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Part 1

HEMPELS TECHNICAL STANDARD


FOR BALLAST TANK COATING WORK

Doc. No.: BTC-0100-W


Rev. No.: 4

- NEWBUILDING AND REPAIR


systems types I, II and II

Page 1 of 15
Date: April 2004

CONTENTS
1.0
1.0.1
1.0.2
1.0.3
1.0.4
1.0.5
1.0.6
1.0.7
1.1
1.1.1
1.1.2
1.1.3
1.1.4
1.1.5
1.1.6
1.1.7
1.2
1.2.1
1.2.2
1.2.3
1.2.4
1.2.5
1.3
1.3.1
1.3.2
1.4
1.5
1.6

Page

INTRODUCTION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2
Purpose . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2

..........................................2
............................................3
Authority . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
Supply of equipment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
Removal of wasted consumables . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
Sundries . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
SURFACE PREPARATION AND ALLIED DISCIPLINES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
Steel work . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
Staging . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6
Lighting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6
Ventilation, dehumidifying, and heating . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
Rain and other contamination . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
Abrasive blasting/abrasive sweep blasting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
Water jetting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
APPLICATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
Paint application . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
Stripe coating . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
Conditions for paint application work . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
Stainless steel surfaces . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
Bolted Items/piping system . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
REPAIRS DURING NEWBUILDING . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
Materials for repair . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
The repair process . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
COATING SYSTEMS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
SUPPLEMENTARY PROTECTION BY ANODES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
QUALITY ASSURANCE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
General conditions
Responsibilities

COPYRIGHT HEMPEL A/S, DENMARK

HEMPEL

Part 1
HEMPELS TECHNICAL STANDARD
FOR BALLAST TANK COATING WORK

Doc. No.: BTC-0100-W


Rev. No.: 4

- NEWBUILDING AND REPAIR


systems types I, II and II

Page 2 of 15
Date: April 2004

1.0

INTRODUCTION

1.0.1

Purpose

The purpose of this specification is to form a basis for a coating of the internal surfaces of all ballast tanks
of the vessel which provides adequate corrosion prevention within the desired lifetime of the paint system
relative to grouping of systems I, II or III.
First-class workmanship of all work should be carried out in strict accordance with this specification,
including any amendments which have been decided upon by the parties in question.
The extent and quality of work to be carried out is the most comprehensive when systems of the highest
level, group III, is to be established. Conversely, for a group I work, certain deviations will be acceptable.
The Shipyard will design and carry out the structural work in the tanks in a way that facilitates the best
possible application of the coating system.
Concerning repairs, the steel work - new and old - in the tanks must be in such a condition that the
application of the coating system will ensure a high quality result. Special attention must be given to welding
seams, pittings, and sharp edges.
Unless otherwise agreed in advance, the Shipyard will supply the skilled labour, all tools and equipment
required to carry out the surface preparation and the application of the coating system as specified, and
according to local/national safety regulations.
For such a purpose, Subcontractors may be employed to carry out surface preparation and application work.
The Subcontractor chosen should be well reputed and experienced, with proven satisfactory ability and
capacity to comply with the requirements for surface preparation and for the application of the ballast tank
coating systems.
Any deviations from the specification - will it be the design of the steel construction, the condition of the
steel surface (e.g. pit corrosion, contamination not possible to remove, or the like) - must be considered
from case to case and may influence durability of the ballast tank coating system in question, any possible
guarantee given will thus be influenced by such circumstances.
State of corrosion (pit corrosion) of the old steel surfaces may influence the choice of the coating system.
The existing paint system will also influence the choice of a new coating system for repair/maintenance.
Possible old zinc silicate coatings will usually have to be followed with zinc silicate again. If a new organic
system is selected, the old zinc silicate coating system must be removed completely
1.0.2

General conditions

The Shipyard, or on its behalf a Subcontractor, must make all necessary planning including a master
schedule containing all steps in the working process as described in this specification.
The schedule and the programme plans must comply with the approved painting specification.
Lines of communication and levels of authority must be laid down before work starts and agreed upon by
Shipyard, Subcontractor, Owner, and Hempel.
COPYRIGHT HEMPEL A/S, DENMARK

HEMPEL

Part 1
HEMPELS TECHNICAL STANDARD
FOR BALLAST TANK COATING WORK

Doc. No.: BTC-0100-W


Rev. No.: 4

- NEWBUILDING AND REPAIR


systems types I, II and II

Page 3 of 15
Date: April 2004

Depending on the actual agreement, Hempel will/may have its own Coating Adviser(s) stationed/available at
the shipyard during the entire period of work, from the start of steel preparation until the coating system is
finally accepted by the Owner.
For large repair jobs, especially:
A pre-job conference and ordinary job conferences must be held between Shipyard, Owner, Subcontractor,
and Hempel.
The ordinary job conferences must be conducted most typically once every day or any time requested by any
of the parties involved. The entire specification must be jointly reviewed before the start of the work.
At these job conferences the agenda must contain the following points:
a)
Work progress in relation to the agreed programme.
b)
Possible impediments to progress.
c)
Requests for temporary stoppage of work.
d)
Additions or deletions.
e)
Any other matter which may affect the programme and/or the specification.
Each meeting to be minuted.
If considered necessary, the shipyard is to appoint a liaison officer through whom all communication takes
place.
Execution:
The planning phase should be comprehensive and must be started in good time.
The master schedule programme chart must be submitted to the Owners and to Hempel for approval before
the start of work, during the pre-job conference, or earlier.
1.0.3

