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BOLETÍN
INSTITUTO ESPAÑOL DE OCEANOGRAFÍA

An annotated and updated checklist of the opisthobranchs (Mollusca: Gastropoda) from Spain and Portugal (including islands and archipelagos)
J. L. Cervera1, G. Calado2,3, C. Gavaia2,4*, M. A. E. Malaquias2,5, J. Templado6, M. Ballesteros7, J. C. García-Gómez8 and C. Megina1
Departamento de Biología Facultad de Ciencias del Mar y Ambientales Universidad de Cádiz Polígono Río San Pedro, s/n Apdo. 40, E-11510 Puerto Real, Cádiz, Spain. E-mail: lucas.cervera@uca.es
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Mollusca Research Group Department of Zoology The Natural History Museum Cromwell Road London SW7 5BD, United Kingdom Museo Nacional de Ciencias Naturales (CSIC) José Gutiérrez Abascal 2 E-28006 Madrid, Spain
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Instituto Português de Malacologia Zoomarine E. N. 125 km 65 Guia, P-8200-864 Albufeira, Portugal Centro de Modelação Ecológica Imar FCT/UNL Quinta da Torre P-2825-114 Monte da Caparica, Portugal Centro de Ciências do Mar Faculdade de Ciências do Mar e do Ambiente Universidade do Algarve Campus de Gambelas P-8000-010 Faro, Portugal
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Departamento de Biología Animal Facultad de Biología Universidad de Barcelona Avda. Diagonal 645 E-08028 Barcelona, Spain
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Laboratorio de Biología Marina Departamento de Fisiología y Zoología Facultad de Biología Universidad de Sevilla Avda. Reina Mercedes 6 Apdo. 1095, E-41012 Sevilla, Spain

*César Gavaia died on 3rd July 2003, in a car accident

Received January 2004. Accepted December 2004

ISSN: 0074-0195
MINISTERIO DE EDUCACIÓN Y CIENCIA
INSTITUTO ESPAÑOL DE OCEANOGRAFÍA

Edita (Published by): INSTITUTO ESPAÑOL DE OCEANOGRAFÍA Avda. de Brasil, 31. 28020 Madrid, España

Vol. 20 Núms. 1-4 Págs. 1-122 Madrid, España 2004

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Bol. Inst. Esp. Oceanogr. 20 (1-4). 2004: 3-4

BOLETÍN. INSTITUTO ESPAÑOL DE OCEANOGRAFÍA
ISSN: 0074-0195 © Instituto Español de Oceanografía, 2004

PREFACE

During the last decades, the living systems of our planet had experienced a sharp decline in biological diversity. The consequences of this process are not completely understood, but may have fundamental implications for the future of the biosphere and the wellbeing of the next generations. To deal with this crisis of planetary proportions we need instruments that allow us to understand the magnitude of the problem and predict its consequences. These tools draw from a comprehensive knowledge of biological diversity, including the evolutionary history and ecology of living organisms. The foundation of this knowledge are the taxonomic inventories of biological diversity and particularly the inventories of species, the basic units of biodiversity. Precisely at the time in which we are confronting a biodiversity crisis, is when taxonomy is also confronting its own survival crisis. The international scientific community has witnessed a decline in the number of taxonomists at the same time that other biological disciplines are flourishing. Some countries have reacted to the problem by creating scientific programs to promote the training of new taxonomists and the development of taxonomy through the investment of economic resource; PEET (Partenership for Enhacing Expertise in Taxonomy) in the USA is probably the best known. Some political leaders have realized that taxonomy is just too important to let it disappear as a scientific discipline. Unfortunately for some fields of taxonomy these programs come too late and in some cases there are no living experts who can identify organisms of several taxonomic groups. The field of Malacology in Spain and Portugal, and particularly the study of opisthobranchs in both countries, is one of the most noticeable exceptions to the rule. Thanks to the efforts of a small group of scientific pioneers in the 70s and 80s (Ros, Ortea, García-Gómez, Ballesteros, Talavera, Luque, Cervera, Templado, Urgorri, and others) the Iberian Peninsula has created the most prolific school of opisthobranch specialists in the world. At the present time, there are probably more active opisthobranch researchers in Spain and Portugal than in the rest of the countries together. This effort has also been reflected in a impressive number of publications, doctoral dissertations, and in the description of more than a hundred new species during the last 25 years.

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Ángel Valdés Gallego

Preface

The present monograph constitutes an excellent example of a comprehensive study of the marine diversity in a region with a great biological importance, and it constitutes the culmination of several decades of biological research. This publication has been possible thanks to the work of many and I hope it will become a model to follow in other regions in need of biological inventories.

Ángel Valdés Gallego Associate Curator of Malacology, Natural History Museum of Los Angeles County; Adjunct Professor, University of Southern California; Research Associate, California Academy of Sciences

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Bol. Inst. Esp. Oceanogr. 20 (1-4). 2004: 5-111

BOLETÍN. INSTITUTO ESPAÑOL DE OCEANOGRAFÍA
ISSN: 0074-0195 © Instituto Español de Oceanografía, 2004

An annotated and updated checklist of the opisthobranchs (Mollusca: Gastropoda) from Spain and Portugal (including islands and archipelagos)
J. L. Cervera 1, G. Calado 2,3, C. Gavaia 2,4*, M. A. E. Malaquias 2,5, J. Templado 6, M. Ballesteros 7, J. C. García-Gómez 8 and C. Megina 1
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Departamento de Biología, Facultad de Ciencias del Mar y Ambientales, Universidad de Cádiz, Polígono Río San Pedro, s/n, Apdo. 40, E-11510 Puerto Real, Cádiz, Spain. E-mail: lucas.cervera@uca.es 2 Instituto Português de Malacologia, Zoomarine, E.N. 125, km 65 Guia, P-8200-864 Albufeira, Portugal. 3 Centro de Modelação Ecológica Imar. FCT/UNL, Quinta da Torre, P-2825-114 Monte da Caparica, Portugal. 4 Centro de Ciências do Mar, Faculdade de Ciências do Mar e do Ambiente, Universidade do Algarve, Campus de Gambelas, P-8000-010 Faro, Portugal. 5 Mollusca Research Group, Department of Zoology, The Natural History Museum, Cromwell Road, London, SW7 5BD, United Kingdom. 6 Museo Nacional de Ciencias Naturales (CSIC). José Gutiérrez Abascal 2, E-28006 Madrid, Spain. 7 Departamento de Biología Animal, Facultad de Biología, Universidad de Barcelona, Avda. Diagonal 645, E-08028 Barcelona, Spain. 8 Laboratorio de Biología Marina, Departamento de Fisiología y Zoología, Facultad de Biología, Universidad de Sevilla, Apdo. 1095, Avda. Reina Mercedes 7, E-41080 Sevilla, Spain. Received Jannuary 2004. Accepted December 2004. ABSTRACT The present publication is a new annotated and updated checklist of the opisthobranchs (Mollusca, Gastropoda) from the Spanish and Portuguese coasts, including their Atlantic archipelagos (Azores, Madeira, Selvagens and Canary Islands). The bathyal species recorded from the continental shelf of all these areas are also included. Incorporating a review of the literature, 523 species are included on the present checklist, 23 belonging to Architectibranchia, 111 to Cephalaspidea s. s., 14 to Anaspidea, 4 to Acochlidiomorpha, 37 to Thecosomata, 7 to Gymnosomata, 43 to Sacoglossa, 3 to Umbraculoidea, 16 to Pleurobranchoidea and 265 to Nudibranchia: 127 Doridoidea, 42 Dendronotoidea, 9 Arminoidea, and 87 Aeolidoidea. The records these species have been divided into 12 geographic sectors: 1) Spanish coast on the Bay of Biscay; 2) Galicia; 3) mainland coast of Portugal; 4) Andalusian Atlantic coast; 5) Straits of Gibraltar, including Ceuta (northern Africa); 6) Andalusian Mediterranean coast, including Alborán Island; 7) Spanish Levant, from Cape Gata to Catalonia; 8) Catalonia, including the Columbretes Islands; 9) Balearic Islands; 10) Canary and Selvagens Islands; 11) Madeira; and 12) the Azores. The biogeographical relationships among these selected areas are discussed in the present paper’s Conclusions. Taxonomic comments about many of the taxa cited are also included. It is noteworthy that since 1975, a total of 117 specific taxa have been described as new to science in the studied area. Some of them are currently considered synonyms, and others are pending an adequate revision. Keywords: Opisthobranchs, Iberian Peninsula, Balearic Islands, Macronesia, checklist.

*Obituary note: César Gavaia died tragically on the 3rd of July 2003 in a car accident on his way home after collecting opisthobranchs on the Algarve coast. César was a student of Marine Biology at the University of the Algarve, where he was finishing his BSc thesis on southern Portuguese opisthobranchs. The present catalogue includes some of César’s results, which did not live to see published, and is a modest tribute to his valuable contribution to the study of the diversity and biology of these molluscs.

Bol. Inst. Esp. Oceanogr. 20 (2-5). 2006: 9-116

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Checklist of opisthobranchs from Spain and Portugal

RESUMEN Catálogo actualizado de los opistobranquios (Mollusca: Gastropoda) de España y Portugal, incluyendo islas y archipiélagos Se presenta un nuevo catálogo actualizado y comentado de los opistobranquios (Mollusca, Gastropoda) de España y Portugal, incluyendo sus archipiélagos atlánticos (Azores, Madeira, Salvajes y Canarias). Asimismo, se recogen las referencias relativas a especies batiales halladas en las proximidades de las plataformas continentales de las áreas consideradas. Se citan en total 523 especies, de las cuales 23 son Architectibranchia, 111 Cephalaspidea s. s., 14 Anaspidea, 4 Acochlidiomorpha, 37 Thecosomata, 7 Gymnosomata, 43 Sacoglossa, 3 Umbraculoidea, 16 Pleurobranchoidea y 265 Nudibranchia (127 Doridoidea, 42 Dendronotoidea, 9 Arminoidea y 87 Aeolidoidea). Con el fin de visualizar mejor la distribución geográfica de cada especie, las citas referentes a cada una se han dividido en 12 sectores (1: costas cantábricas, 2: costas gallegas, 3: costas continentales de Portugal, 4: costas atlánticas andaluzas, 5: costas del estrecho de Gibraltar, incluyendo las de Ceuta, 6: costas mediterráneas andaluzas, incluyendo la isla de Alborán, 7: costas del Levante español, desde el cabo de Gata hasta Cataluña, 8: costas catalanas, 9: Baleares, 10: islas Canarias y Salvajes, 11: Madeira, y 12: Azores). Con los datos obtenidos de la distribución de las especies por sectores, se presenta al final del trabajo un análisis biogeográfico. Se ofrecen, además, numerosos comentarios taxonómicos sobre muchos de los taxones mencionados. Cabe destacar que desde 1975 se han descrito en el área considerada 117 taxones nuevos de nivel específico, algunos de los cuales se consideran sinónimos en la actualidad o su validez está pendiente de una adecuada revisión. Todo ello se comenta en el apartado Remarks y en las conclusiones finales. Palabras clave: Opistobranquios, península Ibérica, islas Baleares, Macaronesia, catálogo.

