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Int. j. econ. manag. soc. sci., Vol(3), No (12), December, 2014. pp.

830-833

TI Journals

International Journal of Economy, Management and Social Sciences


www.tijournals.com

ISSN:
2306-7276

Copyright 2014. All rights reserved for TI Journals.

The Role of Resiliency in General Health Prediction


(Somatic Symptoms, Anxiety, Social Withdrawal, and Depression)
among Road-accident Paramedics
Safaoddin Hemati Nejad *
Department of General Psychology, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad university, Illam, Iran

Shahram Mami
Department of General Psychology, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad university, Illam, Iran

Jahansha Mohammadzadeh
Illam University, Illam, Iran
*Corresponding author: zagros.researcher@gmail.com

Keywords

Abstract

Resiliency
General Health
Somatic Symptoms
Anxiety
Social Withdrawal
Depression

This research aimed at studying the function of resiliency in general health prediction (somatic symptoms,
anxiety, social withdrawal and depression). The population was all paramedics of road accident of
Kermanshah Red Crescent Organization. The sample population included 230 people chosen by simple
random sampling. In order to gather data Connor and Davidson scale and General Health Questionnaires
(GHQ 28) were used. Moreover to analyze the relationships among the variables and their predicting
function Pearsons correlation and Regression analysis were hired by enter method. The findings revealed
that high resiliency is accompanied by high general health. In fact resiliency was in negative relationship
with physical symptoms, anxiety and insomnia, social withdrawal, and depression. As a matter of fact these
findings led us to conclude that those people having high resiliency in lifetime have higher general health.
Thereby we highly recommended paying special attention to embed resiliency in educational and medical
training.

1.

Introduction

By the end of 20th century, there was a massive transformation in psychology which drew new extensive horizons to this field. This
transformation was the appearance of positive psychology. Before this, psychological studies tended more to the disease and treatment of mental
and personality disorders, while positive psychology improved a new view toward a high quality life and focused on human positive features and
abilities. As a result most of psychological studies were likely to explain psychological phenomenon in order to enhance the health and quality of
life. The goals of these studies were to recognize and enrich the ways of having a healthier life, to reach inner peace, and to bloom human talents
in life [1].
One of the positive psychology construct is general health, taking a lot of studies around the world. World Health Organization (2001) explained
health not just lack of disability and disease, but the full physical, mental, and social wellbeing. The importance of general health is obvious for
researchers; it is obvious not only in the relationship with other constructs, but also in its function to explain the behavioral and emotional
outcomes. What is often ignored here is the fundamental mechanism of general health. A quick glimpse to the published records and statistic
about mental disorder epidemic highly reveals the importance of mental health. The previous studies about mental health of over-fifteen Iranians
indicated that about 21% of people suffer from mental disorder and also it proved that females are more vulnerable than males [2, 3]. The studies
of World Health Organization and International Labor Organization improve the awareness about the problems of mental health in workplaces
as a part of social health. Around 28 of European employees suffer from health problems related to job stress. On the other hand stressful jobs
threat general health, therefore finding the related factors to seek health in stressful jobs is of great importance [4]. As a result, in this study, we
focused on general health of Red Crescent paramedics of road accidents in Kermanshah, Iran.
Research evident reliably shows that cognitive and personality variables are the firmest and most stable of the other variables in explaining
general health [See 5, 6, 7, 8, 9]. Here we are going to study resiliency which is a related variable to general health. Defined resiliency as the
ability to quickly return to previous good condition in difficult situation or balance the situation [10]. As a matter of fact, it is the capacity of
people which helps them to overcome the complicated conditions. This capacity includes the ability to stay healthy, resist and wait without
complaining despite difficulties. In other words resiliency is the ability to be successful, to live and grow despite the existing troubles. This will
not happen automatically unless the person got stuck in a complicated situation in which he tries his best endeavor [11]. Pinquart (2009) defined
resiliency as the ability of the individual to confirm his abilities to overcome stress, to have coping ability, self-esteem, emotional stability, and
the personal features- increasing social support- without doubt [12].
Resiliency is a mode of growth in an individual which enables him to resist in facing failures, disasters, and life conflicts with high
responsibility, as he will not stop trying to reach more success [13]. In other words resiliency is not the positive adaption to injuries, threatening
conditions, or a reaction mode in facing dangerous situations, but is an active practical participation in his environmental situations. It can be
said that resiliency is the ability of an individual both in biological and mental balance in dangerous situations [8]. On the basis of theoretical
concepts and previous studies, it can be inferred that resiliency is in relationship with general health features, including physical symptoms,
anxiety and insomnia, social withdrawal, and depression [14, 15, 16]. However in the previous studies nothing was done on the function of
resiliency in predicting general health among paramedics of road accidents. In fact paramedic of road accidents is a dangerous stressful job. It is
postulated that, because of its special condition, it has a high effect on individual health. As a result the study of general health and resiliency
among paramedics of road accidents is of great importance. Moreover, another significant point is that any research findings about general health