Responsibilities

Responsibilities of Shipyard, possible Subcontractor, and Hempel must be agreed upon by all parties
involved and included as a part of the contract. The responsibility for executing the work rests solely with the
Shipyard/the Subcontractor and the presence of Hempel's Coating Adviser(s) shall not relieve the
Shipyard/the Subcontractor of the responsibility for correct execution of the work in hand and having his
own Quality Assurance.
1.0.4

Authority

Rules of authority of Owner, Shipyard, Subcontractor, and Hempel must be agreed upon by all parties
involved and laid down in writing.
1.0.5

Supply of equipment

The Shipyard or Subcontractor will supply all necessary equipment for grinding, abrasive blasting, painting,
scaffolding, ventilation, dehumidification, heating and insulation (if necessary), high pressure fresh water
washing equipment (if necessary), vacuum cleaning, lighting, possible wrapping of hydraulic pipes,
compressed air and power supply, for personal protection (safety) of the labour-force, as well as
consumables, spares, maintenance, and all other necessary auxiliary equipment.

COPYRIGHT HEMPEL A/S, DENMARK

HEMPEL

Part 1

1.0.6

HEMPELS TECHNICAL STANDARD


FOR BALLAST TANK COATING WORK

Doc. No.: BTC-0100-W


Rev. No.: 4

- NEWBUILDING AND REPAIR


systems types I, II and II

Page 4 of 15
Date: April 2004

Removal of wasted consumables

Shipyard or Subcontractor will remove spent abrasives, dirt, empty paint cans, used tool cleaner, etc.
1.0.7

Sundries

The Shipyard or Subcontractor must provide convenient and sufficient space for storage of equipment, tools
and all material and consumables including abrasives and paint. Paint must be stored according to
recommendations in the technical data sheet for the product in question. As a general rule, the containers
should be shielded from direct sun and rain.
The Shipyard or Subcontractor must ensure that accessibility, material flow, cranage and sufficient work
space is maintained at all times.
The Shipyard or Subcontractor must provide Hempel's Coating Adviser(s) with adequately furnished office
space including telephone, changing lockers, toilets, and washing facilities.
The use of the above mentioned facilities must be possible at all times, and the Coating Adviser(s) must be
admitted on the premises 24 hours a day, seven days a week during the entire tank preparation and
application period. Permission to photograph as necessary should be granted .
1.1

SURFACE PREPARATION AND ALLIED DISCIPLINES

1.1.1

Steel work

For systems II and III, acceptable rust degrees of raw steel are A and B according to ISO 8501-1:1988. For
system type I, rust degree C of new steel may be acceptable depending on the expected lifetime.
No openings, holes, etc. in structural members of tanks should be less than 50 mm in diameter and
distances between structural members should also be above 50 mm as dictated by the possibilities for
proper application of the paint. The construction must be designed in such a way that it will not obstruct the
abrasive blasting or the paint application according to this specification.
All welding seams must have a surface finish which ensures that the quality of the paint system will be
maintained in all respects. Holes in welding seams, undercuts, etc. should be avoided. If found, they may
necessitate extra stripe coating or filling. (However, if eg undercuts exceed recommendations of
classification societies, remidial steel work will be necessary).
Protruding sharp edges/burrs to be chamfered (for system type I). All sharp edges to be broken (for system
type II)/rounded (for system type III). Laminations to be removed. However, rolled profiles, etc. from the
steel mills normally have acceptably rounded edges.
The terms "chamfered", "broken" and "rounded" can be described as follows:
Chamfered:
Removal of protruding sharp burrs on an edge (after chamfering, the edge will be slightly broken).
Broken:
Removal of sharp edges at a distance of 1-2 mm (minimum 1 mm) on each side of the edge in a one-step
process.
COPYRIGHT HEMPEL A/S, DENMARK