INTRODUCTION The first checklist of opisthobranch molluscs from the Spanish coast was published by Joandomènec Ros (1976) and included 258 species. In that meritorious work, all previous records were listed, most of them being quite old (late 19th century and early 20th century) and mainly referring to shelled species. The author also included all of the records that he had obtained by himself whilst his doctoral thesis on Iberian opisthobranchs (Ros, 1973). Jesús Ortea also began to study these gastropods intensively and finished his doctoral thesis in 1977, mainly focusing on the Asturian opisthobranchs (Ortea, 1977c). With these two authors, Spanish malacology entered a golden era in the study of this broad and diversified group of gastropods, an era that continues to this day. The studies of Ros and Ortea fascinated many young researchers to the extent that they became interested in molluscs, including some of the present paper’s contributors. The Spanish Malacological Society had just been born (1980), paving the way for fruitful collaborations among those interested in the subject. A growing group of young malacologists that focused their investigations on opisthobranchs then arose. Soon, a number of Ph.D. theses followed the pioneering works of Ros and Ortea: Ballesteros (1980a), Urgorri (1981), Templado (1983), García-Gómez
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(1984a), Luque (1986), Medina (1986), García (1987), Cervera (1988) and Marín (1988). As a result of this accumulation of knowledge, the number of publications on opisthobranchs increased dramatically, often including the description of new species and bringing together considerable information on this group in Iberian waters. Therefore, it was decided to update and publish a new checklist of the opisthobranchs of the Iberian Peninsula, as well as the Balearic and Canary Islands (Cervera et al., 1988). Consequently, the total number of recorded species rose to 389, including data from Ceuta and Alborán Island. In turn, these researchers were training others, and the interest in opisthobranchs had already spread to Portugal by the time the Fauna Ibérica programme took its first steps. The incorporation of young Portuguese malacologists into the ‘team’ has been very productive, vastly increasing our store of knowledge on opisthobranchs in this southwestern part of the Iberian Peninsula, including the archipelagos of Madeira and the Azores. At the time, few records were available other than those of De Oliveira (1895) and Nobre (1896, 1932, 1936, 1938-40). Therefore, after this second checklist (Cervera et al., 1988) had appeared, the number of publications on opisthobranchs continued to rise, almost exponentially. The rhythm of descriptions of new species did not flag, despite all the progress made in the 1980s concerning

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Figure 1. Geographical study areas (most of them are delimited by arrows)

research on this group’s faunistic and taxonomic aspects. As a result of this, a new crop of Ph.D., MSc and Honours theses has been produced (Ávila Escartín, 1993; Álvarez Orive, 1994; Martínez Cueto-Felgueroso, 1995; Valdés, 1996; Malaquias, 1996, 2003; Giménez-Casalduero, 1997, Aguado, 2000; Megina, 2000; Calado, 2001; Sánchez Tocino, 2003; Grande, 2004). Furthermore, a checklist of opisthobranchs of the Canary Islands was published (Ortea et al., 2001), with 245 species being reported for this archipelago, including many new records. This checklist was updated later by Moro et al. (2003). This constant inflow of new information, together with the multiple changes incorporated due to taxonomic and phylogenetic revisions in many high-level taxa (Mikkelsen, 1996; Jensen, 1996, 1997; Valdés, 2001, 2002; Valdés and Gosliner, 1999, 2001; Wollscheid and Wägele, 1999; Wägele and Willan, 2000; WollscheidLengeling et al., 2001; Vonnemann et al., in press) or other key opisthobranch taxa (Schrödl and Wägele, 2001; Schrödl, Wägele and Willan, 2001), led us to the elaboration of the present updated checklist. Naturally, the percentage of papers devoted strictly to taxonomic and faunistic aspects dropped off, but new and more diversified lines of investigation arose, dealing with ecological and other bio-

logical aspects of malacology. It is not within the scope of the present checklist to detail all of these publications, but we would like to highlight the field research on opisthobranch chemical defences, since it was a result of the collaboration initiated in the 1980s with the Institute of Biomolecular Chemistry, in Naples, Italy, led by Guido Cimino. As an example, we cite the review papers by Ávila Escartín (1993), Marín et al. (1999), and Marín and Ros (2004), amongst others. In the present work, we only include those publications that feature chorological or taxonomic data. The geographical range of this checklist is larger than that of the two previous ones. It now includes the Portuguese archipelagos of Selvagens, Madeira, and the Azores, as well as bathyal species recorded close to the continental shelf of the study area. For each species, references are split by areas, as in the previous checklist by Cervera et al. (1988), but with two new ones corresponding to the Madeira and Azores archipelagos. The Selvagens archipelago was included in the area of the Canary Islands. The idea of splitting the Iberian Portuguese coast into two areas was initially considered, but a recent biogeographical analysis (Calado et al., 2003) based on all the opisthobranch records in that region did not corroborate such a division. Therefore, the defined areas, numbered 1 to 12 (figure 1), are as follows:

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1. Spanish coasts of the Bay of Biscay, from the French border to 6o W, near Concha de Artedo (Asturias region). 2. Galicia region and western Asturias, from 6o W to the Portuguese border. 3. Iberian Portuguese coasts. 4. Western Andalusia, from the Portuguese border to Cape Roche, Cadiz. 5. Straits of Gibraltar, from Cape Roche to Punta Chullera, Malaga. We include in this area the records from the Spanish city of Ceuta, on the African side of the Straits. 6. Iberian coasts of the Alborán Sea (eastern Andalusia), from Punta Chullera to Cape Gata, Almería. This area includes Alborán Island and its surrounding shelf. 7. Spanish Levant, from Cape Gata to the southern limit of Catalonia. This area includes the Columbretes Islands. 8. Catalonia, to the French border. 9. Balearic Islands. 10. Canary and Selvagens Islands. 11. Madeira Islands. 12. Azores Islands. The criteria chosen to define these areas are arbitrary, especially along coast of the Iberian Peninsula. These divisions were established based on the current knowledge and traditional sampling efforts as reported in some of the works cited above. The data compiled by area were used for a biogeographical analysis presented at the end of the present checklist. In the high-level taxa, the systematic arrangement followed is based upon the aforesaid recent phylogenetic studies. Nonetheless, one has to accept that such classifications, and the taxonomic rank assigned to each of the high-level taxa, are inevitably provisional until a stable classification of gastropods (and of opisthobranchs) can be established. In this sense, it has not been possible to assign a taxonomic rank to some of the recently proposed high-level taxa within nudibranchs, as Labiostomata, Porostomata or Dexiarchia. Moreover, those groups currently considered to be non-monophyletic are indicated by quotation marks. Furthermore, we point out the monophyly versus paraphyly of Opisthobranchia, which in the end involves its taxonomical validity. This subject is right now at the core of many scientific discussions.

Distinct phylogenetic analyses based both on morphological and molecular characters seem to indicate that opisthobranchs are not monophyletic (e.g., Haszprunar, 1985; Salvini-Plawen and Steiner, 1996; Ponder and Lindberg, 1997; Thöllesson, 1999a; Wollscheid and Wägele, 1999; and Dayrat and Tillier, 2002). In the meantime, we shall continue referring to the Opisthobranchia ‘group’ in the same sense as the term has been used in recent decades, even though in our view, this high-level taxon should be redefined, possibly with the inclusion of other Heterobranchia groups (such as the Siphonarioidea, previously considered basal pulmonates) if its monophyly or taxonomic validity are stretched (Grande et al., 2002, 2004a,b). The main changes adopted here regarding the traditional classification of opisthobranchs into eight/nine orders (see Thompson, 1976, one of the standard classifications) are the split of the classical Cephalaspidea into Cephalaspidea s. s. and Architectibranchia (according to Mikkelsen, 1996, 2002; Wägele, Vonnemann and Wägele, 2003; Grande et al., 2004b, among others), and the division of the traditional Notaspidea into Tylodinoidea and Pleurobrancoidea. This last division was proposed by Schmekel (1985) and Salvini-Plawen (1991), and later confirmed by several phylogenetic analyses based on morphological studies (Wägele and Willan, 2000) and molecular data (WollscheidLengeling et al., 2001; Wägele, Vonnemann and Wägele, 2003; Grande et al., 2004a,b; Vonnemann et al., in press). Although Rhodopemorpha has been considered an order of opisthobranchs since Salvini-Plawen’s research (1991) came to light, none of the species in this group has been found in the geographic area covered by the present checklist. For lower level taxa, our classification is based on multiple taxonomic and systematic contributions published since 1988. Details on all this information are given in the section Remarks; therefore, many of the taxa listed herein are followed by a reference number between brackets which corresponds to a comment in that section. The list of synonyms is not included. However, when the original name of the listed taxa in each reference is different from the one currently considered as valid, or some confusion with a different taxon may occur, this is noted.

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RESULTS Order ARCHITECTIBRANCHIA Haszprunar, 1985 Family Ringiculidae Meeck, 1862 (1) Genus Ringicula Deshayes, 1838 Ringicula auriculata (Ménard, 1811) 1: Hidalgo (1917), Ortea (1977c), Lastra et al. (1988). 2: Hidalgo (1917), Cadée (1968), Rolán (1983), Urgorri and Besteiro (1983). 3: De Oliveira (1895), Hidalgo (1917), Nobre (1936). 4: Hidalgo (1917), Templado et al. (1993b). 5: Hidalgo (1917), Rueda, Salas and Gofas (2000). 6: Hidalgo (1917). 7: Hidalgo (1917), García Raso et al. (1992). 8: Hidalgo (1917). 9: Hidalgo (1917). 10: Odhner (1931), Nordsieck (1972), Ortea et al. (2001), Moro et al. (2003). 11: McAndrew (1852), Watson (1897), Nobre (1937), Nordsieck (1972), Nordsieck and García-Talavera (1979). Ringicula buccinea (Brocchi, 1814) 1: Hidalgo (1917). 2: Rolán (1983). 3: De Oliveira (1895), Hidalgo (1917), Nobre (1936). 8: Altimira (1975, 1977a). Ringicula nitida Verrill, 1872 (2) 1: Hidalgo (1917), Pruvot-Fol (1954), Bouchet (1975, bathyal). 2: Hidalgo (1917), Hernández and Jiménez (1972), Bouchet (1975, bathyal). 3: Locard (1897, as R. leptocheila, bathyal), Hidalgo (1917), Nobre (1936, as R. leptocheila). 4: Hidalgo (1917). Ringicula conformis Monterosato, 1877 1: Hidalgo (1917), Ortea (1977c), Flor et al. (1981), Flor, Llera and Ortea (1982), Borja (1987). 2: Hidalgo (1917), Rolán (1983). 3: Hidalgo (1917), Nobre (1936). 4: Hidalgo (1917). 5: Aartsen, Menkhorst and Gittenberger (1984). 6: Sierra, García and Lloris (1978), Ballesteros et al. (1986).

