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KINGDOM ANIMALIA Systematics is the study of biological diversity and its evolution. Taxonomy, a subdivision of systematics, is the science of biological classification. 1.Classification systems help to clarify relationships among organisms; they help us remember organisms and their traits; they enable us to communicate clearly the identity of organisms being studied; they improve our predictive powers; and they provide stable names. 2.Taxonomic systems used by biologists are hierarchical, that is, each higher group contains all the groups below it. THE IMPORTANCE OF BIOLOGICAL CLASSIFICATION First, they are an aid to memory. It is impossible to remember the characteristics of a large number of different things unless we can group them into categories, whose members share many characteristics. Second, classification systems greatly improve our predictive powers. If, for example, we know that females of all known mammalian species have mammary glands with which they produce milk for their offspring, we can be quite certain that a newly discovered animal with other typical mammalian traits, such as hair and a constant, high body temperature, will also have this method of provisioning its offspring, even if the first individuals we happen to find are males, and hence lack functional mammary glands. Third, classification systems improve our ability to explain relationships among things. For biologists, this is especially important when we attempt to reconstruct the evolutionary pathways that have produced the diversity of organisms living today. Fourth, taxonomic systems provide relatively stable, unique, and unequivocal names for organisms. If those names are changed, the systems provide means of tracing the changes. Common names, even if they exist (most organisms do not have common names at all), are unreliable and often confusing CLASSIFICATION OF ORGANISMS Key Concepts Taxonomy- is the science by which organisms are classified in heirarchical categories referred to as taxa. Seven categories: 1. Kingdom 2. Phylum 3. Class 4. Order 5. Family 6. Genus 7. Species Carolus Linnaeus was the great classifier. He designed the system of binomial nomenclature where each unique type of organism is given a unique two word name, the genus and specific epitaph (species).
Characteristics of Five Kingdoms Kingdom Monera Protista Fungi Plantae Animalia Cell Type Prokaryotic Eukaryotic Eukaryotic Eukaryotic Eukaryotic Cell Number Unicellular Unicellular Mostly Multicellular Multicellular Multicellular Major Mode of Nutrition Absorb or photosynthesize Absorb, ingest, photosynthesize Absorb, heterotrophic Photosynthesize (Autotrophic) Ingest, heterotrophic
INVERTEBRATES All living things are placed into groups depending on common characteristics. The animal kingdom is informally divided into two groups, the vertebrates and invertebrates. Invertebrates are a group of animals that have no backbone, unlike animals such as reptiles, amphibians, fish, birds and mammals who all have a backbone. THE INVERTEBRATES:
PHYLLUM PROTOZOA: Protozoa (Gk. Protos = first, zoon = animal; mostly microscopic, unicellular animals; Examples: euglena, volvox, trypanosoma, paramecium, amoeba) PHYLLUM ECHINODERMATA: Echinoderms (echinos = sea urchin, derma = skin, ata = characterized by) - Example: starfish 1. Class Echinoidea: sea urchin 2. Class Holothuroidea: sea cucumber PHYLLUM ANNELIDA: Annelids - Example: earthworm PHYLLUM MOLLUSCA: Mollusks (soft-bodied animals, w/o exoskeleton) - Example: octopus PHYLLUM ARTHROPODA: Arthropods (arthron = joint, podos = foot); Class Chilopoda (centipedes), Class Diplopoda (millipede), Class Crustacea (crabs), Class Arachnida (spiders), Class insecta (insects) PHYLUM COELENTERATA or CNIDARIA: koilos = hollow, enteron = gut, ata = characterized by, knide = nettle, arai = connecting with Class Hydrazoa: hydra = water serpent, zoon = animal - Example: hydra Class Anthozoa: anthos = flower, zoon = animal - Examples: sea anemone, corals PHYLUM NEMATHEMINTHES: nema = thread, helmins = worm - Examples: Ascaris (intestinal roundworms), Necator (hookworm), Wuchereria (filaria worm), Trichinella (trichina worm), Enterobius (pinworm) PHYLUM PLATYHELMINTHES: platys = flat, helmins = worm - Examples: planaria, Schistosoma, Taenia, Fasciola PHYLLUM CTENOPHORA: ctenos = comb, phoros = bearing Class Tentaculata: tentaculum = feeler, ata = characterized by; Example: Cestum, Pleurobrachia Class Nuda: nudus = naked or w/o tentacles or feelers; Example: Beroe PHYLLUM PORIFERA: porus = pore, ferre = to bear; Class Calcispongiea or Calcarea: spongos = sponge, calcis = lime; Examples: Scypha, Leucosolenia Class Hyalospongiea or Hexactinellida: hyalos = glass, spongos = lime; Example: Venus flower basket (Euplectella aspergillum) Class Demospongiea: demas = frame, spongos = lime; Examples: all bath sponges like Euspongia, Cliona, Spongilla (fresh water form)
