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Int. j. econ. manag. soc. sci., Vol(3), No (12), December, 2014. pp.

846-850

TI Journals

International Journal of Economy, Management and Social Sciences


www.tijournals.com

ISSN:
2306-7276

Copyright 2014. All rights reserved for TI Journals.

Comparing Influential Factors on Using Information and


Communication Technology by Professors of Islamic Azad University
and State University of Sistan-O-Baluchestan in Zahedan
Zabihollah Allahi*
Department of Educational Science, Zahedan Branch, Islamic Azad University, Zahedan, Iran.

Mehrdad Mazaheri
PhD, Associate Professor, University of Sistan and Bluchestan, Iran.

Mojtaba Rezaei Rad


PhD, Department of Educational Sciences, Sari Branch, Islamic Azad University, Sari, Iran.
*Corresponding author: z_allahi57@yahoo.com

Keywords

Abstract

Technology
Information and Communication
Internet
Computer

The present study aims to do a comparison between factors influencing on ICT application by faculty
members of Islamic Azad University and Sistan-O-Baluchestan state University that were analyzed using
descriptive and survey analysis. The statistical population consists of all faculty members, educating in the
two universities, in which using accessible method of sampling, 106professors were selected as case study.
Participants filled the tools of data collection and researcher made questionnaires. The researcher made test
was approved in several stages after consulting researchers and the final calculation of the test through
retesting was about 0.81. Data analysis findings showed that with respect to the degree of familiarity with
related computer skills, obstacles of using internet and the number of internal articles there is a significant
difference between professors of Islamic Azad University and Sistan-o-baluchestan state university. In
addition, factors such as the degree of familiarity with computer software, the degree of internet application
in different affairs, the degree of English language skill are different factors in causing motivation to use
internet, and the number of foreign articles, the degree of using internet and duration of using internet had no
significant difference between the two groups of professors

1.

Introduction

Rapid growth in information and communication technology caused considerable changes in the 21th century and caused development of
modern societies. Because of perceiving the effect of information and communication technology in the daily working and life environments,
educational institutions try to rebuild the educational programs and educations of classroom [9].This process of rebuilding requires accepting of
technologies inside current environment to prepare the knowledgeable learners with science in specific fields to increase meaningful learning
and increasing the professional results [23] using information and communication technology in the educational and learning environment
increases the attraction of environment of learning and education for learners and teachers and support the learning motivations [17]. The term
information technology, new technologies such as computer, fax, microelectronics, mobile and older technologies such as documentation, the
mechanical calculating machines, publication and printing are involved. Though this is a new term, but with respect to concept it dates back to
the time human being was interested in communication [8]. In the previous decades the tools of new information and communication technology
had principal changes in the communication and individuals occupation. In addition, information and communication technologies have a deep
influence on education and learning methods [7]. Information and communication technologies in the higher education are becoming important
and create spaces and new learning situations and cause a more professional role for teachers [14]. However, a successful educational system is a
system that is able to use new information and communication technologies [21].
Compounding information and communication technology in education is influenced from attitudes toward technology and the rest of factors
[11]. Factors such as, sex, the experimental background of membership in associations and course of study influence on using internet and
various studies introduced relationship between demographic factors and using internet using faculty members. Some researchers studied the
influence of demographic factors including the experimental experience of membership in association and field of study influence on using
internet and different studies analyzed relationship between demographic factors and using internet by faculty members [2]. Internet is
considered as the most important innovation in the new technology and in the new technology of information and communication technology.
Widely internet can be used in scientific and educational fields. In fact, introducing internet services in the classes is considered as an important
issue in increasing the usage of these services and fields of learning. Introducing internet services in the level of universities result in the main
changes in the methods of growing mental skills of students and these are privileges over traditional methods of learning [5]. Using Internet in
education can have different advantages that are rapid education, flexibility in the time and place, high speed in construction of new programs in
comparison to the video systems and CD Rom, changing the styles of teachers from speaker to observer and guidance, creation of classes
without wall, receiving educational cases in every time and place and asking for the views of scientists and researchers in different fields [6].
Researchers proved that correct usage of internet in the universities can open new horizons in development of learning processes and to provide
the new and flexible methods of learning for students [3]. The global grout in information and communication technology to improve learning
and education in the schools was started by a number of governments. For example, England government in 2008-9, paid 2.5 Milliard Euro for
information and communication technology in education. For starting this issue USA paid 12 Milliard Dollar and higher education institutions
paid 4, 7 Milliard dollar and Newziland paid 410 Million Dollars [16]. The international education system using scientific areas of technology
are influenced deeply. Such development requires rebuilding and changing in the educational system of the world [18]. As during the three last
decades information and communication technology are the most important resources and the most prominent elements in educational systems
that are used in all levels of education specially higher education of countries to reach as developmental purposes [13].