7: Hidalgo (1917). 8: Altimira (1977b). 9: Hidalgo (1917). 10: Nordsieck (1978), Nordsieck and GarcíaTalavera (1979), Ortea et al. (2001), Moro et al. (2003), Rodríguez et al. (2003). 11: Nobre (1889), Nordsieck and García-Talavera (1979, as R. (Plicatra) conformis), Malaquias, Martínez and Abreu (2002). Ringicula someri De Folin, 1879 10: Nordsieck (1972), Nordsieck and García-Talavera (1979), Ortea et al. (2001), Moro et al. (2003). 11: Nobre (1889, 1894, 1937), Watson (1897), Nordsieck and García-Talavera (1979). Ringicula minutula Locard, 1897 (3) 8: Nordsieck (1972). 9: Nordsieck (1972). Ringicula blanchardi Dautzenberg and Fischer, 1896 1: Ciccone and Savona (1983). 2: Rolán and Pérez-Gándaras (1981, bathyal), Rolán (1983, bathyal). 3: Locard (1897, bathyal), Ciccone and Savona (1983). 12: Dautzenberg and Fischer (1896, 1897), Mikkelsen (1995), Malaquias (2001). Ringicula semistriata D’Orbigny, 1853 12: Nordsieck (1972), Mikkelsen (1995), Malaquias (2001). Family Acteonidae D’Orbigny, 1835 Genus Acteon Montfort, 1810 Acteon tornatilis (Linnaeus, 1758) 1: Bouchet (1975), Ortea (1977c), Flor et al. (1981), Flor, Llera and Ortea (1982), Borja (1987), Ávila Escartín (1993), Martínez and Andarraga (2003). 2: Hidalgo (1917), Cadée (1968), Hernández and Jiménez (1972), Nordsieck (1972, as Pseudacteon augustoi), Ortea (1977c), Rolán (1983), Urgorri and Besteiro (1983), Laborda and Maze (1987), Trigo and Otero (1987). 3: De Oliveira (1895), Hidalgo (1917), Nobre (1932, as Actaeon augustoi), Nobre (1936), WirzMangold and Wyss (1958). 4: Hidalgo (1917), Templado et al. (1993b).

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5: García-Gómez (1982), Aartsen, Menkhorst and Gittenberger (1984), Rueda, Salas and Gofas (2000). 6: Hidalgo (1917), Sierra, García and Lloris (1978), Luque (1983, 1986), Ocaña et al. (2000). 7: Hidalgo (1917). 8: Hidalgo (1917), Altimira (1975, 1976, 1980). 9: Hidalgo (1917), Gasull and Cuerda (1974). 10: Ortea et al. (2001), Moro et al. (2003). 12: Watson (1897), Nobre (1937), Nordsieck and García-Talavera (1979), Malaquias (2001). Acteon monterosatoi Dautzenberg, 1889 3: Locard (1897, bathyal), Nobre (1936, bathyal), Nordsieck (1972, bathyal). 6: Peñas et al. (in press). 8: Peñas and Giribet (2003). 12: Dautzenberg (1889), Dautzenberg and Fisher (1896, 1897), Nordsieck (1972, as Acteon (Metacteon)), Mikkelsen (1995), Malaquias (2001). Acteon incisus Dall, 1881 12: Dautzenberg and Fisher (1896), Mikkelsen (1995), Malaquias (2001). Genus Crenilabium Cossmann, 1889 Crenilabium exile (Forbes in Jeffreys, 1870) 1: Hidalgo (1917, as Acteon exilis), Pruvot-Fol (1954, as Lissacteon), Nordsieck (1972), Bouchet (1975, bathyal). 2: Bouchet (1975, bathyal). 6: Peñas et al. (in press). 9: Nordsieck (1972). 12: Dautzenberg (1889, as Acteon), Dautzenberg and Fisher (1896, 1897, as Acteon (Lisacteon)), Watson (1886, as Acteon), Nordsieck (1972, as Crenilabrum), Mikkelsen (1995), Malaquias (2001). Genus Pseudacteon Thiele, 1925 Pseudacteon luteofasciatus (Mühlfeldt, 1829) 8: De Chia (1911-1913), Altimira (1977b). Genus Japonacteon Taki, 1956 Japonacteon pusillus (MacGillivray, 1843) (4) 1: Bouchet (1975).

3: Locard (1897, as Acteon pusillus, bathyal), Hidalgo (1917, as Acteon), Nobre (1936, as Acteon), Nordsieck (1972, as Pseudacteon). 4: Bouchet (1975). 8: Ros (1975, as Pseudacteon). 10: Ortea et al. (2001), Moro et al. (2003). 11: Watson (1886, 1897, both as Acteon pusillus), Nobre (1937, as A. pusillus), Nordsieck and García-Talavera (1979, as A. pusillus), Nordsieck (1972, as Pseudactaeon pusillus). 12: Bouchet (1975), Mikkelsen (1995), Malaquias (2001). Genus Liocarenus Harris and Burrows, 1891 Liocarenus globulinus (Forbes, 1843) 8: Hidalgo (1917, as Acteon). 12: Watson (1886, as Acteon), Dautzenberg (1889, as Acteon), Nordsieck (1972), Mikkelsen (1995), Malaquias (2001). Genus Callostracon Hamlin, 1884 Callostracon amabile (Watson, 1883) 10: Nordsieck (1972), Nordsieck and García-Talavera (1979), Ortea et al. (2001), Moro et al. (2003). 11: Nordsieck (1972), Nordsieck and GarcíaTalavera (1979, as C. (Ovactaeonina) amabilis). 12: Watson (1883, 1886, both as Acteon), Dautzenberg (1889, as Acteon), Dautzenberg and Fisher (1897, as Acteon), Nordsieck (1972, as Callostracon (Ovacteonina)), Mikkelsen (1995), Malaquias (2001). Callostracon meeki (Dall, 1889) (5) 12: Nordsieck (1972, as Ovulacteon), Mikkelsen (1995, as Ovulacteon), Malaquias (2001, as Ovulacteon). Genus Acteonina D’Orbigny, 1850 Acteonina chariis (Watson, 1883) 12: Watson (1883, 1886, as Acteon), Dautzenberg (1889, as Acteon), Dautzenberg and Fisher (1897, as Acteon (Acteonina)), Nordsieck (1972, as Callostracon (Ovacteonina)), Mikkelsen (1995), Malaquias (2001). Genus Tomlinula Strand, 1932 Tomlinula turrita (Watson, 1886) 12: Bouchet (1975, as Mysouffa), Dautzenberg and Fisher (1896, as Acteon grimaldii), Mikkelsen (1995, as Mysouffa), Malaquias (2001, as Mysouffa).

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Genus Inopinodon Bouchet, 1975 Inopinodon azoricus (Locard, 1897) 12: Locard (1897), Bouchet (1975), Mikkelsen (1995), Malaquias (2001). Family Amplustridae Gray, 1847 (6) Genus Hydatina Schumacher, 1817 Hydatina physis (Gmelin, 1794) (7) 3: Macedo, Macedo and Borges (1999). 10: Nordsieck and García-Talavera (1979), PérezSánchez and Moreno (1990), Ortea et al. (2001), Moro et al. (2003), Wirtz and Debelius (2003). 11: Wirtz (1995b), Malaquias, Martínez and Abreu (2002), Wirtz and Debelius (2003). 12: Wirtz (1999), Malaquias (2001), Wirtz and Debelius (2003). Hydatina velum (Gmelin, 1794) (8) 7: ?Acuña (1981). 10: Odhner (1931, as H. stromfelti), Duffus and Johnston (1969, as H. stromfelti). Genus Micromelo Pilsbry, 1895 Micromelo undatus (Bruguière, 1792) 10: Nordsieck (1972), Nordsieck and GarcíaTalavera (1979), Ortea et al. (2001), Moro et al. (2003), Wirtz and Debelius (2003). 12: Nordsieck (1972), García-Talavera (1983), Mikkelsen (1995), Malaquias (2001), Wirtz and Debelius (2003).

Diaphana globosa (Lovén, 1846) (9) 1: Hidalgo (1917, as Diaphana hiemalis). Diaphana expansa Jeffreys, 1864 1: Hidalgo (1917), Pruvot-Fol (1954). 3: Nordsieck (1972). Diaphana seguenzae (Watson, 1886) 12: Watson (1886), Dautzenberg (1889, as Amphisphyra), Nordsieck (1972, as Toledonia seguenzae), Mikkelsen (1995), Malaquias (2001). Diaphana flava (Watson, 1897) 11: Watson (1897, as Amphisphyra flava), Nobre (1937, as A. flava), Nordsieck and García-Talavera (1979, as Micromelo flava), Schiøtte (1998), Malaquias (2004). Genus Colobocephalus M. Sars, 1870 Colobocephalus striatulus (Monterosato, 1874) 1: Hidalgo (1917), Nordsieck (1972, bathyal). 8: Peñas and Giribet (2003, as Philine striatula). Genus Colpodaspis M. Sars, 1870 Colpodaspis pusilla M. Sars, 1870 6: Peñas et al. (in press). 8: Peñas and Giribet (2003). Genus Rhinodiaphana Lemche, 1967 Rhinodiaphana ventricosa (Jeffreys, 1865) 6: Peñas et al. (in press). Family Retusidae Thiele, 1926 Genus Retusa Brown, 1827

Order CEPHALASPIDEA s. s. Mikkelsen, 1996 Family Diaphanidae Odhner, 1914 Genus Diaphana Brown, 1827 Diaphana minuta Brown, 1827 2: Cadée (1968), Rolán (1983). 6: Peñas et al. (in press). 8: Altimira (1977b). 10: Pruvot-Fol (1954), Nordsieck (1972), Nordsieck and García-Talavera (1979), Ortea et al. (2001), Moro et al. (2003). 11: McAndrew (1852, as Amphisphyra hyalina), Nordsieck and García-Talavera (1979, as Micromelo minuta).

Retusa truncatula (Bruguière, 1792) 1: Hidalgo (1917), Ortea (1975-76), Ortea (1977c), Flor et al. (1981), Flor, Llera and Ortea (1982), Borja (1987, as Cylichna semisulcata and R. truncatella). 2: Hidalgo (1917), Cadée (1968, as R. truncata), Rolán (1983, as R. semisulcata and R. truncatella), Urgorri and Besteiro (1983), Trigo and Otero (1987), Troncoso et al. (1988). 3: Hidalgo (1917), Nobre (1936), Nordsieck (1972), Saldanha (1974, as Acteocina truncatula), Burnay (1986), García-Gómez et al. (1991), Machado and Fonseca (1997, as R. cf. truncatella), Macedo, Macedo and Borges (1999).