Phylum Porifera Poriferans are commonly referred to as sponges. The only species in Porifera is a sponge. Most sponges live in the ocean, but just to be contrary a family called by the strange name of Spongillidae can live in freshwater too. They eat small crabs and plankton Sponges rely on the water . Water is also crucial to the sponge's circulation. The sponges reproduce either sexually or asexually. When they reproduce sexually, they usually cross-fertilize. Eggs and sperm unite to make a free-swimming larva that settles on a different surface. Asexually, the sponge produces small, internal buds called gemules. These gemules each produce a new sponge. Sponges can also reconstitute themselves if their cells are separated into a suspension. Phylum:Cnidaria
Phylum: Cnidaria The name Cnidaria comes from the Greek word "cnidos", which means stinging nettle. Many thousands of cnidarian species live in the world's oceans. All Cnidarians are acoelomates (no body cavity); they have stinging cells called nitoblasts. Cnidarians have both sexual and asexual reproduction cycles. The polyp cycle can reproduce by budding off an exact clone of itself (but smaller)--this is asexual reproduction; they can also produce a cloned larva asexually. Cnidarians include the following: 1)Class: Anthozoa (CORALS, SEA ANEMONES) 2) Class: Hydrozoa (HYDROIDS, SIPHONOPHORES--Portugese Man-of-War) 3) Class: Schyphozoa (JELLYFISH) Phylum: Cnidaria Class: Anthozoa Corals come in all shapes and sizes--some are reef-builders while others are non reef-builders:
The reef builders are the corals that can be seen in the Great Barrier Reef of Australia. Reef builders build high structures composed of living and non-living materials. The living materials are most often sponges, algae, and the corals themselves. The nonliving materials are most often the discarded shells of dead bivalves (clams, mussels, etc.) and other CaCO3 materials. Coral reefs grow about a meter every one thousand years, so you see why it's very difficult for a reef to recover if it is destroyed. Phylum: Cnidaria Class: Anthozoa Order: Actiniaria One species of Cnidarian is a sea anemone. - lives under the sea, as its name indicates. - It is generally attached to a rock of some sort. - The sea anemone mainly eats fish. - it stuns the fish that is to be eaten with nematocysts. - Then, its tentacles drag the fish to its mouth. - (Ingestion) It is digested in a central cavity, and then the waste is excreted, once again, through its mouth because the anemone's mouth is its only opening. - It can reproduce both sexually and asexually. - They perform lateral fission, which is when a new anemone sprouts out of the parent's side, then breaks off. Phylum: Cnidaria Class: Hydrozoa - The animals of the class hydrozoa have both a polyp and medusa stage. - Siphonophores are a type of hydrozoan with a float for buoyancy. the most famous of these is the species physalia, the Portugese-man-of-war, which is a type of colonial siphonophore Phylum: Cnidaria Class: Schyphozoa - Jellyfish are cnidarians which lack the polyp stage of the life cycle. - they are always in the medusae stage. - They are considered plankton (cannot swim on their own--they are dependent upon the current to take them places). - They are normally found in the epipelagic layer of the ocean Phylum: Ctenophora - Comb Jellies are often mistaken for jellyfish, but they are not. - Ctenophores have eight rows of comblike plates arranged longitudinally around the body. - They have a mouth, a stomach, but no anus. Two types of ctenophores are: Pleurobrachia and Beroe.
PHYLLUM CTENOPHORA: Pleurobrachia Have lateral tentacles, and their mouths have paired tentacles with tentillae (colorblasts to capture prey). Brine shrimp is their food source; they also eat larval herring and can have a devastating effect on their populations. PHYLLUM CTENOPHORA: Beroes • Are ferocious predators upon their own kind, especially Pleurobrachia • They have thousands of tiny teeth (macrocilia) which puncture their prey. • Some deep sea species are highly pigmented (ctenophores are usually transparent). • In order to swim better, Beroes keep their mouths closed to create a more streamlined body and reduce drag. In order to keep its mouth closed, the Beroe has two specialized strips of epithelial cells around its lips which act as a seal. Phylum Mollusca
Phylum Mollusca • There is one thing that all mollusks have in common; a foot. The foot is used for different purposes in each class. • Most mollusks have a soft, skin-like organ covered with a hard outside shell. • Some mollusks live on land, such as the snail and slug. • Other mollusks live in water, such as the oyster, mussel, clam, squid and octopus. • Land living mollusks, like the snail, move slowly on a flat sole called a foot. • Ocean living mollusks move or swim by jet propulsion. Other ocean living mollusks, like the oyster, attach themselves to rocks or other surfaces, and can't move. • They feed by filtering small food particles from water that flows through them.