847

Communication Technology by Professors of Islamic Azad University and State University of Sistan-O-Baluchestan in Zahedan
International Journal of Economy, Management and Social Sciences Vol(3), No (12), December, 2014.

Recently, information and communication technology has been considered as one of the solutions for educational needs and approved [20]. The
fame of information and communication technology is for the usage of computers in the entire levels of education [10]. Application of
information and communication technology result in a strong educational environment and changes the educational and learning processes so
that students control their sciences actively. Information and communication technology is not a helping tool for current educational services, but
it is considered as a main tool for supporting new methods of learning and education. Information and communication technology can increase
the skills of students in cooperation, communication, problem-solving and learning during the life [1]. In fact, effective usage of information and
communication technology can simplify learning of students [12]. Therefore, every educator can use IT for learning of students in every subject,
because this technology can engage thinking, decision-making, problem-solving and interpretation of students behavior. IT encourages
universities and research institutes for using new methods of access to the internet for faculty members, in other words application of internet as
a necessary educational requirement is necessary and different studies should be done in this way [2].
Currently one of the main challenges of Irans higher education is development and qualitative and quantitative growth of scientific members of
universities about usage and application of information and communication technology. Therefore, universities and scientific and research
centers try to offer strategies for quantitative and qualitative improvement of capabilities and privileges of scientific members in the usage and
application of this technology [19]. The faculty members are the main figures of Higher education institutions. The fact that how faculty
members look at different technologies and apply them is very important. The attitude of scientific members toward technology can be
influenced by different factors such as demographic, professional andfactors [15]. Therefore, understanding these factors and reinforcing them
can be considered as a main influential factor on application and making the ground for application of this technology in universities. According
to the stated cases this research tries to answer this question that is there any significant difference between influential factors of using
information and communication technology by faculty members of Islamic Azad University and state university of Sistan-o-Baluchistan?
Based on the stated subjects, the main research questions of this study are as follow:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.

2.

Is there any significant difference between faculty members of


with respect to familiarity with computer software?
Is there any significant difference between faculty members of
with respect to computer skills?
Is there any significant difference between faculty members of
with respect to using internet?
Is there any significant difference between faculty members of
with respect to English language skills?
Is there any significant difference between faculty members of
with respect to the factors motivating to use internet?
Is there any significant difference between faculty members of
with respect to obstacles of using internet?
Is there any significant difference between faculty members of
with respect to the number of scientific productions (articles)?
Is there any significant difference between faculty members of
with respect to duration of using internet?

Islamic Azad University and state university of Sistan-o-Baluchistan


Islamic Azad University and state university of Sistan-o-Baluchistan
Islamic Azad University and state university of Sistan-o-Baluchistan
Islamic Azad University and state university of Sistan-o-Baluchistan
Islamic Azad University and state university of Sistan-o-Baluchistan
Islamic Azad University and state university of Sistan-o-Baluchistan
Islamic Azad University and state university of Sistan-o-Baluchistan
Islamic Azad University and state university of Sistan-o-Baluchistan

Methodology

The research methodology of this study is descriptive. Population of this research is the entire faculty members of Islamic Azad University and
state university of Sistan-o-Baluchistan. The research case studies are 106 individuals of faculty members of (54 person from Sistan-oBalochestan university and 52 persons from Islamic Azad University). Based on the nature of the study and reluctant of some professors to take
part in the study, to select the statistical samples the accessible method of data collection was used.
For data collection and responding to research questions the researcher made questionnaire was used. To establish the questionnaire after
studding the previous studies of the research and consulting experts about ICT the domains of study were introduced and primary questions were
prepared and before study, some professors of the universities were wanted to determine relativity of questions to the subject of study. After
necessary modifications again the same questionnaire was offered to a group of faculty members and they specified the content reliability of the
questionnaire. The questionnaire was approved, duplicated and then distributed among samples. The Alfa Chronbach coefficient to estimate
validity of the questionnaire was 0.81%.
Beside some descriptive indexes such as frequency, percentage, mean, and usage of different statistical diagrams the t-tests were used to answer
the research questions. For analysis of data in this study the SPSS software version 16 was used.

