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Int. j. econ. manag. soc. sci., Vol(4), No (1), January, 2015. pp.


TI Journals

International Journal of Economy, Management and Social Sciences


Copyright 2015. All rights reserved for TI Journals.

Information and Communication Technology in Education of Iran

Parisa Zamani Farahani
Department of business management, Eslamabad-e-Gharb Branch, Islamic Azad University, Eslamabad-e-Gharb, Iran.

Manijeh Bahamiriyan
Department of business management, Eslamabad-e-Gharb Branch, Islamic Azad University, Eslamabad-e-Gharb, Iran.

Mehdi Sadeghi *
Department of business management, Eslamabad-e-Gharb Branch, Islamic Azad University, Eslamabad-e-Gharb, Iran.
*Corresponding author:



Information Technology
Information Communication Technology

Today information and communication technology (ICT) removes restrictions of time and place. Mass and
complicated information which is stored in computers can be sent around the world very quickly and easily.
Globalization process, modern technologies influence on educational organizations more than any other areas.
Now it is essential to accept and apply technologies so quickly in order to be successful. Organizations
experience new challenges and opportunities which cannot be dealt with them through traditional and old
methods. Since work forces are trained in schools training computer literacy plays a key role for success and
future of people.
However, there has been increased to apply and access to the computer, still there are so many children who
cannot access to it in their own house. Therefore, schools can provide appropriate opportunities to get familiar
and access to the computer (Giddens, 2007)
UNESCO considers information and communication technology (ICT) as equal education, quality teaching
and learning, efficient growth and development, educational administration and management. ICT creates
enormous transformations in educational technologies, acquiring knowledge, changes in education and finally
in activities. Dakar framework in April 2000 regarded application of information communication technology
as one of the main strategies to achieve education for all. (Cited Ghurchiyan, 2008)

Information and Communication Technology (ICT)

ICT means to apply all digital technologies which now exist and help people, business and organizations to use information. ICT refers to store,
retrieve, apply, transfer and receive digital data (Riley, 2012).ICT effects on all aspects of human activities and it has been the greatest potential
for human resource development. Information and communication technology has changed a nature of work and work place, so education
systems should response properly to the changes which is known as knowledge revolution. Necessity of adopting with the changes is to
educate trained work forces who have computer literacy and that be able to harness and control ICT power. Generally every present and future
citizen needs feel easy with technology in their life and plays active role in the society which is a part of the wired and interdependent world.
Furthermore, it equips the education with powerful devices which promote learning opportunities for learners. In fact ICT changes
methodologies through which educational services are provided (Andrew et al., 2001). Thus the aim of education is to acquire knowledge and
information, ICT has an essential role and influence on all domains of education process. Information and communication technology is known
as a tool to transfer learning and how to apply it in various education settings is what discuss here.

ICT and education

ICT can help foster planning and democratic as well as clear management; also develop accessing to learning and improving quality and its
learning. When resources are limited applying open- source materials through technology can provide means to cross dilemma of textbook
production, distribution and updating materials. ICT plays role in shaping education policies, the role is both normative and informational
(UNESCO, 2011).
Internet is totally a vital device in an information society. Nowadays, people use internet for their daily activities including education,
professional interactions, personalcorrespondences, investigating and collecting information, and searching job. Every day it becomes more vital
to having digital communications for educational progress and social participation. Currently there have been increasingly raised numbers of
internet users to do their daily activities in the world and those who cannot access to such facilities experience serious communication barriers
and development troubles. Therefore, increase of digital inclusiveness is a national fundamental goal of developed countries like United States
and it is very important (Honey et. al, 2005).
In 1990 Jamtin and 2000 Dakar emphasized on main goal of education for all is available and possible for everybody in anywhere and
anytime, and UNESCO is an organization that obligate members to follow and formulate national programs to apply ICT in their educational
In many countries ICT is welcomed by education system. Results of some studies show new technologies effect on education productivity and
teaching-learning process has been enriched by utilizing modern media in educational settings (Anarinejad, 2006)
Applying computers in elementary schools significantly increase learning. Researches show training learners through information technology
would be more useful, challenging and confident, in this case the teachers are not an only scientific source but they become as a monitor of the
learning process (Soleymani, 2001).
Technologies also effect on higher education. On-line learning has established a foundation for the worldwide universities and it has been
considered as one of the key developments of higher education missions. To response globalization, now most higher education institutions
engage in activities outside their own country boarders and distant education has been seriously globalized. Furthermore, shared collaboration
between educational institutions is another impact of ICT. However, there are some potential challenges such as plagiarism, cheating due to
decentralization, and easily access to communication technology (the Economist Intelligence Unit, 2008).