Here are four classes of mollusks: 1)Class: Cephalopoda 2) Class: Bivalvia 3) Class: Gastropoda 4) Class: Polyplacophor Phylum: Mollusca Class: Cephalopoda(head-foot) Because of the many movies in which cephalopods, especially octopi and squids, attack people, boats, etc., there is a misconception that they are aggressive and dumb creatures. In fact, there are only two species of octopi that are aggressive (they are located in Australia), and they are highly intelligent. They are probably the most intelligent of all the invertebrates.
Phylum: Mollusca Class: Bivalvia(two shells) Bivalves use their foot to move themselves. One species in the phylum Mollusca is a clam. The clam lives mainly in the ocean, in colonies called beds. It eats plankton, and moves by using a single foot to burrow through the sand. The clam breathes the same way most marine animals do.It ingests food by using cilia to retain food from the passing water and to carry it into their mouths. Lastly, it reproduces when females expel eggs into the surrounding water, and males fertilize them.
Phylum: Mollusca Class: Gastropoda(stomach-foot) Slugs and snails are members of a larger group or Phylum known as Mollusca. Snails and slugs are known as gastropods, which means 'stomach foot'. The head is at one end of this foot the snail or slug moves by gliding along a surface of mucus or slime that is produced from glands on the foot. All gastropods have a welldeveloped head with eyes and 1-2 pairs of tentacles.
Phylum: Mollusca Class: Polyplacophora The body of a chiton is covered by a shell that consists of a series of eight symmetrical, overlapping plates. A chiton can roll itself up into a ball, exposing only the hard shell, when it feels threatened. It moves using an oval, footlike appendage. The chiton also uses the foot to cling to rocks. Chitons feeds upon seaweed and algae PHYLUM CHORDATA SUBPHYLUM UROCHORDATA Ex. Sea squirts SUBPHYLUM CEPHALOCHORDATA Ex. Amphioxus SUBPHYLUM HEMICHORDATA EX. Acorn worm
Subphylum Vertebrata Class Agnatha – jawless fishes Ex. lampreys Class Chondrichthyes Ex. Sharks and rays
CLASS OSTEICHTHYES S.C. ACTINOTERYGII Ray-finned fishes Ex. Perch, puffer fish, sturgeon S.C. SARCOPTERYGII Lobed-finned fishes Ex. Lamitera, Lepidosiren
CLASS AMPHIBIA S.C. LABYRITHODONTIA - swamp dwelling SC. LEPOSPONDYLI - salamander-like amphibians S.C. LISSAMPHIBIA O. urodela – newts and salamander O. Anura – frogs and toads O. Apoda - Caecilians
Reconstruction of Ichthyostega, a Late Devonian relative of Densignathus
frogs CLASS REPTILIA Better adapted to terrestrial environment 3 extra embryonic membranes 1. amnion 2. chorion 3. allantois Oviparous (egg-laying animals), Young hatched fully –formed without passing larval stage Epidermal scales-plaques, shields, scales Ex. Turtle, snakes, dinosaurs, alligators
plesiosaurs CLASS AVES Wings – carpometacarpus Legs – tarsometatarsus Feathers, beaks, endothermy S.C. ARCHEONITHES Oldest known birds S.C. NEORNITHES Carinating, ratitating
odontognathae neognathae CLASS MAMMALIA With mammary glands Warm-blooded animals Modified structures: Horns, hooves, claws, hairs, etc. Chorioallantoic placenta
FUNGUS Armillaria ostoyae Largest Living Organism 2,200 acres (890 hectares) and be at least 2,400 years old AFRICAN ELEPHANT Loxodonta africana Largest Land Animal · In one year an elephant can drink 15,000 gal/57,000 liters of water · Male elephants usually weigh about 16,500 lbs/7,425 kgs and are about 20 ft/6.1m long BLUE WHALE Balaenoptera musculus Biggest Living Creature It takes about 8,000 lbs/3600kg of fresh seafood a day to keep the blue whale well fed Largest North American Cat mountain lion, cougar, puma, and panther, its scientific name - Felis concolor.