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The Role of Resiliency in General Health Prediction (Somatic Symptoms, Anxiety, Social Withdrawal, and Depression) among Road-accident Paramedics
International Journal of Economy, Management and Social Sciences Vol(3), No (12), December, 2014.

can be included in medical planning on the condition that it is in accordance with cultural and social norms of the studied society. In fact there
are not any same studies about general health and resiliency. It is believed that the findings of this study will go with cultural, religious and
social norms of Iranian society, so it will be useful. In this study we expect that resiliency is in relationship with general health of road-accident
paramedics, besides higher resiliency can predict the higher general health.

2.

Methodology

This study is a kind of descriptive studies of correlation type in which the relationship and the correlation among the variables are studied. The
population includes all the paramedics of road accidents in Red Crescent Organization of Kermanshah. 230 of them were chosen as the sample
population by simple random sampling. They were the people who were in the range of 18 to 34. Their mean and standard deviation of age were
24.23 and 3.03 respectively. Besides they were in nearly the same educational levels which can be seen in table 1. To gather the data both
general health questionnaire (GHQ28) and resiliency questionnaire of Conner and Davidson (2003) were used [17, 18]. SPSS software, version
20 was used to analyze the data as well.
Table1. the description of sample population educational levels.
Educational levels
Under diploma
Diploma
Technician
Bachelor
Master degree
Total

Frequency
10
16
60
128
16
230

Percent
4.3
7
26.1
55.7
7
100

Cumulative Percent
4.3
11.3
37.4
93
100

General health questionnaire, made by Goldberg in 1972, is a self-report questionnaire which is used in clinical collection to recognize the
people having mental disorder. It is made of 28 questions including four seven-item subscales (physical symptoms, anxiety, social withdrawal,
and depression) and a total scale which is the sum of the 4 scales [17, 19]. The first subscale is the persons feeling toward his self-health and
tiredness which is accompanied by physical symptoms. The second subscale is related to anxiety and insomnia. Third one evaluates the amount
of people ability to resist their professional needs and common life events which reveals their feeling toward the adaption to various life
situations. The forth subscale is related to the situation with severe depression and tendency to suicide [20]. In this questionnaire the lower score
shows the higher mental health. Goldberg and Williams (1988) reported that the total validity of the scale is 0.95[21].While Taghavi (2001)
showed this validity as 0.72 and the validity of the subscales including physical symptoms, anxiety, social withdrawal and depression as 0.60,
0.68, 0.57, and 0.58 respectively. This confirmed the acceptable validity of the questionnaire [22]. In addition to this Yaghoobi, Esfehani and
Shahmohammadi (1995) also reported the reliability of the questionnaire as 0.88 using test-retest which confirmed its high reliability [23].
Resiliency scale, a self-reported type, was designed by Connor and Davidson in 2003[18]. It includes 25 questions showing the total resiliency
score. The designers believed that it is able to not only distinguish abiding from non-abiding in clinical and non-clinical collections, but also can
be used in research and clinical conditions [24]. In 2005, Mohammadi normalized this questionnaire in Iran. He compared the correlation of each
item with the total scale score and reported the questionnaire validity between 0.41 to 0.64.moreover, using Cronbachs alpha coefficient, the
scale reliability was reported as 0.89 [24]. In addition to this Khabazi, Behjati, and Naseri (2011) reported the reliability as 0.82 [25].

3.

Results

Pearsons correlation was used to study the relationship between general health and resiliency. The findings are presented in table 2. It is also
necessary to mention that in this questionnaire low score proves high health position. As can be seen in table 2, the resiliency has a negative
significant relationship with all the general health features and total health. Besides, the relationship is significant in level 0.01. In other words
these findings prove that higher resiliency in people leads to a lower physical symptoms, anxiety and insomnia, social withdrawal and
depression. In fact higher resiliency is accompanied by higher general health.
Table 2. The matrix of resilient correlation with total general health and its features
Variables
1 Resilience
2 Somatic symptoms
3 Anxiety
4 Social withdrawal
5 Depression
6 Total General Health

1
1
-0.19**
-0.21**
-0.28**
-0.30**
-0.33**

1
0.63**
0.24**
0.48**
0.76**

1
0.27**
0.58**
0.81**

1
0.40**
0.62**

1
0.84**

*: P< 0.05 , **: P< 0.01

To study the function of resiliency in general health prediction regression analysis was used by enter method. The results are presented in table
3. As can be seen, in the first analysis resiliency can predict both 4% of physical symptom variance and 5% of anxiety. Furthermore, it can
predict 8% of social withdrawal, 9% of depression and 11% of total general health. In all analyses all coefficient, including F, , and T, were
significant. All coefficients were negative. Following the scoring method in general health questionnaire signifies that high resiliency can
predict the health level in all features.