Information and Communication Technology in Education of Iran

International Journal of Economy, Management and Social Sciences Vol(4), No (1), January, 2015.

Learning in new millennium

Learning in the present world and era entails the following characteristics:

Strong dependence on modern communications and computer technologies requires new level of research and creativity.
Teachers role has changed from on-stage to mentor, coach, user of technologies, producer of knowledge, risk-taker and life-long
Parents have more roles on their own children learning and involve in learning process more than past, they can participate actively in
formal and informal education.
Business and social institutions take part on schools and can have an active role.
Modern curricula require new and different collaboration between teachers, students and researchers
Parents and other members of society can access to the class, library, on-line task, and on-line bulletin of schools and by these
channels can be enhanced sources of children development.

Now life-long learning is a feature which in development and attraction of job market is critical. So educational organization should
institutionalize life-long learning as a basic trait of their learners and prepare them so that they can adopt themselves with changes speed. There
are challenges which probably common in most education systems and should be predicted in order to adopt with changes and technologies.

Improve education for teachers and instructor

Develop skills for knowledge society that is promote reading, writing and arithmetic literacy; in fact achieve to a level of literacy that
is prerequisite of quality learning
Update basic skills for the knowledge society
Providing education system that ensures foundation of life and work

Learn vocational skills and individual and social competencies such as understanding culture and art enable people cooperate and are active
citizenship. Increasing speed of changes in socio-economic society and especially introduction of ICT oblige education system to reconsider
definition related skills (the economist Intelligence Unit, 2008)
Today those people are considered as information literate not only access to information communication technology but also have following
traits: 1. How they apply information communication technology.2. How they mine valuable information.3. How they recognize and evaluate
information.4. How they use information to solve their problem. As it has been mentioned just accessing of information and communication
technology does not refer to information literacy. There are still so many people who cannot access the facilities and reaching to the sources due
to economic, political, social, and education-culture system of power. Thus, we experience with a term of digital gap which show spatial
equalities in form of digital and ICT areas. The gap causes to create kind of information economy and shaped north and south countries
(Doomas, 2002, cited from Dehghan).

Schools in Future
The following conditions are essential elements of future schools, in fact it can be said if current schools don not have such features they should
obtain these elements to be able train people for the changing world.

Future schools should be open and flexible.

New communications should provide new cooperation and higher levels of collaboration and creative problem solving.
Teachers should be encouraged and supported to apply modern technologies. It is provided possibility and opportunity of utilizing
technologies for professional cooperation and development.
Educational mangers should apply technologies as an instrument to manage schools and societies.
School activities should shape without geographical restrictions.
Schools should support learning styles.

It is important that there are computers in schools to provide information and primary literacy for children and in order to achieve practical
results it is also important to train teachers. In information society it is essential for schools and education centers to plan for obtaining new skills
that enable learners to choose quickly in different settings and apply new technologies and processing vast volume of information. In such a
society new on-line societies will establish and thenschools and education centers create value and apply technology to invent newer

Students role
When students apply the technology as instructional device they arenot only recipients of information and materials they have also active role in
learning and teaching. They choosereceived informationto transfer and apply. Technologies allow them to identify their interests and potential
capabilities, based on individual learning pace learners obtain update information and knowledge and communicate with their society and social
life. There have been significant developments in curricula and traditional disciplinary such as native language, foreign languages or arithmetic
and science and they are taught in interdisciplinary ways and it is emphasized on developing skills and positive attitudes on students and
recognized knowledge which is more applicable in real life.
Members of European Union has formulated a framework which refers to life-long learning key competencies as a necessity for individual
satisfaction, an active citizenship and possessing occupation. The competencies are:

Communicate with native language

Communicate with foreign languages
Capable on arithmetic and basic competencies on science and technology
Possess digital capabilities
Learning for learning
Social and civic competencies
Possess innovative and entrepreneurial talents
Cultural awareness and its representation on life
(formal journal of European Union, 2010)

Parisa Zamani Farahani, Manijeh Bahamiriyan, Mehdi Sadeghi *


International Journal of Economy, Management and Social Sciences Vol(4), No (1), January, 2015.

