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Conclusion

NEVILLE

AGNEW

As with all interventions in the practice of conserva


tion, thorough diagnosis of the causes of deterioration is
necessary prior to making decisions about the design of
treatment. In the case of the tomb of Nefertari, observers
realized early on that the deterioration was due to the salt
laden nature of the limestone bedrock into which the tomb
was cut. The seeds of destruction were sown in antiquity
when the pharaoh's artisans applied wet mud-plaster to
the rough-hewn walls of the newly excavated tomb in prep
aration for the painters. The moisture acted on the tomb
walls by sucking salt from the rock into the plaster where it
recrystallized on and below the plaster, obscuring and
physically disrupting the painted surfaces. Over the next
thirty-two centuries and more, the slow, inexorable process
of salt crystallization continued whenever humidity within

The conservation work in the six-year joint project of the

the tomb increased -as it surely did following the rare,

Getty Conservation Institute and the Egyptian Antiquities

moisture from the rainwater above ground percolated

though often torrential, desert storms. On these occasions,

Organization in the tomb of Nefertari is now complete,


though microclimatic monitoring continues. It was an

through the salt-laden fissures in the limestone bedrock to


evaporate inside the tomb, leaving ever larger deposits of
salt on the fragile, painted plaster. In darkness, for millen
nia the destruction continued unabated. Now that the con

ambitious, multidisciplinary, international collaboration

servation of the paintings is complete, it is clear that the


future survival of these sublime artworks, which express

that involved examination, scientific analysis, documentation, and monitoring of an extraordinary site. In terms of
conservation science, the project was definitive in its suc-

the serenity of the transition of life through death, is, in


fact, linked to the earth itself and thus to the control of
moisture within the chambers of the tomb.
The wonders of ancient Egypt have long drawn the
scholar, the collector, the traveler, and the tourist to the

cess: The authenticity of the wall paintings was not com-

deserts of the Nile. Today, as never before, mass tourism


brings visitors to the ancient monuments of Egypt in ever

promised in any way by restoration or inpainting. Nor were


any non-reversible materials applied to the painted sur
face. The field campaigns, totaling nearly 500 days in the
tomb, were supported by countless hours of laboratory

increasing numbers. This phenomenon, a product of the


age of air travel, has burgeoned in recent decades. Every
where the fabric of the world's cultural heritage is under
siege. In previous times the weather and natural cata
clysms wrought their slow and sudden disasters. Now the
deterioration is accelerating as uncontrolled tourism, pollu
tion, vandalism, and often theft are tipping the scales fur

analysis, photographic documentation, materials testing,


intensive discussions, training of conservators, coordination, and logistical planning. We believe this project to be
exemplary in its collaborative efforts as well as its results

ther against the long-term survival of artworks,


monuments, and the ancient legacy of cultures. When visi
tors to monuments and sites tramp on ancient walls and
finger carvings in stone, little do they think that their
actions, repeated perhaps a million times a year, abrade
and wear away the very substance that has drawn them to
that place. In the confines of a rockcut tomb there is, in

and hope it will help set a standard for the future.

addition to the physical attrition of feet on floors and

123

hands on fragile paint, the moisture that each exhalation


brings-between 100 and 400 milliliters, or one half to two
cups of water, per person per hour. Moisture, which pro
motes the growth of mold and bacteria, also may reacti
vate dormant salt to start afresh the destructive action
of recrystallization-works of art and cultural treasures
notwithstanding.
The exact extent of response of sodium chloride in
the plaster and rock to high levels of humidity is not yet
known. It is certain that some recrystallization of salt will
occur, as well as biological growth, at elevated humidity.
There may well be other untoward effects, especially if
cyclical changes occur in humidity. Hence the importance of
continued microclimatic monitoring.
For the present, the tomb will remain closed for moni
toring of the microclimate in an undisturbed state, as dis
cussed in the chapter by Maekawa. What has yet to be
developed for the future is a comprehensive management
plan that will take into account these results and findings.
The tomb of Nefertari was intended to endure, not just
for nearly three-and-a-half millennia, but for eternity.
Although it has survived to the present time, its existence
has not gone unscathed. Robbed in antiquity, corroded by
salt, damaged (albeit inadvertently) since Schiaparelli's dis
covery-it has suffered many indignities. Nevertheless, the
tomb has endured with the essence of its haunting beauty
intact. Surely now it is a solemn duty, a test of our will,
expertise, and common responsibility, to ensure, by all
means possible, that no further damage shall occur. This
has been the far-reaching goal of the past six years of
meticulous and dedicated work in which the finest skills
and experience in the world have been focused single
mindedly on the conservation of the extraordinary wall
paintings of the tomb of Nefertari. And it remains for all of
us to keep the promise of Nefertari's "house of eternity"
alive for future generations.

124

AGNEW

Source Materials for the Study


of the Nefertari Wall Paintings
MAHASTI

AFSHAR

This bibliography has been designed as a research aid for


studying the wall paintings of the tomb of Nefertari, tomb
No.

66 in the Valley of the Queens, western Thebes, Egypt.

The sources are divided into three major categories:

(1)

general studies on ancient Egyptian history, art, and


archaeology, with a particular emphasis on the Nineteenth
Dynasty;

(2) a selective list of studies on the small rock

temple at Abu Simbel dedicated by Rameses II to the god


dess Hathor and the deified Nefertari; and

(3) scientific

and paintings conservation studies directly or generally


related to the subject. Major sources in the three catego
ries are indicated separately before each section.