Safaoddin Hemati Nejad *, Shahram

Mami, Jahansha Mohammadzadeh

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International Journal of Economy, Management and Social Sciences Vol(3), No (12), December, 2014.

Table 3. The summary of regression pattern of general health and its feature on the basis of resiliency
Criterion variables
Somatic symptoms
Anxiety
Social withdrawal
Depression
Total General Health

Predictor variables
Resilience
Resilience
Resilience
Resilience
Resilience

R2
0.04
0.05
0.08
0.09
0.11

F
8.863
10.863
19.326
22.868
27.623

P-value
0.003
0.001
0.001
0.001
0.001

-0.193
-0.213
-0.280
-0.302
-0.329

t
-2.977
-3.296
-4.396
-4.782
-5.256

P-value
0.003
0.001
0.001
0.001
0.001

The present study aimed at finding the relationship between resiliency and general health in paramedics of road accidents. The findings showed
that there is firm significant relationship between resiliency and total general health, including all subclasses. These results demonstrated that the
people who are patient and resistance enough in difficult situation of life and insist on achieving success despite oppositions have a higher
general health. These people show less psychosomatic signs, anxiety and insomnia and react much better against anxiety. They get along with
both social norms and inter-personal relations easily. Furthermore they get less depression. Generally the abiding people have higher general
health. The findings of this study are in accordance with the previous studies [6, 7, 8, 9, 26]. To explain the findings it can be inferred that lack
of general health reveals peoples hopelessness and surrender to life troubles and obstacles, however non-abiding person cannot stand against the
problems and stop trying. In addition to this he cannot adapt to society and suffer from anxiety and psychosomatic pains. In contrast abiding
person fights against troubles and adapt to society more easily. As a result it is concluded that adaption and resiliency are in close relation to
persons health.
Moreover surrendering to life obstacles and ignoring the self-function in shaping life are also signs of lack of resilience and health. Samani,
Jowkar and Sahragard (2007), in agreement with these results, believe that resiliency and mental health are in positive relationship with each
other. They reported that those having high resiliency not only have more mental health and life satisfaction, but also enjoy their lives more [8].
These findings emphasize the significant function of resiliency in general health and life satisfaction.
The generalization ability of the results is of great importance. For the next studies it is suggested to investigate the relationship between
resiliency and general health in other society or occupations. It is also suggested to teach coping strategies and resiliency enhancement
methodology in educational and psychological training.According to the important function of school in students lives and thoughts, it is
suggested to pay more attention to enhance resiliency among students in order to improve their health. It is also recommended to the authorities
in the field of mental sanitation and health paying more attention to trainings and clinical interviews to increase resiliency by placing them in the
treatment planning.

4.

Conclusion

The present study aimed at finding the relationship between resiliency and general health in paramedics of road accidents. The findings showed
that there is firm significant relationship between resiliency and total general health, including all subclasses. These results demonstrated that the
people who are patient and resistance enough in difficult situation of life and insist on achieving success despite oppositions have a higher
general health. These people show less psychosomatic signs, anxiety and insomnia and react much better against anxiety. They get along with
both social norms and inter-personal relations easily. Furthermore they get less depression. Generally the abiding people have higher general
health. The findings of this study are in accordance with the previous studies [6, 7, 8, 9, 26]. To explain the findings it can be inferred that lack
of general health reveals peoples hopelessness and surrender to life troubles and obstacles, however non-abiding person cannot stand against the
problems and stop trying. In addition to this he cannot adapt to society and suffer from anxiety and psychosomatic pains. In contrast abiding
person fights against troubles and adapt to society more easily. As a result it is concluded that adaption and resiliency are in close relation to
persons health.
Moreover surrendering to life obstacles and ignoring the self-function in shaping life are also signs of lack of resilience and health. Samani,
Jowkar and Sahragard (2007), in agreement with these results, believe that resiliency and mental health are in positive relationship with each
other. They reported that those having high resiliency not only have more mental health and life satisfaction, but also enjoy their lives more [8].
These findings emphasize the significant function of resiliency in general health and life satisfaction.
The generalization ability of the results is of great importance. For the next studies it is suggested to investigate the relationship between
resiliency and general health in other society or occupations. It is also suggested to teach coping strategies and resiliency enhancement
methodology in educational and psychological training. According to the important function of school in students lives and thoughts, it is
suggested to pay more attention to enhance resiliency among students in order to improve their health. It is also recommended to the authorities
in the field of mental sanitation and health paying more attention to trainings and clinical interviews to increase resiliency by placing them in the
treatment planning.

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The Role of Resiliency in General Health Prediction (Somatic Symptoms, Anxiety, Social Withdrawal, and Depression) among Road-accident Paramedics
International Journal of Economy, Management and Social Sciences Vol(3), No (12), December, 2014.

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