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4: Hidalgo (1917), Sánchez-Moyano et al. (2000, as R. truncatella). 5: Hidalgo (1917), Aartsen, Menkhorst and Gittenberger (1984), Rueda, Salas and Gofas (2000). 6: Luque (1983, as R. semisulcata), Ballesteros et al. (1986), Salas and Hergueta (1986), Peñas et al. (in press). 7: Hidalgo (1917, as R. semisulcata), Olmo and Ros (1984), Rubio and Ros (1984), Templado, Talavera and Murillo (1997), Templado et al. (2002), García Raso et al. (1992). 8: De Sama (1916), Hidalgo (1917, as R. truncatella), Altimira (1975, as R. truncatella, 1976). 9: Hidalgo (1917, as R. semisulcata), Altimira (1972, also as R. semisulcata), Nordsieck (1972, as R. semisulcata and R. truncatella), Schröder (1978, as R. semisulcata), Luque and Templado (1981, as R. semisulcata), Ballesteros, Álvarez and Mateo (1986, also as R. semisulcata), Altaba (1993). 10: Nordsieck (1972), Nordsieck and García-Talavera (1979), Malaquias and Calado (1997), Malaquias (2000), Ortea et al. (2001, 2003), Moro et al. (2003). 11: Watson (1897, as Utriculus truncatulus), Nobre (1937, as Tornatina truncatula), Nordsieck (1972, as R. mariae), Nordsieck and García-Talavera (1979, as R. mariae), Malaquias et al. (2001). 12: Dautzenberg (1889, both as Tornatina truncatula and Tornatina mariei n. sp.), Nordsieck (1972 as Retusa (Coleophysis) mariei), Nordsieck and García-Talavera (1979 as Retusa mariae), Mikkelsen (1995), Morton et al. (1998), Ávila et al. (1998), Ávila (2000), Malaquias (2001). Retusa obtusa (Montagu, 1803) 1: Flor, Llera and Ortea (1982). 3: Hidalgo (1917). 7: Hidalgo (1917). 8: Hidalgo (1917). 9: Nordsieck (1972). Retusa leptoeneilema (Brusina, 1865) 9: Ballesteros, Álvarez and Mateo (1986). 10: Nordsieck and García-Talavera (1979), Malaquias and Calado (1997), Ortea et al. (2001), Moro et al. (2003). 11: Talavera (1978), Nordsieck and García-Talavera (1979, as R. leptoleynema), Malaquias et al. (2001). Retusa pellucida G. O. Sars, 1878 (10) 2: Cadée (1968). 6: Sierra, García and Lloris (1978, as R. truncatula cf. pellucida).

Retusa piriformis Monterosato, 1878 9: Nordsieck (1978). Retusa mammillata (Philippi, 1880) (11) 1: Hidalgo (1917, also as Retusa striatula), Ortea (I977c, as Mamilloretusa), Borja (1987, as Mamilloretusa in the latter work). 2: Sykes (1905, as C. hoernesi), Hidalgo (1917), Rolán (1983, as Mamilloretusa), Urgorri and Besteiro (1983). 3: Hidalgo (1917, as R. mammillata and R. striatula, the author also refers the occurrence of this species in southern Spain, although without precise the locality), Nobre (1938-40, as Tornatina mammillata), Malaquias and Morenito (2000). 5: Aartsen, Menkhorst and Gittenberger (1984), Rueda, Salas and Gofas (2000). 6: Moreno and Templado (1998), Peñas et al. (in press). 7: Templado et al. (2002). 8: De Chia (1911-13), Ros (1975), Altimira (1975, 1977b), Peñas and Giribet (2003). 9: Hidalgo (1917), Altimira (1972), Nordsieck (1972), Luque and Templado (1981). 10: Nordsieck (1972), Malaquias and Calado (1997), Ortea et al. (2001), Moro et al. (2003). 11: Nordsieck (1972, as Mamilloretusa mamillata), Nordsieck and García-Talavera (1979, as M. mamillata), Malaquias et al. (2001). Retusa obesa Jeffreys, 1880 (12) 3: Nordsieck (1972). Retusa tornata (Watson, 1880) 2: Hidalgo (1917), Rolán (1983). 10: Nordsieck (1972), Nordsieck and García-Talavera (1979), Ortea et al. (2001), Moro et al. (2003). 11: Watson (1886, 1897, as Utriculus tornatus), Nobre (1937, as Utriculus tornatus), Nordsieck (1972, as Semiretusa tornata), Nordsieck and García-Talavera (1979, as S. tornata), Malaquias et al. (2001). Retusa mariae (Dautzenberg, 1889) 10: Nordsieck and García-Talavera (1979), Ortea et al. (2001), Moro et al. (2003). Retusa leuca (Watson, 1883) 12: Watson (1883, 1886 as Utriculus leucus), Dautzenberg (1889, as Tornatina), Nordsieck (1972), Mikkelsen (1995), Malaquias (2001).

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Retusa multiquadrata Oberling, 1970 (13) 12: Mikkelsen (1995), Morton et al. (1998), Ávila et al. (1998), Malaquias (2001). Genus Cylichnina Monterosato, 1884

Cylichnina tenerifensis Nordsieck and GarcíaTalavera, 1979 10: Nordsieck and García-Talavera (1979), Ortea et al. (2001), Moro et al. (2003). Genus Volvulella Newton, 1891

Cylichnina umbilicata (Montagu, 1803) (14) 1: Hidalgo (1917), Ortea (1977c, as Cylichnina), Flor, Llera and Ortea (1982), Borja (1987, as Cylichnina subcylindrica and Cylichnina umbilicata). 2: Hidalgo (1917), Cadée (1968), Rolán (1983, as Cylichnina subcylindrica), Urgorri and Besteiro (1983). 3: Hidalgo (1917). 5: Hidalgo (1917), Aartsen, Menkhorst and Gittenberger (1984). 6: Luque (1983, as Cylichnina subcylindrica), Moreno and Templado (1998), Peñas et al. (in press). 7: Hidalgo (1917). 8: Hidalgo (1917), Altimira (1977b, as C. subcylindrica). 9: Nordsieck (1972, as C. subcylindrica), Ballesteros, Álvarez and Mateo (1986, as C. subcylindrica). 11: Watson (1897, as Cylichna umbilicata), Nobre (1937, as Tornatina umbilicata), Nordsieck and García-Talavera (1979, as Cylichnina subcylindrica). 12: Ávila and Azevedo (1996), Ávila et al. (1998), Ávila (2000), Malaquias (2001). Cylichnina nitidula (Lovén, 1846) 1: Ortea (1977c, bathyal), Borja (1987). 2: Hidalgo (1917) (as Retusa). 7: Hidalgo (1917) (as Retusa). 10: Ortea et al. (2001), Moro et al. (2003). 11: Locard (1897), Watson (1897, as Utriculus nitidulus), Nobre (1937, as Utriculus nitidulus), Talavera (1978, as Retusa nitidula), Nordsieck and García-Talavera (1979). Cylichnina robagliana (P. Fischer, 1874) 1: Hidalgo (1917, as Retusa). 3: Nordsieck (1972). Cylichnina crebrisculpta (Monterosato, 1884) 1: Hidalgo (1917). Cylichnina canariensis Nordsieck and GarcíaTalavera, 1979 10: Nordsieck and García-Talavera (1979), Ortea et al. (2001), Moro et al. (2003).

Volvulella acuminata (Bruguière, 1792) 1: Hidalgo (1917, as Volvula acuminata), Ortea (1977c, as Rhizorus acuminatus), Flor et al. (1981, as Rhizorus acuminatus), Borja (1987, as Rhizorus acuminatus). 2: Hidalgo (1917), Cadée (1968, as Rhizorus acuminatus), Rolán (1983, as Rhizorus acuminatus), Urgorri and Besteiro (1983, as Rhizorus acuminatus). 3: Hidalgo (1917). 5: Hidalgo (1917). 6: Hidalgo (1917). 7: Hidalgo (1917). 8: Hidalgo (1917), Altimira (1975, 1980, as Rhizorus acuminatus), Ros (1975, as Rhizorus acuminatus). Genus Pyrunculus Pilsbry, 1895 Pyrunculus ovatus (Jeffreys, 1870) 1: Pruvot-Fol (1954, as Retusa ovata), Bouchet (1975, bathyal). 2: Bouchet (1975, bathyal). 3: Nobre (1936), Nordsieck (1972), Bouchet (1975). 12: Watson (1886), Dautzenberg (1889), Dautzenberg and Fischer (1896, 1897), Locard (1897), Bouchet (1975), Mikkelsen (1995), Malaquias (2001). All authors as Cylichna ovata. Pyrunculus hoernesii (Weinkauff, 1866) 6: Moreno and Templado (1998), Peñas et al. (in press). Pyrunculus spretus (Watson, 1897) 11: Watson (1897, as Cylichna spreta), Nobre (1937, C. spreta), Nordsieck and García-Talavera (1979, as C. spreta), Malaquias et al. (2002), Malaquias (2004). Genus Relichna Bouchet, 1975 Relichna simplex (Locard, 1897) 12: Bouchet (1975), Mikkelsen (1995), Malaquias (2001).

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Family Cylichnidae Rudman, 1978 Genus Acteocina Gray, 1847 Acteocina protracta (Dautzenberg, 1889) 12: Dautzenberg (1889, as Tornatina), Dautzenberg and Fischer (1896, 1897, as Tornatina), Mikkelsen (1995), Malaquias (2001). Acteocina pusillina Locard, 1897 1: Nordsieck (1972). Genus Cylichna Lovén, 1846 Cylichna cylindracea (Pennant, 1777) 1: Hidalgo (1917), Ortea (1977c), Flor et al. (1981), Flor, Llera and Ortea (1982), Lastra et al. (1988), Martínez and Andarraga (2003). 2: Hidalgo (1917), Cadée (1968), Hernández and Jiménez (1972), Rolán (1983), Urgorri and Besteiro (1983), Trigo and Otero (1987). 3: De Oliveira (1895), Hidalgo (1917), Nobre (1936). 4: Hidalgo (1917). 5: Hidalgo (1917), Aartsen, Menkhorst and Gittenberger (1984). 6: Luque (1983, 1986), Moreno and Templado (1998), Peñas et al. (in press). 7: Hidalgo (1917), Rubio and Ros (1984). 8: Hidalgo (1917), Ros (1975), Altimira (1977b). 9: Hidalgo (1917), Altimira (1972), Schroder (1978). 10: Nordsieck (1972), Nordsieck and GarcíaTalavera (1979), Ortea et al. (2001), Moro et al. (2003), Rodríguez et al. (2003). 11: McAndrew (1852), Nobre (1895), Locard (1897), Watson (1897), Nobre (1937), Nordsieck (1972), Nordsieck and GarcíaTalavera (1979), Malaquias et al. (2001), Malaquias, Martínez and Abreu (2002). 12: Pilsbry (1895), Sykes (1904), Nordsieck (1972), Mikkelsen (1995), Ávila et al. (1998), Ávila (2000), Malaquias (2001). Cylichna alba (Brown, 1827) 1: Hidalgo (1917), Pruvot-Fol (1954). 3: Nordsieck (1972). 9: Nordsieck (1972), Altimira (1973), Luque and Templado (1981), Altaba and Traveset (1985). 12: Watson (1886), Sykes (1904), Nordsieck (1972), Mikkelsen (1995), Ávila et al. (1998), Malaquias (2001).