I.

The History, Art, and Archaeology of the

Nineteenth Dynasty
The primary bibliographic source on the subject remains
Bertha Porter and Rosalind L. B. Moss, Topographical Bib
liography of Ancient Egyptian Hieroglyphic Texts, Reliefs
and Paintings, I. The Theban Necropolis, Part
Tombs and Smaller Cemeteries, Oxford,
edition, Oxford University Press,

2.

Royal

1927-. Revised

1964; reissued by the Grif

fith Institute, Ashmolean Museum,

1973: 729, 740, 762-

65. Among the many surveys on ancient Egyptian paint


ings in the past, the following may be the most helpful:
Nina M. Davies, Ancient Egyptian Paintings, Vots.
Plates; Vol.

1-2,

3, Descriptive Text, published by The Oriental

Institute, The University of Chicago in

1936; Arpag Mekhi

tarian's La Peinture egyptienne, published by SKIRA in


Geneva in

1954, which appeared simultaneously in an

English version as well, and is illustrated with ninety-four


color plates; and Andre Lhote's Les Chefs-d'oeuvre de la
SOURCE

MATERIALS

125

peinture egyptienne, published by Hachette in Paris in

are amply illustrated with fine reproductions of the sub

1954, with twenty color plates illustrating the introductory

jects surveyed.

text, and 170 plates in black and white and color in a sep

Also of interest are the approximately 350 facsimiles

arate chapter. For purposes of comparison with other The

of Egyptian wall paintings copied by the Graphic Section

ban tombs, the reader may consult Norman de Garis

of The Metropolitan Museum of Art's

Davies' voluminous output done under the aegis of The

dition from 1907 to 1937, which are on permanent display

(MET) Egyptian Expe

MET. Three paintings of the tomb of Nefertari by

Metropolitan Museum of Art in New Y ork, and the publica

at the

tions of the Egypt Exploration Society in London during the

Nina de Garis Davies dated 1921-22, and one by Charles K.

period ca. 1913-48.

Wilkinson dated 1923-24 are reproduced in Egyptian Wall

A concise introduction to the subject aimed at the


general reader and students alike is Egyptian Painting and

Paintings: The Metropolitan Museum of Art's Collection of


Facsimiles, which was published by the

MET in New York in

Relief by Gay Robins, who was at the time of publication

1983. The text, written by Wilkinson, contains biographical

a member of the Oriental Faculty at Cambridge University.

information on the principal participants during the three

Published in 1986 by Shire Publications Ltd. in England,

decades of the

MET expedition. The catalogue is compiled

the book elucidates the principles, materials, and methods

by Marsha Hill and is informative and methodical in the

of ancient Egyptian art in both religious and domestic con

presentation of the facsimiles.

texts, with a separate section devoted to Amarna art. Of

The most recent publication on the Nefertari wall

particular interest are discussions of the varied conven

paintings is the exhibition catalogue In the Tomb of Nefer

tions for representing the parts of the human figure in for

tari: Conservation of the Wall Paintings. This was pub

mal and mundane scenes, the horizontal registers and the

lished on the occasion of an exhibition jointly organized

scale system used to organize the material and to under

by the j. Paul Getty Museum

UPGM) and the Getty Conser


JPGM from November

score the relative importance of the figures depicted, and

vation Institute that was held at the

the grid system used for drawing proportional outlines of

12, 1992 to February 21, 1993. The catalogue includes an

the subject.

essay by john K. McDonald, associate director of the Yale

james F. Romano's Death, Burial, and Afterlife in

University Art Gallery, on the Getty Conservation Institute's

Ancient Egypt, published in 1990 by the Carnegie Museum

work in the tomb from 1986 to 1992. It also includes con

of Natural History in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, is a concise

tributions by Robert S. Bianchi, j. Clawson Mills Fellow at

MET, on the life and times of Nefertari and on Egyptian

survey of the broader context of ancient Egyptian funerary

the

customs, art, and architecture. A more detailed survey is

wall paintings. Bianchi proposes a new reading of the data

provided in a 1988 publication, Egyptian Civilization: Reli

related to Nefertari and suggests that she was of royal

gious Beliefs, edited by Anna Maria Donadoni Roveri,

parentage.

director of Turin's Museo Egizio. This is an informative pub

The publications cited below comprise the most

lication on matters related to the religious traditions of

important sources related to Nineteenth Dynasty history

ancient Egypt, including funerary structures and paintings.

and art. A number of books that carry illustrations of the

It is of interest to the general reader as well as to the spe

Nefertari wall paintings have been included regardless of

cialist, with a well-selected bibliography classified accord

their literary significance. Plate numbers, figures, or pages

ing to archaeological sites, historical periods, mummifi

on which illustrations appear are shown in parentheses

cation materials and rites, and funerary objects and cus

following citations. For a survey of photographic records

toms. A companion volume titled, Egyptian Civilization:

the reader should consult the article on photodocumenta

Daily Life, was published simultaneously and provides

tion in this volume.

equally interesting reading and bibliographic references on


a variety of subjects dealing with Egyptian civilization such
as the art and technique of writing, food production and
vessels, weaving, woodworking, tools and weapons, pre
cious ornaments, music, dance, and games. Both volumes