HEMPEL

Part 1
HEMPELS TECHNICAL STANDARD
FOR BALLAST TANK COATING WORK

Doc. No.: BTC-0100-W


Rev. No.: 4

- NEWBUILDING AND REPAIR


systems types I, II and II

Page 5 of 15
Date: April 2004

Rounded:
Removal of sharp edges at a distance of 2-3 mm (minimum 2 mm) on each side of the edge in a three-step
process.
All loose weld spatters to be removed.
Well adhering weld spatters will need additional touch-up or must be removed (for systems types I and II).
All weld spatters must be removed (for system type III).
Requirements to the "surface quality" of welds are to be according to WELD REPLICA NACE RP 0178
minimum Grade D-E (NACE Standard RP0178-95) the best (D) for system Type III.
Note: Use of Anti-Spatter agents is generally NOT recommended.
If certain small defective areas cannot be remedied immediately, these areas should be taped off for later
repair and their positions noted. However, sufficient time should be allowed at the steel survey so that any
repair work may be carried out immediately.
Before a survey, the surfaces must be cleaned and dried to allow adequate inspection.
It may be relevant to make a reference model of which the standard of steel finish quality is approved by
all parties involved.
Bolted items, see Section 1.2.5.
All hot work like welding and flame-cutting on the outer side of a tank must be finished before the tank is
released for abrasive blasting and painting, or must be executed in such a way that the temperature of the
coated side of the steel plates will not exceed 120C at any time.
Existing, old steel:
The following demands have to be complied with if the same guarantee as is valid for a newbuilding
coated with the corresponding ballast tank coating system is to be given. If this is not possible, the
extent of the guarantee must be based upon the actual condition.
It is recommended to make a rough abrasive blast cleaning - or high pressure water jetting - to facilitate
visual inspection and any necessary repair of the existing steel work. For tank bottoms with pit corrosion
this rough blasting will also provide a better basis for a decision between welding of corroded pits or repair
by filling.
A main concern is the contamination from water soluble, corrosive salts (seawater, microbial influenced
corrosion). The preventive method will be to include a very thorough cleaning with plenty of fresh water,
please see below.
In case of contamination cleaning procedures must be repeated and/or improved. Especially pit corroded
steel will need special attention and the only possible way to remove contamination from the pits may often
be to let the abrasive blast cleaning be followed by a very thorough cleaning with fresh water. After repeated
control and drying, the entire surface will need abrasive blast cleaning to obtain the specified degree of
cleaning. Alternatively, the pit corroded areas are cleaned by water jetting, any surplus of water is sucked
up, allow to dry. Please see the procedure in section 1.1.7).
COPYRIGHT HEMPEL A/S, DENMARK

HEMPEL

Part 1
HEMPELS TECHNICAL STANDARD
FOR BALLAST TANK COATING WORK

Doc. No.: BTC-0100-W


Rev. No.: 4

- NEWBUILDING AND REPAIR


systems types I, II and II

Page 6 of 15
Date: April 2004

Non-pitted steel, only lightly contaminated with water soluble salts, may often be possible to clean
sufficiently by dry abrasive blasting.
The maximum allowable concentration of chlorides on steel surfaces immediately before application is:
7.0 mg/cm as detected by the "Bresle Method". (This method will also reveal contamination from other
types of water soluble salts. Please see Part 2 "Standard for Inspection of Ballast Tank Coating").
1.1.2

Staging

Suitable staging must be provided to allow good access to all surfaces without changing the system during
the work progress.
The following is recommended, however, local safety rules must always be obeyed:
Staging to be constructed to ensure maximum safe access to all surfaces.
Staging to be constructed in a way that allows sufficient cleaning.
The staging should have as few contact points to the tank surface as possible. When free standing staging
is used, all contact between scaffolding poles and steel surfaces must be point contact only, ie spade ends
to be fitted.
The working platforms must be placed so that they will provide a good working distance from the surface,
minimum approx. 30 cm and approx. 50 cm at the maximum. This will provide a good spraying distance and
allow ventilation inside the scaffolding.
Especially corrugated bulkheads must be staged to give adequate, safe access to recessed areas, but not
closer than 30 cm.
It is recommended to make the platforms with gratings to ease cleaning and ventilation. Open ends of
piping (staging poles) to be plugged or capped.
If wooden boards are used, the distance between boards should be approximately 3 cm to ensure sufficient
ventilation.
Staging should have permanent fixtures allowing easy erection and dismantling of staging to minimize
damage to painted surfaces.
The staging should not be removed before final inspection of bulkheads and deckhead has been made.
Note: Damage of intact paint film must be avoided whenever possible. However, any damaged spots must
be repaired simultaneously with dismantling of the staging according to the procedure for repair of small
areas, as described later, section 1.3.
1.1.3

Lighting

Lighting in the tank must be sufficient. As general lighting 100-200 lux is recommended. This should be
combined with 150 Watt low voltage hand-lamps for illumination during blasting, cleaning, stripe-coating and
inspection (corresponding to approx. 500 lux or more).

