail without due attention to organizational
culture. If managers attempt to increase organizational efficiency and performance, they should pay attention to factors which form organizational
culture [5].
Organizational culture is an organizational boundary which helps one to distinguish between them. It offers members a sense of identity, commitment
towards organizational benefits. Organizational culture acts as a control factor which generates or shapes the employees attitudes and behaviors [6].
The main role of organizational culture is to enhance reactive response of individuals against issues such as external consistency and internal
integration. Every organization has to pay attention to this two topics so that awareness of such issues and adaptive learning are two critical signs of
organizational effectiveness.
Therefore, evaluation of cultural level of an organization and identification of its strengths and weaknesses should be paid attention to by associated
managers and authorities.

Abbassali Felagari *, Fardin Batmani

594

International Journal of Economy, Management and Social Sciences Vol(3), No (10), October, 2014.

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