126

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Steindorff, G., and Wolf, W. Die Thebanische Graberwelt.
GIUckstadt, 1936. (Blackand-white pis. 22 [bj, 23 [a, bD

Although the tomb of Nefertari provides no historical


records of value on her life-not even a reference to her
illustrious spouse-iconographic and epigraphic data
found at the Small Temple at Abu Simbel, dedicated by
Rameses II to the goddess Hathor of Ibeshek and the dei

Thausing, G., and Goedicke, H., commentary and intro

fied Nefertari, provide a tangible history for this otherwise

duction. Nofretari: A Documentation of Her Tomb and

ethereal queen. The monument is a token of the excep

Its Decoration. Photo: E. Ritter. Graz, Austria, 1971.

tional honor bestowed by the pharaoh on his favorite wife

(Pis. 1-155)

who probably died before the temple decorations were

Thomas, E. The Royal Necropolis of Thebes. Princeton,


N. J.: T. W. Moorman, 1966. (Figs. 214, 215, plan and cross
section of the tomb)

completed.1 The dedicatory inscription over the temple


reads: "Rameses II has made a temple . . . for the Chief
Queen Nefertari Beloved of Mut . . . Nefertari . . . For Whom
the Sun Shines." Oriented toward a southeasterly direc

Valbelle, D. Les Ouvriers de la Tombe: Deir E/-Medineh

tion, her thirty-three-foot-high colossi stand one on either

a /'epoque ramesside. Chap. 2: Ramses II. Cairo, 1985.

side of the central entrance in niche-like recesses, each

(167-74; tomb of Nefertari: 171)

flanked in equal proportion by those of the pharaoh.

Vandier, J. Egypt: Paintings from Tombs and Temples.


Greenwich, Conn., ca. 1956. (Pis. xv, xvi, xiii, xiv)
Weigall, A. Ancient Egyptian Works of Art. London, 1924.
(Pis. 275, 276)

Nefertari is depicted here wearing Hathor's emblematic


cow horns and solar disk as part of her headdress. Else
where, in the far side of the vestibule, Hathor and Isis are
shown in relief performing the queen's coronation cere
mony. The walls and three sides of the pillars in the hypo
style "Hall of Appearance" show Rameses II and Nefertari

Wildung, D. Die Kunst des alten Agypten. Freiburg im


Breisgau, 1988. (Pis. 6, 67, 80)
Wilkinson, C. K. Egyptian Wall Paintings: The Metropoli
tan Museum of Art's Collection of Facsimiles. Catalogue
compiled by M. Hill. New York, 1983. (Figs. 30.4.142-45)
Wimmer, H., and Riesterer, P. P. L'Egypte. 1963. (PI. 84)
Winkler, H. A. Rock-drawings of Southern Upper Egypt:
Sir Robert Mond Desert Expedition. Preliminary Report.
London, 1938-39.

before different divinities in low relief. In the rear central


sanctuary, a statuary group believed to represent the royal
couple appears next to Hathor. A relief on its northern wall
depicts the seated couple receiving offerings, and on the
south wall Nefertari is shown in adoration before the divin
ities Mut and Hathor.
The temple is situated on the west bank of the Nile,
about 40 km north of the actual frontier with Sudan in
Lower Nubia. It forms part of a complex that was to be
Rameses II's fourth and last monumental building project
in his sixty-seven-year-long reign and includes the Great

Winlock, H. E. "Excavations at Thebes" [The Egyptian

Temple dedicated by the pharaoh to Amon-Re of Thebes

Expedition: 1921-22j. Bulletin of The Metropolitan

and Re-Herakhty of Heliopolis. Among other representa

Museum of Art 17, No. 12, Pt. ii (Dec. 1922): 19-48.


Wolf, W. Die Kunst Agyptens: Gestalt und Geschichte.
Zurich, 1957. (Pis. 550, 552)
__

. Die Welt der Agypter. Zurich, 1955. (PI. 105)

Wood, R., and Drawer, S. Egypt in Colour. London, 1964.


(PI. 58)

tions, the faade of this imposing construction bears


colossi of Rameses II together with statues of his chil
dren, of Nefertari, and of his mother in smaller scale.
Hewn out of the cliff, the twin rock temples were rescued
from the rising waters of the Aswan High Dam as part of
a UNESCO project that removed and reassembled them on
high ground.2
The essential bibliographic source on Nefertari's tem
ple at Abu Simbel is Bertha Porter and Rosalind L. B.
SOURCE MATERIALS

131

Moss, Topographical Bibliography of Ancient Egyptian

temples; 22, far;:ade of the Small Temple; 23, Nefertari

Hieroglyphic Texts, Reliefs and Paintings. VII. Nubia, the

between Hathor and Isis)

Desert and Outside Egypt, first published in Oxford, 1952;


reissued by the Griffith Institute, Ashmolean Museum,
1975: 111-17 A subsequent source is Christianne

Blackman, A. M. Luxor and Its Temples. Illustrated by


Major Benton Fletcher. London, 1923. (65, 67; pis. x,

Desroches-Noblecourt and Charles Kuentz's Le Petit

Bonneval, H. Rapport sur les missions photogram

Temple d'Abou Simbel: "Nofretari pour qui se leve Ie

metriques de I'I.G.N. en Nubie egyptienne. Missions

Dieu-Soleil." The dedication of this valuable publication to

d'octobre-novembre

Rameses II, Champollion, and UNESCO sums up its scope

XIV)

1956, d'aoOt-septembre 1960, de

septembre-novembre

1961. Paris, 1961.

and intention. The study was published in two volumes by


the Ministry of Culture, Centre de Documentation et

___

. "Utilisation de la photogrammetrie pour les leves

d'Etude sur l'Ancienne Egypte (CEDEA) , in collaboration

architecturaux: application au temple d'Abou Simbel."

with UNESCO in Cairo in 1968.