According to the framework education system should develop such key competencies up to the level that all youths including deprived- prepare
for more learning and working life. Androgogy should also provide real opportunities for all adults so that they can progress and update in these
competencies. In fact European countries consider lifelong learning from cradle to grave and a key factor of growth, occupation, and social
integrity and its main aspect is participation of all people between 4 to 64 years old in education. Appropriate level of literacy is basic to obtain
key competencies and life-long learning. Here it becomes more obvious the importance of education in early ages and for all.
ICT can provide new devices for stakeholders and managers to promote communication and efficiency as well as effectiveness of management
and improve learning opportunities for teachers and learners through the followings:

empowers citizens, managers and other stakeholders to on-line team working, increasing cooperation, and sharinginformation through
using email, web and other distant devices of collaboration
enhances to create and disseminate information in the worldwide
increases motivation through applying multi-media
enables learners to learn based on their own pace and level, therefore they have more supervision on their learning
encourages active learning rather than passive
promotes physical and mental capabilities of learners
involves learners in study, data analysis and problem solving, so facilitates higher-levels of thinking process like combination,
interpretation and making hypothesis.

ICT and educational policies

Education in any vocabulary concept is very important on national economic planning and political development. However, there are various
strategies in different societies regarding to the development path (Ghurchiyan, 2008). Today technology has been kind of metarestructure like
electricity and it is not possible to manage any organization without it. Information communication technology has become production devices in
higher education and it should improve itself very quickly, otherwise it will lose their users (Fathi Vajargah, 2003).
Plans those related to ICT in transformational system of Iran administration are: establishing electronic government, decentralization, reform of
processes and structures, staff empowering and cultural and professional training of human resources.
In Fundamental Transformation Document of Irans education system the following aims related to ICT and its application:

training justice in quantity aspects, for all and mandatory, quality justice regarding individual, sexual, cultural and geographical
place and role of media and communication technology in education and intellectual utilization of them; being proactive to control and
prevent undesirable consequences and side effects,
possessing educational technology at criterion level.

Regarding to learning sources and media of national information and communication network, one of the aims of the Fundamental
Transformation Document is to provide and expand education and training justice.
According to the document the major goal is Iran can obtain first position of education in the region and the Islamic world. To achieve the goal,
it is necessary to consider existing facilities and possibilities of information and communication technology in Iran. Since today world and socioeconomic society are meaningless without being skilled on use and application of technologies, education policies of the country should be
adopted so that direct the education system toward achieving the goal.
Strategies that related to the mentioned aims of the Document including:

Intellectual application of modern technologies in the formal and public education system based on Islamic criteria
Application of modern educational equipment and technologies to promote family management to use media devices properly in
family that align with formal and public education system
Provision and expansion of opportunities of learning and education
Planning and preliminary provision to train all through public education course

The aim is to provide appropriate quality for all deprived areas, villages, suburbs, nomads, and bilingual areas in Iran that have especial needs
with emphasis on providing various and qualified educational opportunities.
It seems there are great strategies to achieve quality and for all education, however, the approach toward achieving these goals is not practical.
Instead of adopting policies that help different parts of the education system move toward decentralization according to especial needs of each
area, we just reform education structure. The other point in order to meet 3, 4 like what has been mentioned it is required to providemodern
information and communication technologies. As Ghurchiyan (2008) claimed ICT is not quality learning, however it ensures quality learning.
Also Fathi Vajargah (2006) in his study of measuring possibility of applying ICT for curriculum planning said universities experience increasing
charges, decreasing incomes, changing of students demographic and ecologist, and competing commercial market it seems application of
technologies is a solution for all these problems.
To making policy for application of ICT in schools the followings are suggested based on considered researches:

