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College of Engineering

Enviromential Engineering Department

Subject:Water Resourses Engineering

Dr: Naba Shakir Hadi

It is known that the coneyance of achannel section increase with increase in the

hydraulic radius or with decrease in the wetted perimeter.

Section

R=

P=B+2y

y

B

A =2

By=2

B=2

R=

R=

P=b+2y

+2

+2

+2

y

= 0]

=0

2:1

b

A = by + zy2

Or = ( b + zy ) y

P = b + 2y

=0

=0

2

P = b + 2y

2

2

+2zy = 0

2

4z2 = 1 + z2

z2 =

4=

Z=

=0

R=

R=

R=

Notes:

When the circular section used:

P= 2 r

A= r2

R=

=by

Example:

A trapezoidal channel carrying 11.34 m3 /sec is built with non erodible bed

having aslope of 0.0016 and n = 0.025 proportion the section dimension by using best

hydraulic section.

Solution:

Q=

zy

zy

R=

A = by + zy2

1

z

b

11.34 =

Y = 2m

B = 2.31m

Z=

*Control of Flow:

The control of flow in an open channel is defined as the estiblashment of

adefinitive flow condition in the channel or a definitive relation ship between the

stage and discharge of the flow. When the control of flow is achieved at a certain

section of the channel this section is called a control section.

Solution:

Stage

Depth

discharge

alwayes stage above sea surface = 220m or 230m

discharge

fiqure:

1)

subcritical

flow(y1 yc)

y1 yc y2

y1

yc

yc

Se Sc

mild

y2

steep

Se Sc

2)

yc

S0

Sc

3) Free Flow

yn

yc

mild

yn

S0

yc

0.7yc

Sc

4yc

yc

yn yc

S0

yn

yc y2

4)

y1

yc

y2

y3

yc = control flow

5)

depth

y1

y

y1

y2

yc

y2

z

mini

z for yc

Example:

A rectangular channel B= 1.5m , Q= 900L/s, the depth of flow before the hump

is 1m and z=200mm , compute the depth of flow above the hump and calculate the

required z cause the critical flow above it.

Solution:

v2/2g

v2/2g

y1=1m

y

z=200m

V= Q / (1.5 y) = 0.9 / 1.5 y

y=0.765m

=0.3323m

Vc = Q / Ac = 0.9 / ( 1.5 0.332 ) = 1.807 m/s

1 = ( 0.6 )2 / 2g = 0.332 + ( 1.807 )2 / 2g + z

z = 0.52 m

For design of open channel and analysis of their performance the engineer must be

able to predict forms and positions of water surface profiles of varied flow andacquire

some facility in their calculation.

horizontal

v2/2g

Se

hf=Se dx

v2/2g+d(v2/2g)

y

S0

y+dy

S0dx

Horizontal (dx)

)

in non uniform

hydraulic depth

T = Top surface width

Aproching

To channel bottom

Direction to up

E.L

Se

hf

y1

S0

Z1

y2

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