Bulletin de la Section de Geographie du Comite des

The first volume of this work includes thirty-three


plans and drawings with an archaeological and epigraphic
study of the pylon-shaped faade, the entrance, the court,
vestibule, and sanctuary, followed by an interpretation of
the role of the temple, notes, and bibliographic references.
Illustrated with fine drawings throughout, the text in hiero
glyphics and translation is accompanied by exhaustive his
torical and epigraphic documentation. The second volume
reproduces 127 plates and photogrammetric reconstruc

Travaux historiques et scientifiques 71 (1958-59): 1-12.


Breasted,

J. H. "The Age of Ramses II." In The Cambridge

Ancient History.

J. B. Bury et aI., eds. Vol. 2. The Egyptian

and Hittite Empires to c.

1000 B.C. Cambridge, 1940.

(150, 159)
Carbon nell, M. "L'lmportance de la photographie dans la
campagne de sauvegarde des monuments de la Nubie."
Terre d'images, NO. 2 (March-April 1964): 168-83.

tions, plans, cross sections, and elevations of the temple.


It also includes photographs taken at the beginning of this
century before the construction of the Aswan High Dam

___

ber-November

as well as an aerial view of the temple dated 1959 (PI. I).


___

A 1:750 photogrammetric map of the respective positions


of the two temples, the stela, and the rock drawings pre
pared by I'lnstitut Geographique National (IGN) , Paris,
appears at the end of the second volume. A number of the

. Mission photogrammetrique en Nubie (Septem

1963). Paris, 1964.

. "Le Releve photogrammetrique des ensembles

architecturaux." Bulletin de la Societe Fran(aise de


Photogrammetrie, No. 19 Ouly 1965): 91-120.

___

. "Les Releves photogrammetriques des monu

photogrammetric records of this volume have appeared in

ments de Nubie." Archeologia, NO. 3 (March-April 1965):

small scale in the various articles of Maurice Carbonnell

66-72.

and are cited below.

Notes

1. See Thausing and Goedicke (1971:31).


2. Other major sources of imagery for Nefertari are the
Great Temple at Abu Simbel, the stela at Gebel el-Silseleh,

Christophe, L.A. Abou-Simbel et /'epopee de sa decou


verte. Brussels, 1965. (Frontispiece, in color, view of the
site and the two temples)

__

. "Les Temples d'Abou-Simbel et la famille de

Ramses II." Bulletin de i'lnstitut d'Egypte 38 (1965):


107-30. (PI.

II, far;:ade, the northern colossus of Nefertari)

and the Luxor and Karnak temples.


Le Courrier (UNESCO) . February 1960.
Sources

0,

Nefertari between

Hathor and Isis; 18, top of a Hathoric column; Nefertari


offering flowers and sistrum; 19, far;:ade; Ramses II offering

A Common Trust: The Preservation of the Ancient Monu

flowers; 20-21, general views of the two temples; 27,

ments of Nubia. UNESCO, 1960. French edition: Un devoir

northern half of the faade)

de solidarite internationale. (19, general view of the two

132

AFSHAR

Curto,S. Nubia, storia di una civilta favolosa. Novara,

1965. (Figs. 241-56)

Lalouette,C. L'Empire des Ramses. Paris,1985:

421-23.

Langdon,S.,and Gardiner,A. H. "The Treaty of Alliance

Desroches-Noblecourt, Ch. "Le Petit Temple d'Abou Sim

between Hattushili,king of the Hittites and the Pharaoh

bel et son message." Rotary Bulletin (Cairo),No.

Ramesses II of Egypt." Journal of the Egyptian Antiquities

Uune-July
and Isis;

1964): 26-33. (26, Nefertari between Hathor

28, Nefertari before the cow Hathor in her boat;

and behind Ramses massacring his enemies;


orama of the two temples;
__

Style

29, pan

33, faade)

. "Temples de Nubie: Des tresors menaces." Art et

58 (1960). (Fig. 43, faade; 44, photogrammetric

renderings of gradation levels;


ern enemies;
row;

219

46, first Hathoric column of the southern

(1920): 184, 204-5.

Lefebvre,C. "Une Version abrege de la Stele du Mariage."

ASAE 25 (1925): 34-45.


MacQuitty,W. Abu Simbel. London,1965.

(14, 73 123,

126, 149, 159, 161)


. Ramesses the Great: Master of the World.

45, massacre of the north

47, Nefertari between Hathor and Isis)

New York,1978.
Martini, R. H. "Comment sera sauve Abou-Simbel."

Desroches-Noblecourt, Ch.,and Kuentz, Ch. Le Petit Tem


ple d'Abou-Simbel: "Nofretari pour qui se leve Ie Dieu
Soleil."