Cylichna crossei (Bucquoy, Dautzenberg and Dolfus, 1886) 8: Altimira (1975), Ros (1975). 9: Altimira (1972), Altaba and Traveset (1985). Cylichna richardi (Dautzenberg, 1889) (15) 3: Locard (1897, as Tornatina mirabilis), Nobre (1936, bathyal), Nordsieck (1972). 12: Dautzenberg (1889, as Cylichna richardi), Dautzenberg and Fischer (1897, as Cylichna), Nordsieck (1972), Mikkelsen (1995), Malaquias (2001). Cylichna propecylindracea (De Gregorio, 1890) 10: Nordsieck and García-Talavera (1979), Ortea et al. (2001), Moro et al. (2003), Rodríguez et al. (2003). Cylichna piettei Dautzenberg and Fisher, 1896 12: Dautzenberg and Fischer (1896, 1897), Mikkelsen (1995), Malaquias (2001). Cylichna chevreuxi Dautenberg, 1889 12: Dautzenberg (1889), Dautzenberg and Fischer (1896, 1897), Nordsieck (1972), Mikkelsen (1995), Malaquias (2001). Genus Scaphander Montfort, 1810 Scaphander lignarius (Linnaeus, 1758) 1: Hidalgo (1917), Bouchet (1975), Ortea (1977c), Borja (1987), Lastra et al. (1988), Ávila Escartín (1993), Martínez et al. (1993), Martínez and Andarraga (2003). 2: Hidalgo (1917), Cadée (1968), Hernández and Jiménez (1972), Bouchet (1975), Rolán (1983), Urgorri and Besteiro (1983). 3: De Oliveira (1895), Hidalgo (1917), Nobre (1983). 4: Hidalgo (1917), Templado et al. (1993b). 5: Hidalgo (1917), Aartsen, Menkhorst and Gittenberger (1984), Rueda, Salas and Gofas (2000). 6: Hidalgo (1917), Sánchez Tocino, Ocaña and García (2000a), Ocaña et al. (2000), Peñas et al. (in press). 7: Hidalgo (1917), Templado, Talavera and Murillo (1983). 8: Hidalgo (1917), Altimira (1975, 1977b), Ros (1975). 9: Hidalgo (1917). 10: Nordsieck and García-Talavera (1979), Ortea et al. (2001), Moro et al. (2003). 11: Nordsieck and García-Talavera (1979).

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Scaphander punctostriatus (Mighels and Adams, 1842) 1: Hidalgo (1917), Nordsieck (1972), Bouchet (1975, bathyal), Borja (1987), Martínez et al. (1993). 3: Locard (1897, bathyal). 8: Ros (1975), Giribet and Peñas (1997). 10: Ortea et al. (2001), Moro et al. (2003). 12: Watson (1886), Dautzenberg (1889), Dautzenberg and Fischer (1896, 1897), Locard (1897), Nordsieck (1972), Bouchet (1975), Mikkelsen (1995), Malaquias (2001). Scaphander gracilis Watson, 1883 12: Watson (1883, 1886), Dautzenberg (1889), Dautzenberg and Fischer (1896, 1897), Locard (1897), Nordsieck (1972), Bouchet (1975), Mikkelsen (1995), Malaquias (2001). Scaphander nobilis Verrill, 1884 12: Bouchet (1975), Mikkelsen (1995), Malaquias (2001). Genus Meloscaphander Schepman, 1913 Meloscaphander imperceptus Bouchet, 1975 12: Bouchet (1975), Mikkelsen (1995), Malaquias (2001). Genus Roxania Leach in Gray, 1847 Roxania utriculus (Brocchi, 1814) 1: Bouchet (1975). 2: Urgorri and Besteiro (1983). 3: Hidalgo (1917, as Atys), Nobre (1936, as Bulla), Bouchet (1975), Machado and Fonseca (1997). 6: Sierra, García and Lloris (1978). 7: Hidalgo (1917). 8: Hidalgo (1917), Altimira (1977b). 9: Hidalgo (1917). 10: Nordsieck (1972), Nordsieck and GarcíaTalavera (1979), Ortea et al. (2001), Moro et al. (2003). 11: Nordsieck and García-Talavera (1979). Roxania pinguicola (Seguenza, 1879) (16) 1: Nordsieck (1972), Bouchet (1975, as Bulla ? abyssicola). 3: Locard (1897, as Bulla pinguicola), Nobre (1936, bathyal), Nordsieck (1972, as B. subrotunda).

12: Watson (1886), Dautzenberg (1889), Nordsieck (1972), Mikkelsen (1995), Malaquias (2001). All authors but Nordsieck (1972) as Bulla pinguicula. Roxania monterosatoi Dautzenberg and Fischer, 1896 12: Dautzenberg and Fischer (1896, 1897), Mikkelsen (1995), Malaquias (2001). Family Philinidae Gray, 1850 Genus Philine Ascanius, 1772 Philine aperta (Linnaeus, 1767) 1: Hidalgo (1917), Ortea (1977c, as P. quadripartita), Flor et al. (1981, as P. quadripartita), Borja (1987), Lastra et al. (1988), Ávila Escartín (1993). 2: Hidalgo (1917), Margalef (1958), Cadee, (1968), Hernández and Jiménez (1972), Rolán (1983), Urgorri and Besteiro (1983), Laborda and Maze (1987). 3: De Oliveira (1895), Hidalgo (1917), Nobre (1936), Saldanha (1974), Calvário (1986), García-Gómez et al. (1991, as P. cf. aperta), Machado and Fonseca (1997), Calado et al. (1999), Malaquias and Morenito (2000, as P. cf. aperta). 4: Hidalgo (1917). 5: Rueda, Salas and Gofas (2000). 6: Hidalgo (1917), Luque (1983, 1986), Ávila Escartín (1993). 7: Hidalgo (1917), Murillo and Talavera (1983), Olmo and Ros (1984), Templado, Talavera and Murillo (1987), Marín and Ros (1987), García Raso et al. (1992). 8: Hidalgo (1917), Altimira (1976, 1980, as P. quadripartita), Ros (1975, as P. quadripartita), Ávila Escartín (1993). 9: Hidalgo (19I7), Altimira (1972), Luque and Templado (1981). 10: Moro et al. (2003). 11: McAndrew (1852), Watson (1897), Nobre (1937), Nordsieck and García-Talavera (1979, as P. quadripartita), Linden (1995), Malaquias, Martínez and Abreu (2002). Philine scabra (O. F. Müller, 1776) 1: Hidalgo (1917). 2: Hidalgo (1917), Cadée (1968), Rolán (1983).

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3: Hidalgo (1917), Nordsieck (1972), Bouchet (1975, bathyal). 5: Aartsen, Menkhorst and Gittenberger (1984). 6: Moreno and Templado (1998). 8: Tomas (1909), De Chia (1911-13), Altimira (1976, 1977a, 1980). 10: Nordsieck and García-Talavera (1979), Ortea et al. (2001), Moro et al. (2003). 11: Watson (1897), Nobre (1937), Malaquias, Martínez and Abreu (2002). Philine punctata (J. Adams, 1800) 2: Cadée (1968), Rolán (1983), Urgorri and Besteiro (1983), Troncoso et al. (1988). 3: Hidalgo (1917), Machado and Fonseca (1997, as P. cf. punctata). 5: Aartsen, Menkhorst and Gittenberger (1984). 6: Peñas et al. (in press). 8: Peñas and Giribet (2003). Philine catena (Montagu, 1803) 1: Hidalgo (1917), Ortea (1977c), Flor, Llera and Ortea (1982). 2: Hidalgo (1917), Cadée (1968), Rolán (1983), Urgorri and Besteiro (1983). 3: Machado and Fonseca (1997, as P. cf. catena). 5: Aartsen, Menkhorst and Gittenberger (1984). 6: Hidalgo (1917), Luque (1983, 1986), Peñas et al. (in press). 7: Hidalgo (1917), Templado (1982b, 1983, 1984), Rubio and Ros (1984). 8: Ros (1975). 9: Hidalgo (1917), Altimira (1972), Luque and Templado (1981). 10: Pruvot-Fol (1954), Nordsieck (1972), Nordsieck and García-Talavera (1979), Ortea et al. (2001), Moro et al. (2003). 11: Nordsieck and García-Talavera (1979), Malaquias, Martínez and Abreu (2002). Philine lima (Brown, 1827) 2: Rolán (1983, refers this species to Galicia Bank, bathyal as P. cf. lima). 12: Dautzenberg (1889), Nordsieck (1972), Mikkelsen (1995), Malaquias (2001). Philine quadrata Wood, 1839 1: Pruvot-Fol (1954, as Laona), Ortea (1977c, as Laona). 2: Urgorri and Besteiro (1983).

3: Nordsieck (1972, as Laona). 12: Watson (1886), Dautzenberg (1889), Nordsieck (1972, as Laona (Ossiania)), Mikkelsen (1995), Linden (1995), Ávila et al. (1998), Ávila (2000), Malaquias (2001). Philine angulata Jeffreys, 1867 6: Templado and Moreno (1998), Peñas et al. (in press). 10: Moro et al. (2003). Philine intricata Monterosato, 1884 3: Linden (1994). 6: Moreno and Templado (1998), Peñas et al. (in press). 10: Linden (1994), Ortea et al. (2001), Moro et al. (2003). 12: Linden (1994, 1995), Malaquias (2001). Philine monterosatoi Vayssière, 1885 (17) 1: Hidalgo (1917), Bouchet (1975, bathyal). 3: Hidalgo (1917), Nordsieck (1972, as Phillingwynia). 8: Hidalgo (1917). 11: Nordsieck (1972, as Philingwynia monterosati), Nordsieck and García-Talavera (1979), Malaquias et al. (2001). Philine approximans Dautzenberg and Fischer, 1896 12: Dautzenberg and Fischer (1896, 1897), Bouchet (1975), Mikkelsen (1995), Malaquias (2001). Philine azorica Bouchet, 1975 12: Bouchet (1975), Mikkelsen (1995), Malaquias (2001). Philine monilifera Bouchet, 1975 12: Bouchet (1975), Mikkelsen (1995), Linden (1995 as P. cf. monilifera), Malaquias (2001). Philine rugulosa Dautzenberg and Fischer, 1896 12: Dautzenberg and Fischer (1896), Malaquias (2001). Philine calva Linden, 1995 10: Moro et al. (2003). 12: Linden (1995), Malaquias (2001). Philine condensa Linden, 1995 10: Moro et al. (2003). 12: Linden (1995), Malaquias (2001).

