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Babylon University

College of Engineering
Enviromential Engineering Department
Subject:Water Resourses Engineering
Dr: Naba Shakir Hadi

The Best Hydraulic Section:


It is known that the coneyance of achannel section increase with increase in the
hydraulic radius or with decrease in the wetted perimeter.
Section

R=

*For Rectangular Section:


P=B+2y
y
B

A =2

By=2

B=2

R=

R=

For rectangular section

*For Trapezoidal Section:


P=b+2y
+2
+2
+2

y
= 0]
=0

2:1
b

A = by + zy2

Or = ( b + zy ) y

P = b + 2y

=0

=0

2
P = b + 2y
2
2

+2zy = 0

2
4z2 = 1 + z2

z2 =

4=

Z=

=0

R=
R=

R=

Notes:
When the circular section used:
P= 2 r
A= r2

R=

=by

Example:
A trapezoidal channel carrying 11.34 m3 /sec is built with non erodible bed
having aslope of 0.0016 and n = 0.025 proportion the section dimension by using best
hydraulic section.
Solution:
Q=
zy

zy

R=
A = by + zy2

1
z

b
11.34 =
Y = 2m
B = 2.31m
Z=

*Control of Flow:
The control of flow in an open channel is defined as the estiblashment of
adefinitive flow condition in the channel or a definitive relation ship between the
stage and discharge of the flow. When the control of flow is achieved at a certain
section of the channel this section is called a control section.
Solution:
Stage
Depth

discharge
alwayes stage above sea surface = 220m or 230m

discharge

At the critical state of flow a definitive stage


fiqure:

discharge relation ship as shown in

1)
subcritical
flow(y1 yc)

y1 yc y2
y1

yc

yc

Se Sc
mild

y2
steep
Se Sc

2)

yc

S0

Sc

3) Free Flow
yn
yc
mild
yn
S0

yc

0.7yc

Sc
4yc

yc
yn yc
S0

yn

super critical flow


yc y2

4)

y1

yc

y2

y3

yc = control flow
5)
depth
y1
y
y1

y2
yc

y2

z
mini

z for yc

Example:
A rectangular channel B= 1.5m , Q= 900L/s, the depth of flow before the hump
is 1m and z=200mm , compute the depth of flow above the hump and calculate the
required z cause the critical flow above it.
Solution:
v2/2g

v2/2g

y1=1m

y
z=200m

V1 = Q / A1= 0.9 m3/s / (1.51) = 0.6 m/s


V= Q / (1.5 y) = 0.9 / 1.5 y

y=0.765m

=0.3323m
Vc = Q / Ac = 0.9 / ( 1.5 0.332 ) = 1.807 m/s
1 = ( 0.6 )2 / 2g = 0.332 + ( 1.807 )2 / 2g + z
z = 0.52 m

*Non uniform flow: (varied flow)


For design of open channel and analysis of their performance the engineer must be
able to predict forms and positions of water surface profiles of varied flow andacquire
some facility in their calculation.
horizontal
v2/2g

Se

hf=Se dx
v2/2g+d(v2/2g)

y
S0

y+dy

S0dx
Horizontal (dx)

surface profile for varied flow


)

in non uniform
hydraulic depth
T = Top surface width

Depth decrease with distance

Aproching
To channel bottom

Depth increace with distance


Direction to up

Driving from channel bottom

E.L

Se

hf

y1
S0
Z1

y2