3.

Findings

First question: Is there any significant difference between faculty members of Islamic Azad University and state university of Sistan &
Baluchistan with respect to familiarity with computer software?
Table 1. t-test for comparing the mean of independent samples
Variable

df

Sig level

Mean difference

Familiarity with computer software

-1.840

71

.070

-.98925

As table 1 show, the observed t based on degree of freedom of 71is not significant based on the 95% level of confident. Therefore, with 95%
confident we conclude that with respect to familiarity with computer software there are no significant difference faculty members of Islamic
Azad University and state university of Sistan-o-Baluchistan.
Second question: Is there any significant difference between faculty members of Islamic Azad University and state university of Sistan &
Baluchistan with respect to computer skills?

Zabihollah Allahi *, Mehrdad Mazaheri, Mojtaba Rezaei Rad

848

International Journal of Economy, Management and Social Sciences Vol(3), No (12), December, 2014.

Table 2. t-test for comparing the mean of independent samples


Variable

df

Sig level

Mean difference

Familiarity with computer software

-2.077

91

.041

-2.92157

As table 2 show, the observed t based on degree of freedom of 71with 95% confident. Therefore, with 95% confident we conclude that faculty
members of state university of Sistan-o-Baluchistan have higher familiarity with computer skills than faculty members of Islamic Azad
University.
Third question: Is there any significant difference between faculty members of Islamic Azad University and state university of Sistan &
Baluchistan with respect to using internet?
Table 3. t-test for comparing the mean of independent samples
Variable

df

Sig level

Mean difference

Familiarity with computer software

-1.337

92

.185

-2.33182

As table 3 show, the observed t based on degree of freedom of 92 is not significant with 95%confident. Therefore, with 95% confident we
conclude that with respect to using internet in different affaires there is no significant difference faculty members of Islamic Azad University and
state university of Sistan-o-Baluchistan.
Fourth question: Is there any significant difference between faculty members of Islamic Azad University and state university of Sistan &
Baluchistan with respect to English language skills?
Table 4. t-test for comparing the mean of independent samples
Variable

df

Sig level

Mean difference

Familiarity with computer software

-1.270

99

.207

-1.14741

As table 4 show, the observed t based on degree of freedom of 99 is not significant with 95%confident. Therefore, with 95% confident we
conclude that with respect to English language skills there is no significant difference between faculty members of Islamic Azad University and
state university of Sistan-o-Baluchistan.
Fifth question: Is there any significant difference between faculty members of Islamic Azad University and state university of Sistan &
Baluchistan with respect to the factors motivating to use internet?
Table 5. t-test for comparing the mean of independent samples
Variable

df

Sig level

Mean difference

Familiarity with computer software

-1.705

96

.091

-2.80294

As table 5 show, the observed t based on degree of freedom of 96 is not significant with 95%confident. Therefore, with 95% confident we
conclude that with respect to the share of different factors motivating to use internet there is no significant difference between faculty members
of Islamic Azad University and state university of Sistan-o-Baluchistan.
Sixth question: Is there any significant difference between faculty members of Islamic Azad University and state university of Sistan &
Baluchistan with respect to obstacles of using internet?
Table 6. t-test for comparing the mean of independent samples
Variable

df

Sig level

Mean difference

Familiarity with computer software

-3.254

97

.002

-5.07038

As table 6 shows, the observed t based on degree of freedom of 97with 95% confident is significant. Therefore, with 95% confident we conclude
that faculty members of state university of Sistan-o-Baluchistan have higher obstacles in using internet than faculty members of Islamic Azad
University that is statistically significant.
Seventh question: Is there any significant difference between faculty members of Islamic Azad University and state university of Sistan &
Baluchistan with respect to the number of scientific productions (articles)?
Table 7. t-test for comparing the mean of independent samples
Variable

df

Sig level

Mean difference

Familiarity with computer software

-.777

68

.440

-.73077

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Communication Technology by Professors of Islamic Azad University and State University of Sistan-O-Baluchestan in Zahedan
International Journal of Economy, Management and Social Sciences Vol(3), No (12), December, 2014.