COPYRIGHT HEMPEL A/S, DENMARK

HEMPEL

Part 1
HEMPELS TECHNICAL STANDARD
FOR BALLAST TANK COATING WORK

Doc. No.: BTC-0100-W


Rev. No.: 4

- NEWBUILDING AND REPAIR


systems types I, II and II

Page 7 of 15
Date: April 2004

Lamps should be placed so that a clear, homogeneous light without shadows is provided on all surfaces
where work is in progress.
All equipment for lighting must obey ruling safety regulations. Especially the use of explosion-proof electrical
installations during application and drying of paint is of vital importance.
1.1.4

Ventilation, dehumidifying, and heating

Sufficient equipment for ventilation, dehumidifying, insulation, and heating is necessary to achieve the
specified result.
To obtain the best air circulation clean and dry air should be blown into the upper and middle regions of the
tank and suction should also be arranged from the bottom of the tank. Spot ventilation should be arranged
in parts of the tanks where otherwise air would be left stagnant.
In addition suction should be arranged at all places where air pockets could prevent good ventilation.
The ventilation, dehumidifying, and heating equipment must have a sufficient capacity to maintain as ideal
conditions in the tank as possible, irrespective of variations in the outer climatic conditions (please refer to
the Application Instructions for the system in question). To prevent reintroducing dust, solvent vapour etc. a
positive pressure above normal atmospheric pressure should be maintained inside the tank.
Any necessary heating of tank bottoms may take place by outside heating in a dry dock.
Insulation of exterior hull-sides will usually be necessary during wintertime in cold or temperate climates, but
may also be an advantage during warm summer days and in tropical climates to prevent excessive heating
of the steel.
Relative humidity of the air during abrasive blasting
If the steel is chemically clean, which is not necessarily the same as visually clean according to ISO
8501-1:1988, it is agreed in the literature that corrosion will not appear as long as the air humidity
is below 50% RH.
Experience indicates that a mean value of approx. 40% RH and never exceeding a value of 50% RH
under relevant, practical conditions of work will ensure an abrasive blasting process in a tank
without any significant re-rusting. However, should re-rusting occur, this is a good indication of water
soluble substances, which must be removed.
Ventilation during abrasive blasting
The extent should be balanced between the demands for the relative humidity and the demands for
visibility.
Air humidity and ventilation during application and curing of paint
(Please see the recommendations given for each ballast tank coating system in the Technical Data
Sheet and Application Instructions for the paint(s) involved).
Note: The Contractor/Shipyard must ensure that ventilation fulfils ruling safety demands.
COPYRIGHT HEMPEL A/S, DENMARK

HEMPEL

Part 1

1.1.5

HEMPELS TECHNICAL STANDARD


FOR BALLAST TANK COATING WORK

Doc. No.: BTC-0100-W


Rev. No.: 4

- NEWBUILDING AND REPAIR


systems types I, II and II

Page 8 of 15
Date: April 2004

Rain and other contamination

Watertight tents must be erected over hatches and openings into the tank where work is in progress.
Rain shutters and water guards should be provided over/around all tank openings. Water must be kept away
from the tanks during blasting, application, drying and curing.
To avoid dragging abrasive material, dirt, or other contamination down on the clean surface, steel gratings
with brushes on the sides must be placed at the hatch entrance, one for every tank where work is carried
out. When entering freshly blasted or painted tanks, take care not to spoil the coating. For instance use
soft-soled shoes or boots.
1.1.6

Abrasive blasting/abrasive sweep blasting

Before blasting, any deposits of grease or oil must be removed from the steel surface with a suitable
detergent followed by fresh water hosing. Minor spots of oil/grease may be cleaned with thinner and clean
rags - avoid smearing out the contamination. Possible alkali weld deposits, chemicals used for testing of
welds, or soap residues from the pressure testing shall be removed by fresh water hosing.
Note: Occasionally, new steel plates may be contaminated with salts due to unfavourable conditions of
transportation or storage. One or more freshwater hosings will then be necessary before the abrasive
blasting is carried out (in severe cases even after blasting).
Before blasting, existing, old steel surfaces must be checked for any contamination. Existing blisters must
be broken. If thick rust scale has been removed or deep pittings have been encountered, control procedures
for contamination must be carried out. If still contaminated, the abrasive blast cleaned steel surface will
need a repeated cleaning for salts and/or oil/grease followed by a final abrasive blast cleaning. The
alternative - with no repeated cleaning - will lead to a reduced performance of the ballast tank coating
system to be applied.
Before blasting is started, the ventilation and heating equipment must be installed and working so that the
specified air humidity and temperature have been established in the tank at the start of the work.
To avoid re-rusting of newly blasted surfaces it is necessary to keep the relative humidity at 50% (preferably
40%) as a maximum (see 1.2.4 above). Keeping steel temperature at least 3C above the dew point during
and after the blasting will provide additional safety against rerusting.
Newbuilding/new steelwork
To obtain full performance of the ballast tank coating according to the desired systems I, II or III, welds,
burns, damaged and rusty shopprimer must be treated as follows:
I.

Light abrasive blast cleaning (abrasive blast sweeping), Sa 1-2, alternatively by mechanical cleaning
to St 3.

II.

Abrasive blast cleaning, minimum Sa 2. Minor areas mechanical cleaned to St 3.

III.

Abrasive blast cleaning to Sa 2.