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Philine complanata Watson, 1897 11: Watson (1897), Nobre (1937), Nordsieck and García-Talavera (1979), Malaquias (2004). Philine desmotis Watson, 1897 11: Watson (1897), Nobre (1937), Nordsieck and García-Talavera (1979), Malaquias et al. (2001), Malaquias (2004). Philine trachyostraca Watson, 1897 11: Watson (1897), Nobre (1937), Nordsieck and García-Talavera (1979), Malaquias (2004). Philine iris Tringali, 2001 5: Moreno and Templado (1998, as Philine sp.). 6: Moreno and Templado (1998, as Philine sp.). 7: Moreno and Templado (1998, as Philine sp.). 10: Ortea et al. (2003). Genus Laona A. Adams, 1865 Laona pruinosa (Clark, 1837) 3: Nordsieck (1972). Family Philinoglossidae Hoffmann, 1833 Genus Philinoglossa Hertling, 1932 Philinoglossa helgolandica Hertling, 1932 2: Urgorri and Besteiro (1983). Family Gastropteridae Swainson, 1840 Genus Gastropteron Koose, 1813 Gastropteron rubrum (Rafinesque, 1814) 1: Bouchet (1975), Ortea (1977c). 2: Ros (1975). 3: García-Gómez et al. (1991), Macedo, Macedo and Borges (1999). 4: Templado et al. (1993b). 5: Templado et al. (1993b). 7: Ávila Escartín (1993), Templado et al. (2002). 8: Ávila Escartín (1993). 9: Ávila Escartín (1993), Ballesteros and Templado (1996). All records except that of Bouchet (1975) are referred to G. meckeli. Family Aglajidae Renier, 1807 Genus Aglaja Renier, 1807

Aglaja tricolorata Renier, 1807 4: Martínez et al. (1993), Cervera (unpubl. data). 6: Moreno and Templado (1998), Sánchez Tocino, Ocaña and García (2000a), Ocaña et al. (2000), Wirtz and Debelius (2003, as Aglaja). 7: Marín and Ros (1987). 10: Ortea and Moro (1998b), Ortea et al. (2001), Moro et al. (2003). Genus Chelidonura A. Adams, 1850 Chelidonura africana Pruvot-Fol, 1953 (18) 3: Gavaia et al. (2004). 5: García-Gómez and García (1984b). 6: Ballesteros et al. (1986, as C. italica). 7: Templado, Talavera and Murillo (1983), Templado et al. (2002), Marín and Ros (1987), Martínez et al. (1993, as C. italica), García Raso et al. (1992, as C. italica). 10: Ortea, Moro and Espinosa (1996), Ortea et al. (2001), Martínez, Malaquias and Cervera (2002), Moro et al. (2003). 11: Malaquias et al. (2001), Malaquias, Martínez and Abreu (2002), Martínez, Malaquias and Cervera (2002). Chelidonura leopoldoi Ortea, Moro and Espinosa, 1996 10: Ortea, Moro and Espinosa (1996), Ortea et al. (2001), Moro et al. (2003). Genus Odontoaglaja Rudman, 1978 Odontoaglaja sabadiega (Ortea, Moro and Espinosa, 1996) (19) 10: Moro et al. (2003), Ortea, Moro and Espinosa (2003). 11: Ortea, Moro and Espinosa (1996, as Chelidonura). Genus Melanochlamys Cheeseman, 1881 Melanochlamys maderense (Watson, 1897) 10: Ortea and Moro (1998b), Ortea et al. (2001), Moro et al. (2003). 11: Watson (1897, as Doridium maderense), Nobre (1937, as D. maderense), Nordsieck and García-Talavera (1979, as Philine maderense), Gosliner (1980), Ortea and Moro (1998a), Malaquias (2004). Melanochlamys wildpretti Ortea, Bacallado and Moro, 2003 10: Ortea, Bacallado and Moro (2003).

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Genus Philinopsis Pease, 1860 Philinopsis depicta (Renier, 1807) (20) 3: Calado (unpubl. data). 4: Templado et al. (1993b). 6: Moreno and Templado (1998), Sánchez Tocino, Ocaña and García (2000a), Ocaña et al. (2000). 7: Marín and Ros (1987, as Aglaja), Martínez et al. (1993). 8: Ros (1975, as Doridium carnosum), Moreno and Templado (1998). 10: Ortea and Moro (1998b), Ortea et al. (2001), Moro et al. (2003). Aglajidae incerta sedis Doridium ? laurentianum Watson, 1897 (21) 11: Watson (1897), Malaquias, Martínez and Abreu (2002, as Aglaja), Malaquias (2004). Family Runcinidae H. and A. Adams, 1854 Genus Runcina Forbes and Hanley, 1853 Runcina coronata (Quatrefages, 1844) (22) 1: Ortea (1977c), Ballesteros and Ortea (1981). 2: Ballesteros and Ortea (1981), Urgorri and Besteiro (1983). 3: Calado et al. (1999, 2005). 4: García-Gómez, et al. (1986, as R. aurata), Templado et al. (1993a). 5: García-Gómez et al. (1989), Cervera, GarcíaGómez and García (1991), Sánchez-Moyano et al. (2000). 6: Luque (1983, 1986), García-Gómez et al. (1989, as R. aurata), Salas and Hergueta (1986, 1987). 7: Templado (1982b, 1983, 1984), Marín and Ros (1987). 12: Gosliner (1990), Mikkelsen (1995), Ávila (2000) (all these authors refer to this species as R. aurata García et al., 1986 which is a junior synonym of R. coronata. For a discussion see Cervera, García-Gómez and García (1991: 200-201)) and Malaquias (2001). Runcina ornata (Quatrefages, 1844) (23) 5: García et al. (1986, as R. coronata), Cervera, García-Gómez and García (1991). 10: Malaquias and Calado (1997), Malaquias, Martínez and Abreu (2002). Runcina capreensis Mazarelli, 1892 (24) 6: Ballesteros et al. (1986, as R. cf. capreensis).

7: Templado, Talavera and Murillo (1983, as R. cf. capreensis), Marín and Ros (1987a), García Raso et al. (1992). 8: Ballesteros and Ortea (1981). Runcina africana Pruvot-Fol, 1953 5: Cervera, García-Gómez and García (1991). 10: Ortea et al. (2001), Moro et al. (2003). Runcina ferruginea Kress, 1977 1: Ortea and Moro (1999). 2: Ortea and Urgorri (1981b), Fernández-Ovies (1983). 3: García-Gómez et al. (1991), Calado et al. (1999), Ortea and Moro (1999). 5: García-Gómez et al. (1989), Cervera, García-Gómez and García (1991), Sánchez-Moyano et al. (2000). 7: Marín and Ros (1987). Runcina adriatica Thompson, 1980 (25) 10: Malaquias and Calado (1997), Ortea et al. (2001), Moro et al. (2003). 12: Gosliner (1990), Mikkelsen (1995), Ávila (2000), Malaquias (2001), Ávila et al. (in press, as R. cf. adriatica). Runcina falciforme Ortea, Rodríguez and Valdés, 1990 10: Ortea, Bacallado and Pérez Sánchez (1990), Ortea et al. (2001, 2003), Moro et al. (2003), Ortea et al. (2003). Runcina paupera Ortea, Rodríguez and Valdés, 1990 10: Ortea et al. (2001), Moro et al. (2003). Runcina macrodenticulata García, García-Gómez and López de la Cuadra, 1990 (23) 5: García, García-Gómez and López de la Cuadra (1990), Cervera, García-Gómez and García (1991). Runcina bahiensis Cervera, García-Gómez and García, 1991 5: Cervera, García-Gómez and García (1991), SánchezMoyano et al. (2000), Templado et al. (1993a). Runcina genciana Ortea and Nicieza, 1999 10: Ortea and Nicieza (1999), Ortea et al. (2001), Moro et al. (2003). Runcina hidalgoensis Ortea and Moro, 1999 10: Ortea and Moro (1999), Ortea et al. (2001), Moro et al. (2003).

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12: Gosliner (1990), Mikkelsen (1995), Ávila (2000) (all these authors referred to this species as Runcina sp.), Ortea and Moro (1999), Malaquias (2001). Runcina medanensis Ortea and Moro, 1999 10: Ortea and Moro (1999), Ortea et al. (2001), Moro et al. (2003). Runcina palominoi Ortea and Moro, 1999 10: Ortea and Moro (1999), Ortea et al. (2001), Moro et al. (2003). Family Bullidae Lamarck, 1801 (26) Genus Bulla Linnaeus, 1758 Bulla striata Bruguière, 1792 (27) 2: Ortea (1977c). 3: De Oliveira (1895), Hidalgo (1917), Nobre (1938-40), Ferreira (1966, as Bullaria), Silvestre, Baptista and Jorge (1979), Silvestre and Baptista (1980), Calvario (1986, 1995), Macedo, Macedo and Borges (1999), Muzavor and Morenito (1999), Malaquias and Morenito (2000). 4: Hidalgo (1917), Álvarez Orive (1994). 5: Hidalgo (1917), Nordsieck (1972, as B. dactylis), García-Gómez (1982), Aartsen, Menkhorst and Gittenberger (1984), Rueda, Salas and Gofas (2000). 6: Hidalgo (1917), Sierra, García and Lloris (1978), Luque (1983, 1986), Ballesteros et al. (1986), Sánchez Tocino, Ocaña and García (2000a), Ocaña et al. (2000). 7: Hidalgo (1917), Templado (1982b, 1983), García Raso et al. (1992), Álvarez Orive (1994), Murillo and Templado (1998). 8: Hidalgo (1917), Altimira (1976, 1977b). 9: Altimira (1972), Nordsieck (1972), Ros (1975), Luque and Templado (1981), Altaba (1993). 10: Nordsieck (1972), Nordsieck and García-Talavera (1979) (all these authors referred to this species either as B. occidentalis, B. mabillei cf. dactylis or B. adansoni), Ortea et al. (2001), Moro et al. (2003). 11: Nordsieck (1972, as Bulla dactylis Menke, 1853). 12: Drouët (1858), Dautzenberg (1889), Rush (1891), Nordsieck (1972), García-Talavera (1983), Mikkelsen (1995), Ávila et al. (1998), Ávila (2000), Malaquias (2001). Bulla amygdala Dillwyn, 1816 3: Macedo, Macedo and Borges (1999).

