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Final Exam 2004 Botany 350

150 points
Circle Lab section:

11:00 Nate

11:00 Ben


I. In each of the questions below, there are two choices marked (A) and (B) with which
to complete the statement. Either answer, both answers, or neither answer may be
correct. You are to circle all the answers, if any, that correctly complete each
statement; i.e., circle one, or both, or neither of the letters in each question (50 pts).
1. A possible effect of increasing the plant/canopy density is (A) increased
periods of leaf wetness, (B) higher relative humidity within the foliage.
2. When the macroenvironment is suboptimal for disease development,
sprinkler irrigation will promote disease less when the irrigation period occurs
in the (A) late afternoon (B) morning.
3. As a disease suppression tactic, the culture of plants on an elevated bed of
soil is targeted at (A) exclusion of pathogen populations B) avoiding a disease
conducive environment.
4. Plant quarantine laws may be established to prevent the inadvertent
movement of plant pathogens across (A) international borders, (B) county
borders within a state.
5. Resting structure(s) common to both the white mold pathogen (Sclerotinia)
and the Verticillium wilt pathogen (Verticillium) are (A) sclerotia, (B) apothecia.
6. As part of the infection process, bacterial blight pathogens such as
Pseudomonas syringae utilize (A) an epiphytic phase (B) a type-III secretion
7. A nematode that periodically tunnels inside a root and then moves back out
into the soil is called a (A) migratory endoparasite, (B) sedentary ectoparasite.
8. The (A) Ascomycetes (B), Basidiomycetes is (are) a group(s) containing many
pathogenic species whose sexual stage has never been observed.
9. Sporangia of an Oomycete pathogen can germinate to produce A) zoospores
(B) a germ tube and appressorium.
10. Viruses survive from season to season (A) as saprophytes in crop refuse, (B)

as sclerotia in soil.
11. Secondary inoculum that causes repeating cycles of disease is commonly
initiated by (A) basidiospores (B) oospores.
12. Pathogens which gain entry into a host by direct penetration include (A)
bacteria and fungi, (B) fungi and nematodes.
13. A major characteristic(s) of plant parasitic nematodes used for identification
is (are) (A) the structure of esophageal region (B) the presence and type of stylet.
14. Given a host genotype of r1r1r2r2R3R3R4R4, the pathogen genotype(s) NOT
capable of causing disease on this host include (A) a1a1a2a2A3A3A4A4, (B)
15. Given a host genotype of R1R1r2r2R3R3R4R4, the pathogen genotypes(s)
capable of causing disease on this host include (A) a1a1A2A2a3a3a4a4, (B)
16. Non-race specific resistance commonly reduces the amount of disease
caused by polycyclic pathogens through (A) hypersensitivity (B) structural
defenses that reduce lesion size.
17. Non-race specific resistance commonly reduces the amount of disease
caused by polycyclic pathogens by (A) reducing the rate (speed) of disease
increase, (B) by reducing the initial inoculum.
18. Failure of race specific resistance may occur as a result of the pathogen
undergoing (A) mutation, (B) sexual recombination.
19. Plant disease resistance obtained by plant transformation (genetic
engineering) can be advantageous to conventional breeding because (A)
desirable horticultural traits of the host are maintained (B) the resistance gene
can be derived from a novel source such as the pathogen itself.
20. In a disease cycle, the overwintering phase of the primary cycle can involve
pathogen resting structures that are formed (A) asexually, (B) sexually.
21. The latent period is a disease cycle concept that can be used to describe
(A) the generation time of a pathogen, (B) that a plant is infected but not yet
showing apparent symptoms of disease.
22. For a polycyclic disease such as potato late blight, planting of pathogen-free

seed tubers acts to (A) reduce initial inoculum, and therefore delay the epidemic
in time, (B) reduce the rate of the epidemic.
23. For a monocyclic disease, the number of fungicide applications needed per
season is influenced by (A) the length of time that inoculum is available (B) the
hosts window of susceptibility.
24. The development of pathogen resistance to a locally systemic fungicide can
be slowed by (A) tank mixing two systemic fungicides from the same chemical
family, (B) rotation of fungicides from different chemical families.
25 As a generalization, the type of protection afforded by commercial fungicides
is analogous to (A) painting your house (B) using household bleach to wipe down
the kitchen counters.