COPYRIGHT HEMPEL A/S, DENMARK

HEMPEL

Part 1
HEMPELS TECHNICAL STANDARD
FOR BALLAST TANK COATING WORK

Doc. No.: BTC-0100-W


Rev. No.: 4

- NEWBUILDING AND REPAIR


systems types I, II and II

Page 9 of 15
Date: April 2004

If welds have previously been coated with a (shop)primer just after welding this (shop)primer must be
removed in order to obtain optimum performance. For system types II and III by abrasive blast
(sweeping). For system Type I, secondary surface preparation of such priming will have to be decided on
the spot. Typically grinding by rough discs.
Intact shopprimer:
I.
Except for the general cleaning for dirt, oil, etc. as mentioned above, any zinc salted surfaces,
surfaces with well adhering deposits of eg black iron oxides (from plasma cutting) and the similar
are to be prepared by a light disc sanding removing foreign matters. Chalk markings and plate
marking not being compatible with the ballast tank coating to be removed as well.
II.

Zinc salted surfaces, deposits of black iron oxides of plasma cutting and similar foreign matters to
be removed by a light abrasive sweep blasting. Chalk markings and plate marking of a
non-compatible nature to be removed as well.
The shopprimer must have been checked randomly for excessive film thicknesses and areas
detected to have film thicknesses above approx 40 micron (as measured directly on the shopprimed
surface with equipment calibrated on smooth steel) are to be a sweep blasted in order to remove
most of the shopprimer in said areas. Spot-checking for possible salt contamination of the surface
to be executed before and after the abrasive sweep blasting.

III.

As per II except that all surfaces to be abrasive sweep blasted. Fully intact, visually clean surfaces
can be light cleaned only, for other areas at least 70% of the shopprimer should be removed in a
uniform way.

When blasting, the importance of working systematically must be stressed. Poorly blasted areas covered
with dust are very difficult to locate during the blast inspection made after the rough cleaning.
In case of abrasive blast cleaning, the surface profile must be equivalent to Rugotest No. 3, BN9a-10 or
Keane-Tator Comparator, 3.0 G/S. According to ISO 8503-1 the grade will be MEDIUM (G).
Note: if any doubt exists about the quality of primary surface preparation (before shoppriming), the
substrate must be re-blasted in situ as defined above (systems types II and III).
As a minimum, the blasting abrasives to be used should comply with ISO 11124, ISO 11125, ISO 11126
and ISO 11127 if not otherwise defined by Hempel.
Tank, staging, etc. must be cleaned after blasting to avoid dust and abrasives being embedded in the
coating.
Block assembly zones
Overlap zones must be treated with great care. Damage caused by over-blasting (relevant for system type III
- possibly also type II) must be avoided, paint edges must be feathered and consecutive layers of paint
coatings given greater and greater overlaps - old layers being roughened corresponding to these overlaps
(when sandpapering, use free-cut paper, grain size 80).
It is recommended that block-coated areas are as big as possible in order to reduce the extent of assembly
zones.

COPYRIGHT HEMPEL A/S, DENMARK

HEMPEL

Part 1
HEMPELS TECHNICAL STANDARD
FOR BALLAST TANK COATING WORK

Doc. No.: BTC-0100-W


Rev. No.: 4

- NEWBUILDING AND REPAIR


systems types I, II and II

Page 10 of 15
Date: April 2004

Furthermore, these areas may be either masked off with tape - to keep them as narrow as possible - or left
with a thin zinc epoxy primer coat applied on these areas after secondary surface preparation (systems
types II and III).
Secondary surface preparation of block assembly zones are typically mechanical cleaning in case of system
type I. For type II, preferably abrasive spot blasting. However, mechanical cleaning to St 3 may be
acceptable if zones are narrow and an extra coat is applied on these areas. The procedure of masking off
with tape or using the zinc epoxy primer as described above may advantageously be used in this connection.
For type III, spot blasting to Sa 2 is, in principle, the only relevant procedure.
Full refurbishment
Depending on the size and construction of the ballast tank, the process of abrasive blasting and tank
coating application may be divided into two steps. To avoid damaging finished paint work, bulkhead
sides/web frames and deckhead(s) should be completed before work on the bottom (incl. approx. 1 metre
of the sides) is commenced.
Abrasive blasting and coating of the complete tank as a single process is also possible. An extra careful
cleaning of all parts inside the tank will be essential here.
Corroded pits deeper than approx. 2 mm, but not repaired by welding, are recommended to be filled with
HEMPADUR EPOXY FILLER 35250 after blast priming has been carried out. Alternatively, high solids/
solvent-free epoxy materials are used for filling and full coating.
Extent/amount of corroded pits/filling must be included in the Report. Depending on the actual conditions,
extensive filling and many corroded pits may influence the guarantee given.
Overlapping of old ballast tank coating demands extra care to be taken. Much attention has to be placed
on proper feathering of edges.
Furthermore, the old paint system must be examined very carefully for any possible defects such as, but not
limited to, (micro-)blistering, weak intercoat adhesion, weak adhesion to the substrate and/or under film
corrosion.
If such defects are not remedied, they will lead to reduced performance of the repair executed.
When overlapping old inorganic zinc silicate ballast tank coating with a new one, the overlap zone should be
kept as narrow and as straight as possible to facilitate a good overlap - avoid damage by over-blasting.
1.1.7

Water jetting

This procedure will primarily be relevant for repair jobs. However, the very good removal of water soluble
salts may also make it useful in other cases.
In case of damage/failure to steel, cleaning must be carried out to minimum WJ-2 (NACE 5/SSPC-SP 12,
1995) - please also see Hempel's "Photo Reference for Steel Surfaces Cleaned by Water Jetting".
Edges to intact coating must be feathered and the surrounding area roughened by operating the nozzle
some distance away and/or by moving the nozzle fast across the area.