Organization 6

2 vols. Vol. 2, Plates. Centre de Documentation et

Le Courrier

(UNESCO). (December 1964): 11-16. (16, aerial

view of the two temples)


Montet,P. Everyday Life in Egypt in the Days of Ramesses

d'Etude sur l'Ancienne Egypte, Memoires. Cairo,1968.

the Great. A. R. Maxwell-Hyslop and M. s. Drower,tr.

Drioton, E.,ed. "Le Site et la signification des temples

London,1958.

d'Abou Simbel." Nubie. Cahiers d'histoire egyptienne x,

Nawrath,A. Agypten. Bern,1962.

1967: 19-22.

colossi of the northern section of the faade;

Emery,W. Egypt in Nubia. London,1965. (PI.

XXXI)

Freed, R. Ramesses the Great. Memphis, Tenn.,1987.


Gazzola,P.,and Nawrath,A. Rettung der Tempel nubiens.

ICCROM Monograph. Bern,1962: 1-16.

(Pis.

68-69)

69-70 (1960): 27-46. (Figs. 7, 8)

Ancient Egyptian Hieroglyphic Texts, Reliefs and Paint


ings.

7 vols. 1927-75.

II . Nubia, the Desert and Outside

111-17.

Ramses Ie Grand. Galeries Nationales du Grand Palais

Redford,D. B. "The Earliest Years of Ramesses II,and the


Building of the Ramesside Court at Luxor." Journal of

The Great Pharaoh Ramses 1/ and His Time. An Exhibition


of Antiquities from the Egyptian Museum, Cairo. Palais de
Civilisation, Montreal. June 1-September 29, 1985. (Nefer
tari, following

Porter, B.,and Moss, R. Topographical Bibliography of

(exhibition catalogue). Paris,1976.

Gilbert,P. "L'Art d'Abou Simbel." Chronique d'Egypte 35,


No.

91, 92: 254,

in color,the faade,southern and northern views)

Egypt. Oxford,1951:

Gerster, G. Nubien, Goldland am Nil. Zurich,1964.

(90: 252, the three

Egyptian Antiquities

57 (1971): 110-19.

Schmidt,J. D. Ramesses 1/: A Chronological Structure for


His Reign. Baltimore and London,1973.

(23, 172-73)

32)

Kitchen, K. A. Pharaoh Triumphant: The Life and Times of


Ramesses 1/. Warminster,1982.
Kuentz, Ch. "La Stele de mariage de Ramses II." Annales
du Service des Antiquites de l'Egypte

(ASAE) 25 (1925):

Velikovsky,I. Ramses 1/ and His Time. Garden City,New


York,1978.
Wood, R., and Drower, M. S. Egypt in Colour. London,

1964. (PI. 58, Nefertari between Hathor and Isis)

181-238.

SOURCE MATERIALS

133

III.

Scientific and Paintings Conservation

paintings in this particular tomb. Individual contributions


to the volume have been listed separately below. A more

Studies

recent overview of the subject was contributed by john K.

1992 exhibition catalogue

Scientific and paintings conservation studies directly

McDonald in the

related to the wall paintings of the tomb of Nefertari, as

Nefertari: Conservation of the Wall Paintings. This essay is

well as a number of works of general scientific interest that

aimed at the general reader and surveys the EAO-GCI con

have been cited in these studies, are listed below. As yet,

servation project from inception to completion.

no attempt has been made to characterize the collectivity

In the Tomb of

Unpublished topographic and drainage pattern maps

of ancient Egyptian tomb paintings within their varied geo

of the Valley of the Queens may also be cited here, as

logical, architectural, and environmental contexts from a

they comprise indispensable tools for defining the scope

scientific point of view. Nor has there been a critical survey

of deterioration and site protection problems of the tomb

of the different theories and methodologies that have been

of Nefertari. A topographic map of the Theban necropolis

applied to date to confront the problems of deterioration,

was produced in

despite the undisputed recognition of the paintings' histor

ban mapping project undertaken by the University of Cali

ical and aesthetic significance. The increasingly vital sub

fornia, Berkeley. The work was directed by Kent R. Weeks,

ject of site management is equally neglected in the

former professor of Egyptology at the University of Califor

1981 during the fourth season of a The

literature-a lack that is all the more conspicuous consid

nia at Berkeley, and current chairman of the Department

ering the active interests of the Egyptian Antiquities Orga

of Egyptology at the American University of Cairo (see

nization, UNESCO, ICCROM, and the international community

Weeks

of archaeologists, art historians, and conservation special


ists in safeguarding Egyptian antiquities as a whole.

1981).

