You are on page 1of 5

A strong position can be obtained only by a given marketing approach.

The universities evolving environment it’s turbulent and in such conditions, management
has to accomplish four main objectives: understanding the macro environment, environment
systematic research, opportunities and treats findings and environment acclimation.1
The best method to fulfill the forth objectives is marketing audit. It’s the base for activity
decision making, information for client and resource attracting, anticipation and accommodating
with the educational market requirements. At the same time, audit researches the marketing
activities efficiency and effectiveness, measures consumer motivation intensity, establishes
realistic marketing objectives and offers increased capacity to predict and to go through changes.
Marketing audit is an important phase in the strategic planning, base of marketing
objectives and strategies establishing and sets sights on achieving them after implementation.2
The necessity happens by the fact that the higher education institutes develop
contradictious activities, on the one hand didactics, market oriented, on the other hand a
scientific research activity, hyper-centralized, formal motivated, only level market oriented.3
Marketing audit exert a structured approach on collecting and analyzing data and
information about the complex universities environment. Involves marketing research and
historical data collecting about the institution and services provided. The audit follows a three
steps procedure 4:
a. Objectives, aim and approach setting
The audit target marketing operations from institution as a whole with the goal of
determining true value of institution on educational market, in order to provide recommends
maximizing results.
Grades from 0 to 100 are attributed for performance to all the activities that are classified
in 21 general types. Every activity is analysed by interviewing staff and analyzing information
from various documents. Are settled five levels of performance: critic (0-15), alarming(16-35),
average(36-65), satisfying (66-85), amazing (86-100).
b. Data collection

Avram, G., Dan, A., Curs Marketing educaţional în sistem descentralizat, disponibil la, accesat la 01.05.2012
Cetină, I., Locul şi rolul auditului de marketing în procesul planificării strategice de marketing, Analele
Universităţii “Constantin Brâncusi” din Târgu Jiu, Seria Economie, Nr. 4/2010, p.113-119
Olteanu,V., Planificarea strategică orientată spre piață în domeniul serviciilor de educa ție, Revista de Marketing
Online, Vol.1, Nr. 2,p.1-2
Kotler, P., The Marketing Audit Comes of Age, Hamilton Consultants, Cambridge, MA, 1977, p. 4

For time economy. asked open‐ended questions about NPOs' current marketing practices.S. we increased the interview response rate to almost 90% (87. Acquisition office and student spokesman in ASE Council. profile websites. Although these NPOs were asked the same questions that were on the written survey. from ASE website. We mailed a hard‐copy of the survey to a random sample of 400 NPOs. and we sought to develop an marketing audit model from which to make recommendations to higher-education institutions. Post Office (2. We also conducted in‐person interviews with the executive directors or board presidents of 43 NPOs—most of which were located in or near the city of Grand Rapids in the western lower‐ peninsula of Michigan. in I drafted a marketing list of questions. 2000). and areas where marketing efforts needed improvement (Appendix). The 29 survey respondents that indicated that marketing was only “somewhat important” or “not important” to their NPO and the 17 respondents who did not complete the survey because they “did not do marketing” were pulled aside and examined separately.The audit is based on interrogating some staff categories about precise issue. To start this process. 2003). personal discussions with the staff and public data. A review of current marketing theory produced no useful results.7%): 43 of the 49 NPOs contacted agreed to an interview. 3.000 NPOs (or NPO chapters) in the state of Michigan (Internal Revenue Service. Using the snowball method to obtain additional interviews (Denzin & Lincoln. This questions…. scientific articles and private data obtained from staff inside BMCOC (Marketing. use of volunteers.. time and place have been settled from the beginning. but several were unusable due to technical problems.8%) of varying types and sizes (Tables 1 and 2) and 96 returns from the U. we began an in depth literature search. coupled with informal. Counseling and Career Orientation Office). In all. correlated with …. Some of the NPOs contacted were more willing to be interviewed if we had been directly referred by a colleague or business associate. The responses were analyzed using the same methodology as the survey responses. searching for patterns and trends in the data. context and circumstances adapted. We read the responses. 38 interviews were transcribed by student workers.S. the question. These mailings resulted in responses from 124 NPOs (3. RESULTS . Based on the information gleaned from this research period. The used data are public data.301 surveys or invitations to complete the online survey—and follow‐up reminder post cards—were mailed to NPOs throughout Michigan in 2006–2007. for univeristies.9%). The questions are institution. As a result. and subsequently mailed invitations to complete the same survey online to four additional random samples of 500–800 NPOs. All interviews were recorded onto coded audio tapes. and then analyzed the results. the respondents provided more detailed answers and we were able to ask follow‐ up questions. It was mailed to random samples of NPOs from the U. International Revenue Service list of over 42.