POLAR BEAR Ursus maritimus Largest Land Carnivore record was a male taken in 1894 that weighed 1,656lbs/745kgs CHEETAH Aconyx jubatus Fastest On Land These cats can run 70mph/112kph MADAGASCAR RADIATED TORTOISE Geochelone radiate Oldest Living Creature at least 188 years old Oldest Living Organism ANCIENT BACTERIA Bacillus permians = 250 –Million-yr-old PEREGRINE FALCON Falco Peregrinus Fastest in the Air They can fly horizontally at speeds up to 55 mph, but they BLOW AWAY the competition when flying in a downward dive to strike their prey - over 270 mph SAILFISH Istiophorus platypterus Fastest in the Sea sailfish is related to other "billed" fish, such as Marlin and Swordfish, which are all very fast. But the sailfish has them all beat by clocking in at speeds up to 68mph SEA WASP (Marine Stinger) Chironex fleckeri (jelly fish) Deadliest Creature The venom from a single creature can kill up to 60 adults! Over 100 people have been killed by the stings from a Chironex fleckeri and many more have been stung, but lived. Get stung badly enough by one and you could be dead within four minutes Giant Squid 10 meters (32.8 feet), and weighed 1,089 lbs. Colossal squid, named Mesonychoteuthis hamiltoni
ARCTIC LION'S MANE Cyanea capillata Giant Jellyfish measured was found washed ashore and had a 'bell' over 7ft. across with tentacles that dangled over 120ft long! That's even longer than the Blue Whale... SPERM WHALE Physeter macrocephalus Largest Ocean Carnivore orcas can reach up to 60 feet long and weigh over 40 tons (80,000 pounds)! The females are usually half the size of the male sperm whales GIANT MEKONG CATFISH Pangasius gigas Biggest Freshwater Fish The largest (authenticated) freshwater fish on record seems to be a giant Mekong Catfish captured in May of 2005 in Thailand. It was nine feet long and weighed 646 lbs WHALE SHARK Rhincodon typus Biggest Fish Location: Warm, temperate waters of the Atlantic, Pacific and Indian Oceans. Facts: This fish can get up to 50 feet long and can weigh over 16 tons. That gaping mouth can open as wide as five feet - enough to swallow YOU whole. Deepest Ocean Creatures Viper fish (Mesopelagic - found at 80-1600 meters - about a mile down) Some of them are black as night all over with light organs (called photophores) in strategic places on their bodies, including one on a long dorsal fin that serves as a lure for the fish it preys upon Here's an up close and personal view of the wicked-looking Viper fish (Chauliodus macouni). Check out the teeth and the bug eyes on this guy
Deep Sea Vent Creatures Some of the most impressive of the creatures are the giant tube-worms Giant tubeworms that live around hydrothermal vents on the sea floor. These creatures are about the size of your hand in shallower waters, but in the ocean's deep they have been found as big as eight feet long Most Ferocious Creature PIRANHA Pygocentrus nattereri Location: The Amazon River, and other large, slow-moving rivers in South America. Facts: Piranhas live in schools of about 20 fish and will take down a fish any size and clean the flesh off the bones within minutes There are approximately 20 species of piranha found living in the Amazon River, with only four or five of them posing any danger. Most piranha species are quite harmless and docile ANACONDA Eunectes murinus Biggest Snake Location: In rivers that feed into the Amazon River in South America. Facts: The largest anaconda ever measured was almost 28 feet long with a girth of 44 inches. She wasn't weighed at the time she was caught, but scientists estimate that she must have weighed over 500 lbs.
GOLIATH BEETLE Goliathus regius Klug Giant Insects Biggest Insect Location: Found in rainforests around the globe, in places like Costa Rica or the Amazon Jungle. Facts: Although there are other giant insects that are longer, or wider than the Goliath Beetle, this guy holds the record for biggest insect because of its mass (or weight). They can grow up to 4.5 inches (11.43 cm) long and weigh up to 3.5 ounces. GOLIATH TARANTULA Theraphosa blondii Biggest Spider
Location: This big guy is found in the coastal rainforests of northeastern South America, in the jungle. Facts: These spiders are a sub-species of tarantula, which are the largest spiders in the animal kingdom. The biggest goliath spider on record had a legspan that measured just over 11 inches across! That's big enough to cover a dinner plate.
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