COPYRIGHT HEMPEL A/S, DENMARK

HEMPEL

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HEMPELS TECHNICAL STANDARD
FOR BALLAST TANK COATING WORK

Doc. No.: BTC-0100-W


Rev. No.: 4

- NEWBUILDING AND REPAIR


systems types I, II and II

Page 11 of 15
Date: April 2004

To avoid excessive water mist and deposits of paint sludge in the tank, the recommended pressures are
800-1000 bar (80-100 MPa, 11.000-15.000 psi).
As water jetting creates dense water mist, strong ventilations is recommended to increase visibility.
Sufficient dehumidification equipment must be used to dry out the tanks as quickly as possible between the
water jetting and the coating application. Local ventilators may be required to distribute the drying air evenly
in tanks. All "slurry" is to be removed before it dries.
New rust, "flash rust", will be acceptable as discoloration only, not as powdery, loose rust - an acceptable
degree is FR-2 according to the Hempel Standard "Hempel's Photo Reference for Steel Surfaces Cleaned by
Water Jetting". Inhibitors are not to be used.
All surfaces must be free from contamination at the time of painting and the relative humidity is to be below
85%.
Water jetting may be used supplementary to mechanical cleaning (spot-repair) as well as abrasive blasting.
Many of the general remarks of chapter 1.1.6 will apply to water jetting also.
Note: For all surface preparation work the Contractor/Shipyard must ensure that safety regulations are
obeyed.
1.2

APPLICATION

1.2.1

Paint application

The paint application is usually carried out as one operation to all interior areas of the tank, however, the
application may be divided into two steps especially in case of full coating of large tanks:
1)

Paint application on deckhead(s), sides, bulkheads and web frames, except the bottom and the
lowest part of the vertical sides (approx. 1 metre).

2)

Paint application on tank bottom and lowest part of the vertical sides.

Special attention to the overlap zones is required. Previously painted areas must be feathered and dry-spray
removed to ensure good adhesion and a smooth surface.
With multi-coat systems the various coats in the system must be applied in the overlap zone with greater
and greater overlap of the subsequent coat over the preceding one.
Precautions must be taken against damage by over-blasting.
Overlap zones and adjacent areas should be easily accessible for inspection and repairs.
The same type of precaution must be taken in case of section painting when section joints are treated
(please also see above, "Block assembly zones", under section 1.1.6).
Generally, items treated prior to fitting in the tanks must be fully coated.

COPYRIGHT HEMPEL A/S, DENMARK

HEMPEL

Part 1
HEMPELS TECHNICAL STANDARD
FOR BALLAST TANK COATING WORK

Doc. No.: BTC-0100-W


Rev. No.: 4

- NEWBUILDING AND REPAIR


systems types I, II and II

Page 12 of 15
Date: April 2004

The climatic conditions during the various steps of the painting must maintain the steel temperature before
and during application above the dew point. A steel temperature of minimum 3C is recommended. Curing
and ventilation conditions must be as described in the Application Instructions for the relevant ballast tank
coating.
1.2.2

Stripe coating

Stripe coating by brush of places difficult to reach by spray should always be done to ensure sufficient film
thicknesses on such areas. That means lightening holes, undercuts of welds, rough welds, etc. and when
needed, also rear sides of facebars, stiffeners and bulb noses. Furthermore, areas which have
demonstrated improper film formation will need stripe coating/extra coating in order to remedy possible
porosities/low film thicknesses. Pit-corroded areas (old tanks) may also require additional coating, in some
cases thinning of paint may be necessary in order to penetrate pits properly.
The number of stripe coats is much related to the "finish quality" of the steel work, the structure of the
steel work, and methods of spray application. However, one-coat systems (type I) will typically ask for
minimum one, but often, two stripe coats. A type II system will typically ask for minimum two stripe coats
and for type III an extra, final stripe coat by spray (nozzle eg 0.017", 40) of all welds and free edges. This
final spray-applied stripe coat may be applied before as well as after the last full coat - in a different shade.
Stripe coating by airless spray can also replace one of the (other) stripe coats by brush (all system types),
however, cut outs and irregularities of welds such as deep undercuts and pinholes can only be "closed" by
stripe coating with brush.
1.2.3