It is required to learn foreign languages and design appropriate instructional courses to teach foreign languages
Creating more open and flexible instruction settings
Providing opportunities to make connections with in and outside and possibilities of exchanging
Making connection with occupations (work life) and education
Creating motivation and appropriate inspiration of learning
Equip schools and universities with appropriate
Training teachers
Making tangible association between technology and education
Using information sources and media
Providing appropriate instructional opportunities for families

ICT and free environments can enhance accessibility to education. Development of applying information and communication technology means
revolution in schools, education institutions and academics and changes method ofworking. And it is very important to response rapid and
increasing developments and play role to survive in a competitive environment.
UNESCO refers to the following points in adopting ICT policy:


Information and Communication Technology in Education of Iran

International Journal of Economy, Management and Social Sciences Vol(4), No (1), January, 2015.


Adopting and implementing strategies based on needs and existing sources

Planning an designing curricula for different ages from children to adults and enable them to gain knowledge and know- how that
influence economic and social development, also individual and cultural needs
Providing whole framework of development and ICT in different parts of the country
Providing appropriate structure
Involving and participation of private sectors to provide areas of technological application
Considering cultural and economic differences in every country
Recognizing essential needs of gaining information and communication skills to train efficient people and base on work society needs
Gaining required competencies
Preserving the environment from damages and dangerous

According to 1404 Visionary Document Iran should be in a first position of economy, science, and technology in the region and has constructive
and effective interaction at international level. Therefore, its development should be aligned with cultural, geographical, and historical conditions
and possess developed knowledge also enable in science and technology production that based on its own human resource and social capital in
national production.

Schools and education centers

Future challenges of schools are possessing adequate equipment, multi-media sources, high quality of instructional software and rapid
communications for learners that enable them to achieve existing sources and interactional possibilities.
Teachers and instructors participation and involvement
One of the aims that determined in Lisbon conference is all teachers should master on using internet and multimedia at the end of 2002. It is very
essential to possess particular skills on applying ICT in the learning process including selecting related information, analyzing it, and transferring
it to knowledge and skills, also it is required to equip them with new soft wares to apply information and communication technology in their
methods and daily routines.

Applying networks and resources

Education systems need possess a particular network/ networks to familiar teachers with instruments and information. Learners also should
access information related to their curricula and facilitate their interactions. It may provide multimedia source in various languages to enhance
transferring and exchanging.
It is also necessary to establish comprehensive education system that attract children and adults and also adopt strategies and remove obstacles of
formal, informal and nonformal education.
Reasons of unwelcoming ICT
In Fathi Vajargahs study (2006) following factors are identified as reasons of unwelcoming information and communication technology:

psychological and social;

lack of adequate budget to equip classes and supply them with hardware facilities;
high ranges of teachers, instructors and their lack of interest in using ICT;
lack of culture of using information and communication technology in instructional environments.

Generally it can be said that 3 factors of language, cultural, and technical influence on appropriate and efficient application of ICT in education
organizations of Iran.
In this study a questionnaire has been distributed among 46 college students to study to what extent they get ready for competing with the world
market. 36 questionnaires were returned and the following results have been obtained:

Cronbach's Alpha

Cronbach's Alpha Based on

Standardized Items

N of Items

ANOVA with Cochran's Test

Between People
Within People

Between Items

Sum of Squares


Mean Square

Cochran's Q




ICT in a short time has become a main component of a modern society. Now most countries aim perception of ICT and master skills and
concepts as a core of their education system besides reading, writing, and arithmetic. Social needs of our world have shaped by new information
and communications technologies as well as practical models that are called new literacy in information society. Currently due to rapid processes
and based on human not millennium criteria, there are changes of priorities.
Results show that ICT has a serious role in processes; however, there is a mistake if we think ICT can automatically increase education quality.
It should be considered new information and communications technologies will be appropriate to adjust instructions with intellectual
transformations which can lead to continuity and integrity. Consequently, the role of teachers, students and contents are changing.

Parisa Zamani Farahani, Manijeh Bahamiriyan, Mehdi Sadeghi *


International Journal of Economy, Management and Social Sciences Vol(4), No (1), January, 2015.

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