In February and March of

1987, Robert Cameron of

R. E. Cameron and Associates, Inc.-a Massachusetts

A valuable study that offsets the above-mentioned

based engineering-survey company-undertook a survey

lacunae in a singularly important area is Ancient Pigments

ing project in the Valley of the Queens under the direction

in Wall Paintings of Egyptian Tombs and Temples: An

of Farouk El-Baz, director of the Remote Sensing Center at

Archaeometric Project, published in

1986 by Ahmed El-Gor

Boston University. The project was funded by Earthwatch

esy of Heidelberg's Max Planck Institut fUr Kernphysik. The

and equipped with surveying instruments on loan from

study is based on two field trips funded by the Stiftung

the Topcon Instrument Corporation of America and the

Volkswagenwerk in

1981 and 1982. It is a systematic sur

Carl Heinrich Company (see Cherrington

1987). Because

vey of the variety of natural, synthetic, and semisynthetic

of the lack of adequate aerial photographs required to

pigments found in polychromic decorations in more than

cover the proposed soo-acre study area, Cameron decided

fifty tombs and twelve temples across Egypt-including

instead to use ground survey methods to update a

the tomb of Nefertari-and the innovative technologies

1:2000 stereo photogrammetric survey produced in 1969

developed from the Old Kingdom to the New Kingdom for

by the Centre de Photogrammetrie Architecturale et

the manufacture and application of these pigments. The

Archeologique of the Institut Geographique National de

article was co-authored with H. jaksch of Tracor Europa

Paris (IGN ) . The

1969 survey was based on aerial photo

BV in Karlsdorf, M. Abdel Razek of the Egyptian Antiqui

graphs taken in

1964. A detailed topographic survey locat

ties Organization ( EAO) in Cairo, and K. L. Weiner of the

ing the tomb entrances and some of the lower areas was

1989). Swiss

Institut fUr Kristallographie und Mineralogie of the Univer

thus produced (see Wissmuller and Gonzalez

sity of Munich, and includes a brief review of past contri

Air Photo later synthesized these data, and a topographic

butions to the field.

map of the Valley of the Queens was completed

Wall Paintings of the Tomb of Nefertari: Scientific


Studies for their Conservation, First Progress Report, pub

lished in july

1987 as part of the joint project of the Egyp

in

1988.
When the joint EAO-GCI Nefertari Conservation Project

was launched in

1986, it became necessary to prepare a

tian Antiquities Organization ( EAO) and the Getty

drainage pattern map of the Valley of the Queens. The

Conservation Institute (GCI) , is the main source for an

project had access to a set of Egyptian Survey Organiza

1926, as

understanding of the biological, chemical, and physical

tion base maps prepared by a British team in

characteristics of the exquisite and extremely endangered

well as the Berkeley map of the Theban necropolis, both

134

AFSHAR

of which proved inadequate for the undertaking. Dr.

Arosio, R., and Nicola, G. L. "Ricerca chimica nella pratica

Farouk ElBaz was at this time entrusted with the task of

del restauro: il caso della 'Madonna della Consolata' di

using advance technologies to map the region in the

Torino." In L'lmpresa del restauro: materiali delle Gior

immediate vicinity of the tomb of Nefertari. The objective

nate di studion sui tema "Artigianato e ricerca scientifica

was to determine the drainage pattern and develop a

nel restauro d'arte." Aramengo Restoration Laboratory

hydrologic model of the terrain, and to locate areas of the


walls in the tomb that needed emergency treatment. The
results and recommendations of the study were published
as a monograph in 1986 and appeared in an edited ver
sion in the First Progress Report (see ElBaz 1987). The
map itself was completed in 1989 and, together with the
Swiss Air Photo topographic map mentioned above, is
accessible through Dr. El-Baz.
More recently, Christian Leblanc, director of the Unit
of Associated Research

(URA 1064) at the National Center

forScientific Research in France

(CNRS) , has reproduced a

topographic map of the Valley of the Queens, prepared in


1988 by Yves Laurent, that also includes the tomb loca
tions as well (page 18, this volume). The map first

Report, January 12-17, 1983. Bologna, 1985: 93-100.


Barbieri, M., Calderoni, G., Cortesi, C, and Fornaseri, M.
"Huntite, a Mineral Used in Antiquity." Archaeometry 16,
NO. 1 (1974): 211-20.
Bayer, G., and Wiedemann, H. G. "Agyptisch Blau-ein
synthetisches Pigment des Altertums wissenschaftlich
betrachtet." Sandoz Bulletin 40 (1976): 20-39.
El-Baz, F. Egypt as Seen by Landsat. Cairo, 1979.

___ . "Geoarchaeologists Use RemoteSensing Tools


toStudy Ancient Life, Landforms." Geotime 35, NO. 7 Ouly
1990): 16-18.

appeared at the end of chapter 1 in volume one of Leb

___ . Geographic and Geologic Setting of the Tomb

lanc's Ta Set Neferou: une necropole de Thebes-ouest et

of Nefertari, Egypt. Boston University Center for Remote

son histoire, published by Dar alKutub in Cairo in July


1989 (seeSection I of this article). It derives from the

stereophotogrammetric survey mentioned above. Chris


tian Leblanc is currently working jointly with the
umentation Center

Sensing. Technical Paper NO. 1, 1986.

IGN

EAO Doc

(CEDEA) on a project to restore the

Valley of the Queens to its original pharaonic level. The


project has also prepared an asyet-unpublished map of
the area that reproduces the plans of the tombs to scale.

___ . "Geographic and GeologicSetting." In Wall


Paintings of the Tomb of Nefertari. First Progress Report,
July 1987. M. A. Corzo, ed. Cairo and Century City, Calif.,
1987: 46-52.

___ . "RemoteSensing and Archaeology." In 1991


Yearbook of Science and the Future. Encyclopaedia
Britannica. Chicago, Illinois, 1990: 144-61.