10: Nordsieck and García-Talavera (1979), Ortea et al. (2001), Moro et al. (2003), Wirtz and Debelius (2003). 11: Wirtz and Debelius (2003). Bulla semilaevis Seguenza, 1879 (28) 3: Locard (1897, as B. guernei), Nordsieck (1972, bathyal), Bouchet (1975, as Roxania ?semilaevis). 12: Watson (1886, as Bulla), Dautzenberg (1889, as Bulla guernei and also as Bulla semilaevis), Dautzenberg and Fischer (1896, 1897 as Bulla guernei), Nordsieck (1972, as Bulla (Leucophysena)), Mikkelsen (1995, as “Bulla” semilaevis), Malaquias (2001). Bulla mabillei Locard, 1896 10: Odhner (1931), Nordsieck (1972), Talavera (1978), Nordsieck and García-Talavera (1979), Ortea et al. (2001), Pérez Sánchez and Moreno (1990), Malaquias and Calado (1997), Malaquias (2000, as B. amygdala), Malaquias, Martínez and Abreu (2002), Moro et al. (2003). 11: Watson (1897, as Bulla punctata A. Adams, 1868), Nobre (1937, as B. punctata), Nordsieck (1972), Nordsieck and García-Talavera (1979), Malaquias, Martínez and Abreu (2002). Bulla millepunctata Locard, 1897 1: Nordsieck (1972). 3: Nordsieck (1972). Family Haminoeidae Pilsbry, 1895 Genus Haminoea Turton and Kingston, 1830 Haminoea hydatis (Linnaeus, 1758) (29) 2: Hernández and Jiménez (1972), Rolán (1983). 3: De Oliveira (1895, as Bulla hydatis), Ferreira (1966), Silvestre, Baptista and Jorge (1979), Silvestre and Baptista (1980), Calvário (1986), Reis et al. (1986), Santos, Castro and Raimundo (1986), García-Gómez et al. (1991), Gamito (1994), Muzavor and Morenito (1999). 4: Cervera and García-Gómez (1986). 5: García-Gómez (1982), Aartsen, Menkhorst and Gittenberger (1984). 6: Luque (1983, 1986), Salas and Luque (1986), Álvarez Orive (1994), Peñas et al. (in press). 7: Acuña (1981), Templado (1982b, 1983, 1984), Murillo and Talavera (1983), Olmo and Ros (1984), Talavera, Murillo and Templado (1987), Templado et al. (2002), Marín and Ros (1987), García Raso et al. (1992), Álvarez Orive (1994).

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8: Maluquer (1904, 1907), De Chia (1911-13), De Sama (1916), Altimira (1976), Altimira, Huelin and Ros (1981), Huelin and Ros (1984). 9: Altimira (1972), Nordsieck (1972), Gasull and Cuerda (1974), Ballesteros, Álvarez and Mateo (1986, and also as H. cymoelium). 10: Nordsieck and García-Talavera (1979), Ortea et al. (2001), Talavera (1978), Malaquias and Calado (1997), Malaquias, Martínez and Abreu (2002), Moro et al. (2003). 11: Watson (1897, as Bulla (Haminea) hydatis), Nobre (1937, as Haminea hydatis), Nordsieck and García-Talavera (1979, as Haminaea hydatis). 12: García-Talavera (1983), Mikkelsen (1995), Ávila et al. (1998, as H. cf hydatis), Ávila (2000), Malaquias (2001). Haminoea navicula (Da Costa, 1778) (30) 1: Ortea (1975-76, 1977c). 2: Cadée (1968), Ortea (1977c), Rolán (1983), Urgorri and Besteiro (1983). 3: De Oliveira (1895), Nobre (1936), Machado and Fonseca (1997), Malaquias (2003), Malaquias and Cervera (in press). 6: Peñas et al. (in press). 7: Templado, Talavera and Murillo (1983), Murillo and Talavera (1983), Olmo and Ros (1984), Talavera, Murillo and Templado (1987). 8: Maluquer (1904, 1907), De Chia (1911-13), Ros and Altimira (1977). Haminoea orbignyana (Férussac, 1822) 2: Rolán (1983), Álvarez Orive (1994). 3: Hidalgo (1917, as H. elegans), Nobre (1938-40, as H. elegans), Malaquias (2003), Malaquias et al. (2004), Malaquias and Sprung (in press), Malaquias and Cervera (in press). 4: Álvarez Orive (1994). 6: Ballesteros et al. (1986). 7: Murillo and Talavera (1983), Templado, Talavera and Murillo (1983), Olmo and Ros (1984), Talavera, Murillo and Templado (1987), García Raso et al. (1992), Álvarez Orive (1994). 8: Ballesteros (1984a, as H. navicula). 9: Gasull and Cuerda (1974). 10: Nordsieck (1972), Nordsieck and García-Talavera (1979), Ortea et al. (2001), Moro et al. (2003). Haminoea elegans Leach, 1852 (31) 10: Ortea et al. (2001), Moro et al. (2003).

Haminoea orteai Talavera, Murillo and Templado, 1987 6: Ballesteros et al. (1986). 7: Talavera, Murillo and Templado (1987), García Raso et al. (1992), Templado et al. (1993a), Álvarez Orive (1994). 10: Malaquias and Calado (1997, as H. cf. orteai), Ortea et al. (2001, 2003), Malaquias, Martínez and Abreu (2002), Moro et al. (2003), Wirtz and Debelius (2003). 12: Mikkelsen (1995), Morton et al. (1998), Ávila et al. (1998), Ávila (2000), Malaquias (2001), Wirtz and Debelius (2003). Haminoea callidegenita Gibson and Chia, 1989 1: Álvarez et al. (1993), Álvarez Orive (1994). 2: Álvarez et al. (1993), Álvarez Orive (1994). 4: Cervera (unpubl. data). 5: Álvarez Orive (1994). Haminoea templadoi García, Pérez-Hurtado and García-Gómez, 1991 4: García, Pérez Hurtado and García-Gómez (1991), Templado et al. (1993a). Haminoea exigua Schaefer, 1992 5: Sánchez-Moyano et al. (2000), Templado et al. (1993a). 7: Schaefer (1992), Templado et al. (1993a). Genus Atys Montfort, 1810 Atys blainvilliana (Récluz, 1843) 7: Marín and Ros (1987). 8: De Sama (1916). 9: Nordsieck (1972). Atys jeffreysi (Weinkauff, 1866) 5: Aartsen, Menkhorst and Gittenberger (1984). 6: Peñas et al. (in press). 7: Marín and Ros (1987). 8: Altimira (1977b). 9: Nordsieck (1972), Gasull and Cuerda (1974), Altaba and Traveset (1985). 10: Ortea et al. (2001), Moro et al. (2003). 11: Nobre (1889, 1937, as Roxaniella jeffreysi), Watson (1897), Nordsieck and García-Talavera (1979, as A. (Roxaniella) jeffreysi). Atys macandrewi Smith, 1872 10: Odhner (1931), Nordsieck (1972), Nordsieck and García-Talavera (1979), Ortea et al. (2001),

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Talavera (1978), Malaquias and Calado (1997), Malaquias, Martínez and Abreu (2002), Rodríguez et al. (2003). 11: Nordsieck (1972, as A. Limulatys macandrewi), Malaquias, Martínez and Abreu (2002). 12: Marcus (1970), Nordsieck (1972, as Atys (Limulatys)), García-Talavera (1983), Mikkelsen (1995), Ávila (2000), Malaquias (2001). Genus Weinkauffia Monterosato, 1884 Weinkauffia turgidula (Forbes, 1843) 3: Nordsieck (1972). 6: Templado and Moreno (1998). 7: Templado et al. (2002). 10: Odhner (1931, as Atys), Nordsieck (1972), Ortea et al. (2001), Moro et al. (2003). 11: Watson (1897, as Scaphander (Weinkauffia) diaphana), Nobre (1937, as Scaphander (Weinkauffia) diaphana), Nordsieck and GarcíaTalavera (1979, as Weinkauffia semistriata), Malaquias et al. (2001, as Scaphander (Weinkauffia) diaphana). Genus Cylichnium Dall, 1908 (32) Cylichnium africanum (Locard, 1897) 1: Locard (1897, as Cylichna fischeri), Bouchet (1975, bathyal). Cylichnium oliviforme (Watson, 1883) 2: Fechter (1979) (bathyal). 12: Watson (1883, 1886, both as Utriculus), Dautzenberg (1889, as Tornatina), Dautzenberg and Fischer (1896, 1897, both as Utriculus), Nordsieck (1972), Mikkelsen (1995, as Cylichna oliviformis), Malaquias (2001, as Cylichna oliviformis). Haminoeidae incerta sedis Weinkauffia ? semistriata (Réquien, 1848) (33) 3: Nordsieck (1972). 7: Hidalgo (1917, as Atys diaphana), Templado (1984). 9: Templado (1982a). 10: Nordsieck (1972), Nordsieck and GarcíaTalavera (1979), Ortea et al. (2001), Moro et al. (2003).

Order ANASPlDEA Fischer, 1883 Family Akeridae Odhner, 1922 (34) Genus Akera Müller, 1776 Akera bullata Müller, 1776 1: Hidalgo (1917), Ortea (1975-76, 1977c), Lastra et al. (1988), Ávila Escartín (1993), Martínez Cueto-Felgueroso (1995). 2: Hidalgo (1917), Cadee (1968), Hernández and Jiménez (1972), Rolán (1983), Urgorri and Besteiro (1983). 3: De Oliveira (1895), Hidalgo (1917), Nobre (1936), Machado and Fonseca (1997). 6: Moreno and Templado (1998). 7: Templado, Talavera and Murillo (1983), Olmo and Ros (1984). 8: Altimira (1977b). 9: Ballesteros and Templado (1996). 10: Ortea et al. (2001), Moro et al. (2003). 11: Watson (1897, as Acera bullata), Nobre (1937, as Acera bullata), Ledoyer (1967, as Acera bullata). 12: Nobre (1924), Ávila (2000), Malaquias (2001). Family Aplysiidae Lamarck, 1809 Genus Aplysia Linnaeus, 1767 Aplysia depilans Gmelin, 1791 1: Hidalgo(1917), Ortea (1977c), Martínez Cueto-Felgueroso (1995). 2: Hidalgo (1917), Ros (1975), Ortea (1977c), Rolán (1983), Urgorri and Besteiro (1983). 3: De Oliveira (1895), Hidalgo (1917), Nobre (1936), Saldanha (1974), Silvestre, Baptista and Jorge (1979), Silvestre and Baptista (1980), Martínez Cueto-Felgueroso (1995), Calado et al. (1999, 2004), Malaquias and Morenito (2000). 5: García-Gómez (1982). 6: Ros (1975), Martínez Cueto-Felgueroso (1995). 7: Hidalgo (1917), Templado, Talavera and Murillo (1983), Ramos (1985), Ballesteros et al. (1986), Marín and Ros (1987a), Martínez Cueto-Felgueroso (1995). 8: Hidalgo (1917), Altimira (1975, 1976), Ros (1975), Altimira, Huelin and Ros (1981), Huelin and Ros (1984). 9: Hidalgo (1917), Ros (1981b), Ballesteros (1998). 10: Altimira and Ros (1979), Nordsieck and GarcíaTalavera (1979), Ortea and Martínez (1991), Martínez Cueto-Felgueroso (1995), Malaquias and Calado (1997), Ortea et al. (2001, 2003), Moro et al. (2003).