Conditions for paint application work

Improper film formation is not acceptable as this will reduce the protective properties of the paint (pinholes,
reduced wetting/adhesion to the substrate). A good film formation free from pin holes, each layer, can be
obtained by using adequate staging, spraying equipment and spraying methods. An application technique
which will ensure good film formation on all surfaces must be adopted. Avoid dry-spray/dust spraying. It is
very important to use nozzles of a correct size, not too big, (in most cases, .019"-.021" will be the "right
choice"), and to have a proper, uniform distance of the spray gun to the surface, approx 50 cm is to be
aimed at.
To obtain good atomizing, the viscosity of the paint must be suitable and the spray equipment must be
sufficient in output pressure and capacity to maintain a good, steady atomizing. At high ambient
temperatures, a controlled use of extra thinner may be necessary.
The paint layer must be applied homogeneously and as close to the specification as possible. The
consumption of paint must be controlled and heavy layers must be avoided because of the risk of sags and
cracks (in "corners").
The finished coating must appear as a homogeneous film free of pinholes/insufficient film formation. Areas
with imbedded dry-spray and abrasives are to be repaired by scraping or grinding and subsequent touch-up.
Abrasives on surfaces are to be cleaned by scraping followed by touch-up if deemed necessary.
Sagging/runners of epoxy coatings are not to be repaired if they appear "free" and non-cracked whereas
sagging passing a "corner" is to be removed in the mentioned corner and touched up (see below). Stripe
coating has to be carried out properly covering for instance uneven (hand) welds, undercuts, free (sharp)
edges, cut-outs, rear sides and other similar irregular, difficult accessible surfaces.
COPYRIGHT HEMPEL A/S, DENMARK

HEMPEL

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HEMPELS TECHNICAL STANDARD
FOR BALLAST TANK COATING WORK

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Rev. No.: 4

- NEWBUILDING AND REPAIR


systems types I, II and II

Page 13 of 15
Date: April 2004

If zinc silicate films exhibit cracks, a thorough examination must be carried out to decide whether it is fine,
hairlike cracking (checking-type) which does not reduce the mechanical properties of the cured paint film, or
whether the cracking clearly gives a low mechanical strength leading to flaking later on. The first mentioned
type does not necessarily need repair as opposed to the last mentioned type.
For the standard specification, the following applies to the dry film thickness:
Minimum dry film thickness must be observed. This is evaluated according to the "80-20"-rule. The
"80-20"-rule means that no more than 20% of the total number of measurements must be below the
specified minimum and not less than 80% of this value. Other acceptable rules than the "80-20"
rule may be used, but HEMPEL'S paint specifications are based on this rule.
Maximum dry film thickness should never exceed 3 times the specified dry film thickness per coat as well as
in total.
Such areas of high film thickness are furthermore to be checked for proper adhesion to the substrate, a
simple test by knife is sufficient as the possible problem will be drastically reduced adhesion due to
retained solvents in the zone of the coating next to the steel.
A proper application procedure will ensure that the actual maximum will not surpass the double of the
specified film thickness, per coat and in total.
It is especially important is to avoid sagging/sliding, which can result in a "pool" of paint at a weld between
a vertical and horizontal structural member - later on causing cracking of the paint film due to stresses
created during final drying-out.
Dry film thickness control must not be carried out before the coating is sufficiently dry and hard. However,
soon enough to make rectifying of too low film thicknesses possible - see Application Instructions for the
relevant paint material. The measurements must be carried out using an electromagnetic dry film thickness
gauge calibrated with shims placed on a smooth steel substrate.
Besides control of dry film thicknesses and visually checking the paint film to show a uniform, pin hole free,
smooth appearance, quality control in the form of destructive spot-testing can be executed to demonstrate
the adhesive/cohesive properties of the paint system to be appropriate. (Pull-off test and adhesion test by
knife).
Note: For all paint application work, the Contractor/Shipyard must ensure that safety regulations are
obeyed.
1.2.4

Stainless steel surfaces

For ballast tanks of chemical carriers with stainless steel tanks, it is very important that the stainless steel
plates and the adjacent weldings are properly prepared and painted.
The surface preparation must be a dry abrasive blasting with a metal-free blasting material creating a sharp,
uniform, dense surface profile all over the stainless steel.
As any progress of abrasive blasting is difficult to see, application of a thin coat, eg red paint, may facilitate
the job. This colour must be removed indicating that all areas of the stainless steel have been reached by
the blasting media.