Sources

__ . "RemoteSensing in Egyptology." Third World


Ammar, M.S., Barakat, K., Ghanem, E. H., and El-Deeb,
A. A. "Microflora Investigations." In Wall Paintings of the
Tomb of Nefertari. First Progress Report, July 1987. M. A.
Corzo, ed. Cairo and Century City, Calif., 1987: 58-63.

Academy of Sciences Newsletter, No. 8, August 1988.


International Centre for Theoretical Physics. Trieste, Italy,
1988: 7-9.

___ . "RemoteSensing of the Tomb of Nefertari."

Arai, H. "Biological Investigations." In Wall Paintings of the

(Abstract.) The Society for Imaging Science and Technol

Tomb of Nefertari. First Progress Report, July 1987.

ogy. SPSE 42nd Annual Meeting. Boston, Massachusetts,

M. A. Corzo, ed. Cairo and Century City, Calif., 1987: 54-63.

1989: 121.

___ . "The Environmental Analysis of Archaeological


Sites." Trends in Analytical Chemistry 9, NO. 7 (August

El-Baz. F., Koc, M., Mojzsis, 5., and Toth, E. "Hydrologic


Modeling of the Tomb of Nefertari, Luxor, Egypt." 28th

1990): 215 ff.

International Geological Congress. 9-19 July, 1989. Wash

___ . "On Microorganisms in the Tomb of Nefertari."

ington, D.C. Vol. 1. Abstracts, 1989: 442-43.

Science for Conservation, No. 27 (1988): 19-20.

Berry, L. G., et aI., eds. Powder Diffraction File: Joint Commit-

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tee on Powder Diffraction Standards. Philadelphia, 1982.

News, No. 41 (March 1990): 34-36.

Billard, T. c., and Burns, G. "Solution of the continuity

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equation at Karnak." Nature 285, No. 5767 (26 June 1980):

the Tomb of Nefertari: Scientific Studies for their Conser

653-55

vation. First Progress Report, July 1987. Cairo and Century

Billmeyer, Jr., F. W., and Saltzman, M. Principles of Color


Technology. 2d ed. New York, 1981.
Brochwicz, Z. "The Structure of Mural Paintings in the
Tomb of Queen Nefertari." In The Tomb of Queen Nefer
tari: Problems of Conserving Wall Paintings. Conservator's

City, Calif., 1987: 41-43.


Curtis, G., and Rutherford, J. "Expansive Shale Damage,
Theban Royal Tombs, Egypt." In Proceedings of the 10th
International Conference on Soil Mechanics and Founda
tion Engineering. Vol. 3. Stockholm, 1981: 71-74.

Information Center Monograph. Warsaw: ICCROM, 1973:

Deer, W. A., Howie, R. A., and Zussman, J. An Introduction

16-36.

to the Rock Forming Minerals. London, 1976.

Burns, G., and WilsonYang, K. M. The Tomb of Nefertari,

Delbourgo, S. "Application of the Electron Microprobe

Valley of the Queens and Its Conservation Problems. Pre

to the Study of Some Italian Paintings of the Fourteenth

liminary Report, Archaeometric Laboratory. Toronto, 1981.

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Burns, G., WilsonYang, K. M., and Smeaton J. E. "Archaeo


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1988: 289-310.

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London, 1976.
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Warsaw: ICCROM, 1973: 45-59

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___

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Corfield, M. (Review.) Wall Paintings of the Tomb of Nefer

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ed. Cairo and Century City, Calif., 1987. Conservation

Warsaw: ICCROM, 1973: 37-44.

FIGURE

2.

NEFERTARI'S EXCEPTIONAL POLITICAL

STATUS IS INDICATED BY THIS RELIEF CARVING


INSIDE THE SMALL TEMPLE AT ABU SIMBEL. SHE
STANDS BEHIND RAMESES

II

IN A SCENE SHOW

ING THE RITUAL SLAUGHTER OF A NUBIAN CAP


TIVE BEFORE THE GOD AMON. THIS DRAWING
(AND FIG.

3)

FROM HERMANN MULLER-KARPE

(1985).

136

A FSHAR

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M. A. Corzo, ed. Cairo and Century City, Calif., 1987: 64-68.

___

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138

AFSHAR

FIGURE

3.

NEFERTARI PARTICI

PATES IN A RITUAL BEFORE THE


GODDESS HATHOR IN EQUAL
CAPACITY AS HER HUSBAND, RAME'
SES

II.

THE SCENE INDICATES HER

EXCEPTIONAL RANK IN RELIGIOUS


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IN THE SMALL TEMPLE AT ABU
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SOURCE MATERIALS

139

Saltzman, M.

136

Lhote, A.

129

Santini, M.

137

Litvan, G. G.

137

Sauneron, S.

130

Donadoni Roveri, A.M. 128

Lucas, A.

137

Schiaparelli, E.

130

Donadoni, S

Mace, A. C.

129

Schilling, M.

138

129

Schmidt, J. D.

133

Schott, S.

128

Desroches-Noblecourt, Ch.

Author Index

128,133
Adzigian, J.

129

Albini, F.

139

Ammar, M. S.

135

Arai, H.

135

Arosio, R.

135

Badawy, A.

127

Baedeker, K.

127

Baikie, J.

127

Baines, J.

127

Ballerini, F.

127

Barakat, K.

135

Barbieri, M.

135

Basch, M. A.

