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Flare Systems

Typical Relief System
Vent Header


RE/U&O Flares-2

Purpose of Flare

Define Loadings to be Handled

Calculate loadings for all
Geographic location of each
Calculate maximum load
(power failure,fire case)

Fire case limited to a
ground area of 230 - 460
square meters

Calculate maximum back

Major Factors Influencing Flare Design

Gas Composition
Flow Rate
Gas Pressure Available
Initial Investment
Operating Costs
Gas Temperature
Energy Availability
Safety Requirements
Social Requirements

Main Flare Standards and Recommended Practices „ „ „ „ API RP 520: Part I – Sizing Selection and Installation of Pressure-Relieving Devices in Refineries – Part I – Sizing and Selection API RP 520: Part II – Sizing Selection and Installation of Pressure-Relieving Devices in Refineries – Part II – API RP 521: Guide for Pressure-Relieving and Depressurizing Systems API Standard 537: First Edition September 2003: Flare Details for General Refinery and Petrochemical Services RE/U&O Flares-5 .

elevated flares: Net Heating Value of Vent Stream Bv (Btu/scf) 300 300-1000 > 1000 Maximum Velocity Vmax (ft/sec) 60 log10(Vmax) = (Bv + 1214)852 400 It is standard practice to size the flare so that the design velocity of flow rate Qtot.95 * (Qtot/Vmax)^0.5 „ Where: Qtot = Q + F (measured at stream temperature and pressure) „ Dmin should be rounded up to the next largest available commercial size „ Btu/scf * 0.US EPA Requirements – 40CFR60.18) for maximum velocity of steam-assisted.8*Vmax)]^0. is 80 percent of Vmax: Dmin (in) = 12*[((4/PI)(Qtot/60sec/min))/(0.0373 = MJ/scm and ft/sec * 0.5 Dmin (in) = 1.305 = m/s „ .18 „ Sizing must also comply with Federal Register (40 CFR 60.

2 MJ/SCF) required as described in the United States Federal Register: (Q * Bv) + (F * Bf) = (Q + F)* (300 Btu/scf) Where: — Q = vent stream flow rate.Auxiliary Fuel Requirement „ Amount of fuel required (F) is calculated based on maintaining the vent gas stream net heating value at the minimum of 300 Btu/scf (11. scfm — Bv = Btu/scf of the vent stream — Bf = Btu/scf of the fuel stream Therefore. F (scfm) = Q * (300-Bv)/(Bf-300) The annual auxiliary fuel requirement (Fa) is: Fa (Msfm/yr) = (F scfm) * (60 min/hr) * (8760 hr/yr) Fa (Mscfm/yr) = 526 * F .

Elevated Flare System Flare Tip Steam Ring Dry Seal Knockout Drum Pumpout Pump Flare Knockout Drum Flare Stack PI TI Instrument Air Vent Emergency Gas Purge Switch LIAH LGR Solenoid Valve (With Manual Reset) RO RO Purge Gas Gas To Pilot PI TAH Grade M Pilot Ignition Systems Locate At Flare Knockout Drum Normal Gas Purge Steam Pressure Relief From Process Units Slop To Slop Tank PI PC Fuel Gas Plant Air .

Ground Flare System Flare Knockout Drum Knockout Drum Pumpout Pump PI TI LGR LIAH Switch PI Instrument Air Vent Emergency Gas Purge Solenoid Valve (With Manual Reset) Ground Flare Retention Dike Burners Grade M Stage Header PO PO Normal Gas Purge Purge Gas Main Header PC Pressure Relief From Process Units Slop To Slop Tank Gas To Pilot PI Pilot Ignition Systems Locate At Flare Knockout Drum PC Fuel Gas Plant Air .

Two Stage Flare System (Elevated/Ground) Flare Tip Seal Flare Stack Flare Knockout Drum Knockout Drum Pumpout Pump PI TI LGR LIAH Switch PI Instrument Air Vent Water Seal Solenoid Valve (With Manual Reset) Enclosed Ground Plane Gas To Pilot M Pilot Ignition Systems Locate At Flare Knockout Drum Emergency Gas Purge RO RO PI Normal Gas Purge Purge Gas Pressure Relief From Process Units PC Slop To Slop Tank Water Fuel Gas Plant Air Grade .

Flare Stack Structure „ Self Supporting „ Guy Supported „ Derrick Type .

Demountable Derrick Single-Section Riser „ „ Normal Position is “A” then can be lowered for work on the tip to position “C” Allows for easy replacement of tip RE/U&O Flares-12 .

Demountable Derrick-Multiple Section Riser „ „ „ Riser assembled in sections Designed to accommodate multiple risers Designed so that one flare can be taken out of service while others are still in operation RE/U&O Flares-13 .