and they have discovered that these do not really fit the needs of NPOs. unlike other studies. This provides a unique view into the world of the NPO. However. Another 2. this research focused on marketing from the viewpoint of the NPO. rather than on marketing from the perspective of either donors or for‐profit corporations. Although more than 3. However. This study is the first step in developing a new model strategy of nonprofit marketing. NPOs should include marketing as a desired skill set for . local non‐profits. interview and survey subjects answered almost universally the same: money. to properly develop a new strategy of nonprofit marketing future studies will need to include NPOs in other states. While this study examined the marketing practices of NPOs specifically in Michigan. and into the other processes underlying NPO marketing strategy for NPOs. NPOs in different areas of the country or with different cultural settings may provide additional insights into the motivations of donors. While it is anticipated that the results will be similar. because the address on file with the Internal Revenue Service was out‐of‐date. only 124 NPOs responded. clients and volunteers.7% responded only to say that they would not be participating in the study. Of those. the response rate for survey respondents in this study was quite low (3. CONCLUSION This preliminary study examines some of the marketing strategy implications for NPOs in Michigan. and place it higher on their hierarchy of organizational priorities. we focus specifically on smaller. Specifically. Previous studies have only adapted existing for‐profit strategies to the NPO. 13. All of this information will provide the underpinnings for the development of a new. model nonprofit marketing strategy. NPOs must re‐evaluate the importance of marketing. Study Limitations and Future Research As is common in studies relying on survey data. time.9% of the total sample never received the invitation to participate in the study. When asked about limitations to their organizational marketing efforts.000 NPOs were invited to participate in the survey. This refrain is also a common theme in the literature. the response rate from NPOs invited to participate in in‐person interviews was very high—almost 90%. the results here show several other impediments to marketing efforts for the NPO. these data were less random and more centralized to one region in western Michigan. but the in‐depth responses we received made the interview data very helpful to our final analysis.8%).This study has revealed several key findings that both support and contradict previous research. Furthermore. A small number of NPO respondents indicated that they did not have the capability to access the online survey. We should note. and perhaps other countries. it is likely that there were other NPOs that discarded the letter if they did not have the technological ability to easily respond to the survey. Although we sent paper surveys to the NPOs that contacted us about this problem. and/or resources (personnel). such as Andreasen and Kolter (2007). Unlike most studies.

At the present time. and most of all how the universities perceives and evaluates marketing and marketing audit benefits. Limits After Kotler and Zaltman introduced the new concept of social marketing. and an inability to reach out to all of their target markets. the procedure in conducting it. with 75 per cent using the self-audit method in conducting it. This study reveals several marketing and managerial issues for NPOs that provide a starting point for the development of a new model nonprofit marketing strategy. place marketing as a line‐item on their annual budget. the popular marketing textbooks and the published academic and general literature deal primarily with the theoretical and practical aspects of the marketing audit without offering any rigorous empirical justification of the practice.their board of directors. This will allow NPOs to address brand development and recognition. The conceptual framework of the marketing audit has been well developed by different contributors since the late 1950s. and anecdotal evidence. Future studies will have to delve deeper into these topics in order to develop a functional marketing strategy that caters specifically to the needs of the NPO. to capitalize environment opportunities. This paper attempts to explore practice of the marketing audit in the best economy university from Romania. isolated case studies. difficulties in branding. There is very small indication of how the marketing audit is actually being used. NPOs struggle with a general lack of understanding of the true functions of marketing. was created an autonom zone as educational marketing. Marketing apparition in education can be explained by the necessity of rentability . The biggest contribution to . and any shortfalls they might have in all three NPO market areas: obtaining funding. The teaching of the marketing audit appears to be based on the logical expectation of its usefulness. The results of this industry-based survey of 216 large Australian businesses indicated that about 48 per cent of the respondents have used the marketing audit. The respondents’ perception was that the implementation of the recommendations of the marketing audit had contributed mostly between one per cent and 10 per cent to their organisational performance. and take advantage of the resources available to them through local academic institutions and NPO service organizations. and effectively utilizing good volunteers. reaching out to a diverse clientele.

marketing development in education have had the universities that always adapted the offer to population needs (students. . the relation between school and community may be considered a main goal of educational marketing. comunity). family. As Wirt and Kirst emphasize. relation capable to increase performance for both sides.