II. Match the pathogen group in the left hand column with the correct description in
the right hand column. Maximum number of correct answers per description is 3; the
minimum number is 1 (13 pts).
A. Bacteria

B. Fungi

C. Nematodes

D. Viruses

E. Oomycetes


sexual reproduction
commonly detected with antibodies
genome is usually DNA
capable of inducing a hypersensitive response
cell walls made of chitin

III. Two rose growers purchase the same variety of roses from the same producer at
the same time and planted them in their respective gardens. One year later you
observe the following disease incidence in their gardens. (12 pts)

Grower A

Black spot

Crown gall

Leaf rust

Grower B




Provide potential two reasons for the difference in black spot, two potential reasons for
the difference in crown gall, and two potential reasons for the differences in leaf rust
between the two gardens. Do not use the same reason more than once. (Therefore,
six different reasons should be given).

Black spot:

Crown gall:

Leaf rust:

IV. Make your own disease! (20 pts)

Draw the life cycle of a hypothetical blight disease of a golf green. Indicate
whether it is an a) Oomycete, Ascomycete or Basidiomycete; b) if is monocyclic or
polycyclic; c) how it overwinters; and d) what the primary and secondary inocula
(if any) are. e) Draw all the structures it produces. Your disease cycle need not
be complex, but should be internally consistent and consistent with your general
knowledge of fungal (fungus-like) plant pathogens. f) Naming the disease is worth
three bonus points.

V. Viruses
A. For the two types of aphid transmission of plant viruses listed below, indicate
with a plus (+) for yes and with a minus (-) for no whether or not the observation
listed on the left is likely to be true. (7 pts)
Acquisition requires minutes to hours
Transmission occurs in seconds
Virus has gene for enzyme that makes
copies of the genome
Detectable in the insect's blood
Insect can transmit after molt
Most likely to be controlled
with mineral oil
Most likely to be controlled
with insecticides
Controlled by transgenic plants
expressing an inverted repeat
from the viral genome
B. Numerous viral diseases of strawberry, potato, grape, and orchids have been nearly
eliminated as problems by planting pathogen-free plants in clean fields. These plants
are obtained as a result of three steps: heat therapy, meristem culture, and
indexing (pathogen testing). (6 pts)
What is the purpose of each one of these steps



C. Once the virion enters the cell it uncoats to expose the genome. What are the three
genes found in every plant virus genome? (3pts)

D. The Hawaiian papaya industry had been devastated by papaya ring spot virus. To
solve the problem, a part of the viral genome was moved into papaya and expressed.
What defense system of the plant cell is responsible for making papaya resistant to
this pathogen? (3pts)

VI. Explain how the following are alike and how they are different. (18 pts)
1. root knot nematode and nematodes that vector plant viruses


2. soil pasteurization and open field burning



3. hypersensitive response and systemic acquired resistance



4. host entry by bacterial pathogens and host entry by viral pathogens



5. protectant fungicide and locally-systemic fungicides



6. race-specific (vertical) and non-race specific (horizontal) resistance



IX. Plant diseases have begun to creep into the commercial enterprise at which you
work. Because healthy plants are the lifeblood of this enterprise, your boss has
asked you to make a presentation about disease management at an upcoming
board meeting. The purpose of this presentation is to outline for the board and
the staff potential strategies to solve the emerging plant health issues. (18 pts)

1. Indicate the nature of this healthy plant-dependent enterprise (your choice).

2. Prepare a six point outline of the topics you plan to cover in your 60 minute


Have a happy holiday!