As table 7 show, the observed t based on degree of freedom of 98 is not significant with 95%confident. Therefore, with 95% confident we
conclude that there is no significant difference between faculty members of Islamic Azad University and state university of Sistan-o-Baluchistan
with respect to the degree of publishing articles in foreign journals.
Table 8. t-test for comparing the mean of independent samples
Variable

df

Sig level

Mean difference

Familiarity with computer software

-2.325

86

.022

-3.55895

As table 8 show, the observed t based on degree of freedom of 86 is significant with 95%confident. Therefore, with 95% confident we conclude
that there is significant difference between the mean of internal published articles of faculty members of Islamic Azad University and state
university of Sistan-o-Baluchistan.
Eighth question: Is there any significant difference between faculty members of Islamic Azad University and state university of Sistan &
Baluchistan with respect to duration of using internet?
Table 9. t-test for comparing the mean of independent samples
Variable

df

Sig level

Mean difference

Familiarity with computer software

-1.503

96

.136

-3.06917

As table 9 show, the observed t based on degree of freedom of 96 is not significant with 95%confident. Therefore, with 95% confident we
conclude that there is no significant difference between faculty members of Islamic Azad University of Zahidan and state university of Sistan-oBaluchistan with respect to Duration of using internet.

4.

Conclusion

This study aimed at comparing influential factors on usage of information and communication technology by faculty members of Islamic Azad
University and state university of Sistan-o-Baluchistan. Result of this study, show that there is a significant relationship between faculty
members of Islamic Azad University and state university of Sistan-o-Baluchistan with respect to the degree of familiarity with computer skills.
This factor was analyzed by Mashhadi et al (2007), Yaghobi and Shamsaei (2004) [24]. These researchers in their studies studied the computer
skills as one of the influential factors on using information and communication technology and result of their studies represents the significant
relationship of this factor in application of information and communication technology. Also, in obstacles of using internet, the number of
internal articles there was a significant difference between professors. Therefore, the result of average internal published articles, the rate of
familiarity with related skills to computer and obstacles of using internet among professors of state university of Sistan-o-Baluchistan was
greater than Islamic Azad University. But there was no significant difference with respect to the skills of English language. Results of studies by
Alkahtani (2006), Almonaei (2003) [4]Yaghobi and Shamsaei (2004) were analyzed. These researchers approved the influence of skills in
English language in using ICT. Also, in factors of the degree of familiarity with computer software, using internet in different affaires, the share
of different factors motivating to use internet no significant difference was seen between Islamic Azad University of Zahidan and state university
of Sistan-o-Baluchistan.
Beside stated factors the role of attitude and beliefs of faculty members in appropriate usage of technology has an important role. For example,
Saad et al (2007) [22] believed that skills and beliefs of faculty members about ICT to use in educational fields are influential factors. Also, they
concluded that personality factors such as interests, education and organizational support like financial and material resources are important in
usage of this important technology. In a study by Yaghobi and Shamsaei (2004) in the Zanjan university, to analyse the influential factors on
using internet among facility members of Zanjan University, they showed that participants have positive attitude to internet and the influence of
using internet and features such as computer skills, English language skills, age, job experience, number of articles and their scientific activities
can be referred to. Green (2004) in a study concluded that attitude of faculty members-that is a main factor in using information and
communication technology- is influenced by factors such as personality and demographic features of participants. Also, younger faculty
members are more interested in application of computer and innovations in the research activities. This researcher, in addition, found that the
help of educational institutes to faculty members to encourage the usage of information technology in teaching, helping security complexes that
is provided for educators and allocation of budget to prepare the required substructures in the in the university can develop the usage of this type
of technology in the university. Therefore, based on functional importance of information and communication technology in the level of
universities it is suggested that in addition to increasing and facility of access to faculty members in the universities to information and
communication technology the obstacles should be identified and obviated possibly. Also, existence of codified and continuous programs to
familiarize the faculty members with applications and the method using such technologies in the classroom can improve the process of learningteaching.

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