COPYRIGHT HEMPEL A/S, DENMARK

HEMPEL

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HEMPELS TECHNICAL STANDARD
FOR BALLAST TANK COATING WORK

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Rev. No.: 4

- NEWBUILDING AND REPAIR


systems types I, II and II

Page 14 of 15
Date: April 2004

The abrasive blasting may be carried out after welding the steel profiles to stainless steel plates and a blast
coat, epoxy primer, eg HEMPADUR 15570, can be applied for further protection until full coating with an
epoxy ballast tank coating system (for zinc silicate, the paint work is to be executed after all steel work has
been completed).
1.2.5

Bolted Items/piping system

Items assembled by bolts and, therefore, not later accessible for painting should before mounting be
completely coated according to the specification, at least on the contact faces. It is recommended to make
all bolts of stainless steel to avoid heavy corrosion of bolts and nuts. Protect the bolted items with plate
washers of tetrafluoroethylene polymer ("Teflon") covered with plate washers of stainless steel. Allow for
sufficient space for mounting and tightening of bolts. Hot dip galvanized bolts may be used, but a reduced
lifetime is often observed.
Damage caused by mounting of bolted items to be repaired according to the repair procedures for small
areas, see Section 1.4.2.
When approved by Owner, pipes, supports etc. may be hot dip galvanized, or coated by fusion bonded epoxy
powder or pipes may be made of GRP materials.
1.3

REPAIRS DURING NEWBUILDING

It is very important that all damage to the coating is repaired. Repair must be started as soon as possible. It
is important that the repaired areas, as well as the rest of the coated areas, are fully cured before the tanks
are taken into use.
The primary way of detecting damage of newly coated surfaces is mainly by visual means, equipment being
strong torchlight in the hands of skilled observers.
1.3.1

Materials for repair

For zinc silicate, repairs should be carried out using the same coating materials as specified for the main
work.
Please note that repairs by brush application always require approx. double the number of coats as
compared to spray application.
For epoxy coatings either same coating materials or suitable alternatives including a possible use of an
epoxy filler according to the relevant painting specification.
1.3.2

The repair process

General:
Before mechanical treatment is started surfaces to be repaired have to be cleaned for any salts and other
contamination.
For ballast tank coatings of types I and II, repairs will usually be based on mechanical surface preparation,
grinding and sanding where necessary - only under very unusual circumstances with extended damages
areas repairs by use of abrasive blast cleaning will be relevant.

COPYRIGHT HEMPEL A/S, DENMARK

HEMPEL

Part 1
HEMPELS TECHNICAL STANDARD
FOR BALLAST TANK COATING WORK

Doc. No.: BTC-0100-W


Rev. No.: 4

- NEWBUILDING AND REPAIR


systems types I, II and II

Page 15 of 15
Date: April 2004

For type III ballast tank coating specification, blast cleaning may be more relevant, but the advantages of
the abrasive blast cleaning to produce a good surface for coating application must always be evaluated in
comparison with the risk of damage by overblasting, dragging abrasive materials to the tank, etc.
In conclusion, mechanical cleaning before spot-repair may be selected, however, applying additional film
thickness to "counteract" for the less optimum degree of surface preparation.
1.4

COATING SYSTEMS

Please see:
HEMPEL'S COATING SYSTEMS FOR BALLAST TANK COATING WORK - NEWBUILDING AND REPAIR.

1.5

SUPPLEMENTARY PROTECTION BY ANODES

It is strongly recommended to combine the ballast tank coating with a system of cathodic protection based
on sacrificial anodes made of zinc or aluminium alloys suited for cathodic protection of ship tanks. The
number, size and distribution of the anodes should be according to the recommendations given by the
supplier of the cathodic protective system with special emphasis on protection of the bottom part.

1.6

QUALITY ASSURANCE

Please see:
HEMPEL'S TECHNICAL STANDARD FOR BALLAST TANK COATING INSPECTION - NEWBUILDING AND REPAIR.

THE INFORMATION GIVEN IN THIS STANDARD WILL NOT BE COVERING ALL ASPECTS OF A
TANKCOATING JOB. WHILST WE ENDEAVOUR TO ENSURE THAT ALL ADVICE WE GIVE RELATING TO THE
USE AND/OR APPLICATION OF OUR PRODUCTS (WHETHER IN THIS PAPER OR OTHERWISE) IS BOTH
CORRECT AND USEFUL, WE HAVE NO CONTROL OF EITHER THE QUALITY OR CONDITION OF THE
SUBSTRATE OR THE MANY FACTORS AFFECTING THE USE AND APPLICATION OF OUR PRODUCTS.
THEREFORE ALL PRODUCTS DELIVERED AND ANY TECHNICAL ASSISTANCE GIVEN BY US ARE SUBJECT
TO OUR GENERAL CONDITIONS OF SALE, DELIVERY AND SERVICE, AND, UNLESS OTHERWISE
EXPRESSLY AGREED IN WRITING, MANUFACTURER AND SELLER ASSUME NO LIABILITY IN EXCESS OF
THAT STATED THEREIN FOR RESULTS OBTAINED, INJURY, DIRECT OR CONSEQUENTIAL DAMAGE
INCURRED FROM THE USE AS RECOMMENDED ABOVE OR OTHERWISE.
THE INFORMATION CONTAINED IN THIS STANDARD IS LIABLE TO MODIFICATION FROM TIME TO TIME IN
THE LIGHT OF EXPERIENCE AND OUR POLICY OF CONTINUOUS PRODUCT DEVELOPMENT. IT IS
AUTOMATICALLY VOID TWO YEARS FROM ISSUE.

COPYRIGHT HEMPEL A/S, DENMARK

HEMPEL