127

Baud, M.

127

Bayer, G.

135

Benedite, G. A.

127

Berry, L. G.

135

Bianchi, R. S.

127

Billard, J. B.

127

Billard, T. C.

136,139

Billmeyer, Jr., F. W.

136

Bimson, B.

139

Birch, M.

128

Blackman, A. M.

132

Bonneval, H.

132

Botti, G.

128

Breasted, J. H.

132

Brochwicz, Z.

136

Brunet, J.

139

Burns, G.

136,138,139

Burton, H.

128

Caffery, J.

128

Calderoni, G.

135

Campbell, C.

128

Capart, J.

128

Capriotti, G.

137

Carbonnell, M.

132

Cerny, J.

128

Carotti, G.

128

Champdor, A.

128

Cherrington, M.

136

Christophe, L.-A.

132

Corfield, M.

136

Cortesi, C.

135

Corzo, M. A.

136

Curtis, G.

136

Curto, S.

128,133

D'Alessandro, L.

137

Davies, Nina M.

128

Davies, Norman de Garis

128
Deer, W. A.

136

Delbourgo, S.

136

140

Domaslowski, W.

136
128

Lefebvre, C.

129,133

Dondelinger, E.

128,137

Machold, H.

Drioton, E.

128,133

MacQuitty, W.

Drower, S.

131,133

Maher-Taha, M.

129

Schwartzbaum, P.

137

138

Marro, G.

129

Severin, T.

130

135,137

EI-Masry, A.

129,133

Marsal, J.

139

Shedid, A.-G.

EI-Deeb, A. A.

135

Martini, R. H.

133

Simon, F.T.

EI-Etr, H. A.

137

Marwan, N. Z.

129

Smeaton, J. E.

EI-Baz, F.

130,138
138
136,138

EI-Goresy, A.

137

McDonald, J. K.

137

Smith, E.

Emery, W.

133

Meeks, N. D.

139

Smith, W. S.

Erichsen, W.

128

Mekhitarian, A.

129,130

Soeib, A. S.

138

Esmael, F. A.

137

Michalowski, A.

136,137

Stanley Price, N. P.

138

Farina, G.

128

Mojzsis, S.

135

Steindorff, G.

131

Faulkner, R. O.

128

Mond, R.

130

Stoppelaere, A.

138

Fornaseri, M.

135

Montet, P.

133

Thausing, G.

131

Foucart, G.

129

Montoto, M.

137

Thomas, E.

131

Thomson, G.

139

Freed, R.

133

Mora, L.

137

Gaballa, G.-A.

129

Mora, P.

137,138

Gardiner, A. H.

133

Moriarty, D.

130

137
130,131

Tite, M.s.
Torraca, G.

139
137,138,139

Gauri, K. L.

137

Moss, R.

Toth, E.

135

Gazzola, P.

133

Moukhtar, G.

137

Ulrich, D.

139

Gerster, G.

133

Moustafa, A. R.

137

Valbelle, D.

131

Ghanem, E. H.

135

MUlier-Karpe, H.

130

Vandier, J.

131

Gilbert, P.

133

Nawrath, A.

130,133

Velikovsky, I.

133

Gitton, M.

129

Nicola, G. L.

135

Vidal, P.

139

Goedicke, H.

131

Nicolini, L.

137

Vouve, J.

139

Goldstein, J. I.

137

Noerdlinger, H. S.

130

Weeks, K. R.

139

Gonzalez, I.

139

Noll, W.

137,138

Goodwin, W. J.

138

Otto, E.

Guichen, G. de

138

Habachi, H.

129

Hangst, K.

137,138

130,133

Weigall, A.

131

129

Werbrouck, M.

128

Pabst, A.

138

Wiedemann, H. G.

135

Palet, A.

138

Wildung, D.

131

Peet, T. E.

128

Wilkinson, C. K.

131

Hari, R.

129

Phillipot, P.

137

Wilson-Yang, K. M. 136,139

Harris, J. R.

137

Piankoff, A.

130

Wimmer, H.

131

Heick, W.

129

Pijoan, J.

130

Winkler, H. A.

131

Helmi, F. M

138

Plenderleith, H. J.

138

Winlock, H. E.

131

Hirmer, M.

129

Poksinska, M.

138

Wissmuller, D. A.

139

Hobbs, A. H.

129

Porta, E.

137,138

Howie, R. A.

136

Porter, B.

130,133

Wojtuniak-Struzynska, J.

139

137,138

Posener, G.

130

Wolf, W.

137

Preusser, F.

138

Wood, R.

Janssen, J. J.

129

Price, W.

130

Yehia, M. A.

Kadry, A.

137

Rachewiltz, B. de

130

Yoyotte, J.

130

Kitchen, K. A.

133

Redford, D. B.

133

Zussman, J.

136

Klebs, L.

129

Riederer, J.

138

Koch, M.

135

Riesterer, P. P.

131

Kuentz, Ch.

133

Riviere, G.-H.

139

Lalouette, C.

133

Robins, G.

130

Langdon, S.

133

Romano, J. F.

130

Lange, K.

129

Romer, J.

130

Lawton, J.

129

Rutherford, J.

136

Leblanc, C.

129

Saleh, A.-S.

138

Iskandar, Z.
Jaksch, H.

AFSHAR

131
131,133
139

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