Conventional Pressure Relief Valve RE/U&O Flares-14 .

Balanced-Bellows Pressure Relief Valve RE/U&O Flares-15 .

Pop-Action Pilot-Operated Valve (Flowing Type) RE/U&O Flares-16 .

Sec.74 2.90 4.87 60 40 30 16 9 6 4 2 50 60 .67 19.46 11.33 2.7 Radiation Theory 6 5 Exposure Times Necessary to Reach the Pain Threshold 4 Threshold of Pain 3 2 Safe Limit 440 Btu/(hr) (ft)2 1 0 10 550 740 920 1500 2200 3000 3700 6300 30 40 Exposure Time. Radiation Intensity Btu/hr-ft2 20 Kilowatts per M2 Times to Pain Threshold (Seconds) 1.94 9.73 6.

) .Ft.) .Ft.Contours of Radiant Heat Intensity Safe Boundary (440 Btu/Hr/Sq.Normally Fenced in with Warning Signal Protection Required for Equipment Protection Required for Personnel Boundary for Radiant Heat Intensity (3000 Btu Hr/Sq.) Boundary for Radiant Heat Intensity (1500 Btu/Hr/Sq.Ft.

„ „ „ „ „ „ „ „ Environmentally acceptable combustion Tips normally proprietary in design Flame stability Ignition reliability Exit velocity 1 to 600 ft/s (.3 to 183 m/s) Exit velocity at 50% of sonic velocity Multiple pilot burners Surrounding windshield Flare Tip .

Flare Tip Design „ Flare Tip Design Considerations Design for maximum flow rates – Design for maximum temperatures – Design for wind conditions – Design for minimum flow rates – .

Pilot and Ignition Systems „ „ Continuously burning pilots Flame front generator – – – Fuel gas and air admitted to the ignition pipe in a combustible ratio Gas is ignited by an electric spark Flame travels through the pipe .

Flame Front Generator Ignition System F Air B D A To Pilot #1 H J Gas To Pilot #2 To Pilot #3 E C Gas To Pilots .

Pilot Burners „ Automatic systems may be activated by: Thermocouples – Infrared Sensor – Ultraviolet Sensor (ground flare application) – .

Installation of Thermocouples Correct Installation Incorrect Installation .

Pilot Windshield „ „ „ Allows pilot to operate at wind speeds greater than 100 mph Should always be specified Prevents misreading of the thermocouples .

760 hr/yr) Fp (Mscf/yr) = 613*N N can be calculated from the following table: Flare Tip Diameter (IN) 1-10 12-24 30-60 >60 Number of Pilot Burners (N) 1 2 3 4 .Pilot Gas Requirement „ The average pilot gas consumption based on an energy-efficient model is 70 scf/hr. The annual pilot gas consumption (Fp) is calculated by: • • „ Fp (Mscf/yr) = (70 scf/hr)*(N)*(8.

Multiple Pilots „ Multiple pilots allow one pilot to fail „ Most flares have two to four pilots „ Equally spaced around the flare .

replace pilot entirely RE/U&O Flares-28 . Fuel/Air mixture more lean Replace pilot tip Incorrect Fuel This can be determined by fuel sample. Pressure drop in pilot decreased. adjust air door. Pilot modifications may include: replace pilot orifice. if hydrogen concentration has increased significantly then flashbacks may be audible and visible Return to design fuel gas.Troubleshooting Pilots Problem Possible Cause Corrective Action Plugged Pilot Tip Start-up debris left in system Remove debris manually or by high pressure blowing Plugged Pilot Tip Unsaturated Fuel Hydrocarbons Remove manually or by high pressure blowing then return to fuel gas Damage Pilot Tip Pilot tip has increased in size.

03 to 0.5 m/s) Flare stack with molecular seal — 0.10 FPS to 0.06 m/s) .Purging „ Flare purge gas – Any gas which cannot go to dew point under any condition of operation • • • – Fuel Gas Inert Gas Nitrogen Purge Rate • • Flare Stack — Linear velocity 1FPS to 5FPS (.3 to 1.20 FPS (.

760 hr/yr) F (Mscf/yr) = 6.01 meters per second to 0.04 feet per second to 1 feet per second (.88*D^2 .33 meters per second) F (Mscf/yr) = (0.04 ft/sec)*((PI*D^2/4)/144 ft2))*(3600 sec/hr)*(8.Purge Gas Requirements „ „ „ „ Prevents flashback problems Flare operates at positive pressure Purge all subheaders (upstream) .

Dry Seals „ Molecular Seals „ Double Seals „ Fluidic Seals „ Airrestors .

Molecular Seal Flare Assembly „ „ „ „ Molecular Seal Liquid Drain Prevents explosions Prevents entry of air Reduces purge gas Performs silently with small pressure drop .

Smokeless Flare Operation Smokeless Operation Smoking US EPA allows smoking for Only 5 minutes per hour .

the following equation can be used: Wsteam (lb/hr) = Whc (lb/hr) * [0.Steam Requirements and Smoke Suppression Methods „ In general.68-(10.8/MW)] „ Smoke Suppression Methods – – – – Steam injection High pressure gas injection Low pressure air Internal energized flare .

Automatic Steam Control Field Of View Steam Nozzles Steam Control Valve Monitor Flux Density Signal Controller Control Scheme .

Automatic Steam Control „ Minimizes steam consumption „ Controlled by the flame appearance „ Calibrated to a particular frequency in the infrared spectrum .

.Knockout Drums „ Principle Features – – – – – Complete removal of either slugs or mists of liquid (300 microns to 600 microns) Recovers valuable condensed hydrocarbons Ends maintenance difficulty caused by “Wet” gases Used as the base for the flare riser Ends “Wet Gas” control problems The allowable vertical velocity in the drum may be based on the necessity to separate droplets from 300-600 microns in diameter.

000 BPH „ Enclosed burners can be easily tested for emissions .Truck Loading Vapor Control Flare „ Achieve high destruction efficiencies through the loading cycle „ Systems range in size from 100 BPH to 25.

Troubleshooting Enclosed Flares Problem Cause Action High Frequency Noise Most likely associated with steam injection Check steam quality and properties Combustion Roar (low frequency) Intense combustion Check flare gas pressure and steam quality Visible flame Excess flow Check diverting water seal or valve Smoke Air starvation Check wind fence for blockage or is wind condition unusual Smoke Low gas pressure Check bypass relief devices and staging valves Smoke Steam/support air shortages Check steam supply or blowers RE/U&O Flares-39 .

Coupled Effects of Temperature and Time on Rate of Pollutant Oxidation Pollutant Destruction. °F Residence time of gases in combustion chamber calculated from: t = V/Q t = Residence Time (s) v = Chamber Volume (ft3) Q = Gas volumetric flow rate at combustion conditions (ft3/s) .0 sec 0.001 sec Increasing Residence Time 20 0 600 800 1000 1200 1400 1600 1800 2000 Increasing Temperature.01 sec 0. % 100 80 60 40 1 sec 1.

Schematic of a Thermal Incinerator Fume Fuel Exhaust Combustion Air (Fume) .

Typical Marine Vessel Loading System Product Loading Arm Product from Storage Tanks Vapor Arm Natural Gas/ Inerting Gas Enriching Gas Detonation Analyzer Arrestor Vapor Mover Hydrocarbon Vapor to Control Device Knockout Drum(s) Discharged Vapors Sump Pump Ship or Barge Dock Facilities Condensate to Tanks Shoreside Facilities .

Flare Gas Recovery Compressor „ „ Flare gas recovery compressor designed to capture flare gases and compress to fuel gas pressure Reduce natural gas purchases RE/U&O Flares-43 .

H2S. CO2 and HCl Corrosion and Fouling RE/U&O Flares-44 .water. rust.Flare Gas Recovery Compressor „ „ „ „ Difficult service for a compressor Wide range in Volumetric flow and MW Dirty Service .

is forced outwards by centrifugal force to form a liquid ring revolving concentric to the pump casing „ RE/U&O Flares-45 .Liquid Ring Compressor Type Operates on the rotary liquid piston principle „ The shaft and the impellers being the only moving parts „ Shaft and impeller assembly is mounted eccentrically relative to the pump casing „ As the impeller rotates the water (which is continually supplied to the pump).

Source Reduction Program „ „ „ „ „ Locate relief valve leaks Carryout repairs to reduce amount of gas going to flare Check each relief valve every 3 to 6 months Leakage could occur through normal wear and tear on the valve Leakage could occur due to incomplete closure RE/U&O Flares-46 .

000 per year have been recorded Relates acoustic signal level to gas losses for various valve types of different valve sizes and working pressure range „ Device extremely portable „ Can approximate flowrates and associated dollar values RE/U&O Flares-47 .000.Source Reduction Program „ „ Potential Saving of $1.

Flare Flow Meters: Ultrasonic “Time of Flight” Technology „ „ Panametrics of Waltham Massachusetts Proprietary algorithm to determine instantaneously the molecular weight and mass flow rate of the flare gas „ Meter is used to conserve energy and reduce product loss by identifying sources of leaks into the flare systems „ Reduces energy usage by accurately controlling the amount of steam fed to the flare tip RE/U&O Flares-48 .

The End „ „ Next: Good buy! Questions ? RE/U&O Flares-49 .