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11: Watson (1897), Eales (1957, 1960), Nordsieck and Talavera (1979), Wirtz (1999), Wirtz and Debelius (2003). 12: Azevedo and Gofas (1990, as Aplysia sp), Wirtz (1998), Ávila et al. (1998), Ávila (2000), Malaquias (2001). Aplysia fasciata Poiret, 1789 1: Hidalgo (1917, as A. leporina), Ortea (1975-76, 1977c), Ávila Escartín (1993), Martínez CuetoFelgueroso (1995), Martínez and Ortea (2002). 2: Rolán (1983). 3: Oliveira (1895, as A. limacina), Hidalgo (1917), Nobre (1936), Silvestre, Baptista and Jorge (1979), Silvestre and Baptista (1980), García-Gómez et al. (1991), Muzavor and Morenito (1999), Malaquias and Morenito (2000), Calado et al. (2004). 4: Cervera (unpubl. data). 5: García-Gómez (1982), Rueda, Salas and Gofas (2000). 6: Luque (1983, 1986), Schick (1998), Sánchez Tocino, Ocaña and García (2000a), Ocaña et al. (2000). 7: Hidalgo (1917), Templado, Talavera and Murillo (1983), Templado et al. (2002), Ballesteros et al. (1986), Marín and Ros (1987a). 8: Maluquer (1904,1907), Ros (1975). 9: Hidalgo (1917). 10: Odhner (1931), Eales (1957), Ortea and Martínez (1991), Malaquias and Calado (1997), Ortea et al. (2001), Moro et al. (2003), Wirtz and Debelius (2003). 11: Nordsieck and Talavera (1979), Wirtz (1999), Wirtz and Debelius (2003). 12: Wirtz and Martins (1993), Ávila and Azevedo (1997), Wirtz (1998), Ávila (2000), Malaquias (2001), Wirtz and Debelius (2003). Aplysia punctata Cuvier, 1803 1: Hidalgo (1917), Ros (1975), Ortea (1977c), Martínez Cueto-Felgueroso (1995). 2: Hidalgo (1917), Ros (1975), Niell (1977), Ortea (1977c), Rolán (1983), Urgorri and Besteiro (1983), Trigo and Otero (1987), Martínez Cueto-Felgueroso (1995). 3: De Oliveira (1895), Nobre (1938-40), Marques et al. (1982), García-Gómez et al. (1991), Calado et al. (2004). 4: Cervera and García-Gómez (1986), Templado et al. (1993b). 5: García-Gómez (1982), García-Gómez et al. (1989), Sánchez-Moyano et al. (2000).

6: Luque (1983, 1986), Ballesteros et al. (1986), Salas and Luque (1986), Schick (1998), Sánchez Tocino, Ocaña and García (2000a), Ocaña et al. (2000), Peñas et al. (in press). 7: Hidalgo (1917), Templado (1982b, 1983, 1984), Ballesteros et al. (1986), Marín and Ros (1987a), Templado et al. (2002). 8: Hidalgo (1917), Altimira (1975, 1976, as A. rosea), Altimira (1980), Ros (1975), Ros and Altimira (1977), Ballesteros (1978), Altimira, Huelin and Ros (1981), Bibiloni (1981), Huelin and Ros (1984). 9: Hidalgo (1919), Ros (1975), Templado (1982a), Ballesteros, Álvarez and Mateo (1986), Altaba (1993). 10: Odhner (1931, as A. rosea), Eales (1957), Nordsieck (1972), Ortea and Martínez (1991), Ortea et al. (2001), Moro et al. (2003). 11: Watson (1897), Nobre (1937), Nordsieck and Talavera (1979), Wirtz (1999). 12: Simroth (1888), Ávila and Azevedo (1997), Wirtz (1998), Morton et al. (1998), Ávila et al. (1998), Ávila (2000), Malaquias (2001). Aplysia dactylomela Rang, 1828 10: Odhner (1931), Eales (1957), Nordsieck (1972), Ros (1975), Nordsieck and García-Talavera (1979), Pérez-Sánchez and Moreno (1990), Ortea and Martínez (1991), Martínez Cueto-Felgueroso (1995), Malaquias and Calado (1997), Malaquias (2000), Ortea et al. (2001, 2003), Moro et al. (2003). 11: Watson (1897, as A. ocellata), Nobre (1937, as A. ocellata), Wirtz (1995b, 1999), Wirtz and Debelius (2003). Aplysia juliana Quoy and Gaimard, 1832 10: Martínez, Ortea and Pérez-Sánchez (1991), Ortea and Martínez (1991), Ortea et al. (2001), Moro et al. (2003). Aplysia morio Verrill, 1901 10: Ortea et al. (2001), Moro et al. (2003). Aplysia parvula Guilding in Mörch, 1863 (35) 1: Ortea (pers. comm.), Martínez CuetoFelgueroso (1995). 2: Martínez Cueto-Felgueroso (1995). 3: Eales (1957a), García-Gómez et al. (1991), Calado et al. (1999, 2004). 4: Martínez Cueto-Felgueroso (1995), Templado et al. (1993b).

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5: García-Gómez et al. (1989), Sánchez-Moyano et al. (2000). 6: Ballesteros and Templado (1987), Martínez Cueto-Felgueroso (1995), Sánchez Tocino, Ocaña and García (2000a), Ocaña et al. (2000), Peñas et al. (in press). 7: Ballesteros and Templado (1987), Templado, Talavera and Murillo (1987), Templado et al. (2002). 8: Ballesteros and Templado (1987), Martínez Cueto-Felgueroso (1995). 9: Ballesteros, Álvarez and Mateo (1986). 10: Malaquias and Calado (1997), Ortea et al. (2001), Moro et al. (2003). 11: Wirtz (1999), Eales (1957a, 1960), Malaquias et al. (2001). 12: Eales (1960), Wirtz (1998), Ávila et al. (1998), Malaquias (2001), Wirtz and Debelius (2003). Genus Bursatella De Blainville, 1817 Bursatella leachi De Blainville, 1817 9: Oliver and Terrasa (2004). Family Dolabriferidae Pilsbry, 1895 Genus Petalifera Gray 1847 Petalifera petalifera (Rang, 1828) 3: De Oliveira (1895, as Phyllaplysia depressa), Nobre (1936, as P. paulinoi), Silvestre, Baptista and Jorge (1979, as P. paulinoi). 6: Templado, Luque and Moreno (1988), Ocaña et al. (2000). 7: Templado (1982b, 1983, 1984, as Phyllaplysia depressa), Marín and Ros (1987a, as P. depressa), Templado, Luque and Moreno (1988), Martínez Cueto-Felgueroso (1995), Martínez (1996). 8: Hidalgo (1917, as Petalifera virescens), Huelin and Ros (1984, as P. lafonti). 9: Ros (1981b, as Petalifera lafonti), Martínez Cueto-Felgueroso (1995), Martínez (1996). 10: Ortea and Martínez (1991), Martínez CuetoFelgueroso (1995), Malaquias and Calado (1997), Ortea et al. (2001), Moro et al. (2003). 11: Wirtz (pers. comm.). Petalifera ramosa Baba, 1959 (36) 10: Ortea and Martínez (1991), Martínez CuetoFelgueroso (1995), Malaquias and Calado (1997), Ortea et al. (2001, 2003), Moro et al. (2003).

Genus Dolabrifera Gray, 1847 Dolabrifera dolabrifera (Cuvier, 1817) 10: Martínez Cueto-Felgueroso (1995), Malaquias and Calado (1997), Ortea et al. (2001, 2003), Moro et al. (2003). 11: Ledoyer (1967, as ? Phyllaplysia depressa), Wirtz (1995a,b), Malaquias and Cervera (unpubl. data). Family Notarchidae Eales and Engel, 1935 Genus Notarchus Cuvier, 1817 Notarchus punctatus Philippi, 1836 8: Ros (1975). 10: Ortea et al. (2001), Moro et al. (2003). Genus Stylocheilus Gould, 1852 Stylocheilus striatus (Quoy and Gaimard, 1832) 10: Malaquias and Calado (1997, as S. longicauda), Wirtz and Debelius (2003). 11: Wirtz (pers. comm.). 12: Wirtz and Debelius (2003).

Order ACOCHLIDIOMORPHA Salvini-Plawen, 1983 Family Hedylopsidae Odhner, 1952 Genus Hedylopsis Thiele, 1931 Hedylopsis spiculifera (Kowalevsky, 1901) 2: Urgorri and Besteiro (1983), Arnaud et al. (1986). 3: Calado et al. (1999). 7: Salvini-Plawen and Templado (1990). 11: Fonseca, Guerreiro and Gil (1995). Family Asperinidae Rankin, 1979 Genus Asperina Rankin, 1979 Asperina loricata (Swedmark, 1968) 2: Arnaud et al. (1986). Family Microhedylidae Hertling, 1930 Genus Unela Marcus, 1953 Unela glandulifera (Kowalevsky, 1901) 2: Urgorri and Besteiro (1983, as Unela odhneri), Arnaud et al. (1986).

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7: Salvini-Plawen and Templado (1990). Genus Pontohedyle Golikov and Starobogatov, 1972 Pontohedyle milaschewitchii (Kowalevsky, 1901) 2: Salvini-Plawen (pers. comm.). 6: Salvini-Plawen and Templado (1990). 7: Salvini-Plawen and Templado (1990).

6: Rampal (1968, 2002). 8: Hidalgo (1917). 10: Odhner (1931), Ortea et al. (2001), Rampal (2002), Moro et al. (2003). 11: Rampal (2002). All records except those of Rampal (2002) are referred to C. gibbosa. Cavolinia globulosa Rang, 1845 10: Odhner (1931), Ortea et al. (2001), Moro et al. (2003).

Order THECOSOMATA Blainville, 1824 Suborder EUTHECOSOMATA Meisenheimer, 1905 Family Cavoliniidae D’Orbigny, 1842 Genus Cavolinia Abildgaard, 1791 Cavolinia tridentata (Förskal, 1775) 3: Nobre (1938-40). 6: Rampal (1968). 7: Hidalgo (1917). 8: Hidalgo (1917). 9: Hidalgo (1917). 10: Odhner (1931), Ortea et al. (2001), Moro et al. (2003). Cavolinia inflexa (Lesueur, 1813) 1: Rampal (2002). 2: Vayssière (1915), Rolán (1983), Urgorri and Besteiro (1983). 3: Locard (1897, as C. trispinosa), Nobre (1938-40, bathyal), Rampal (2002). 6: Rampal (1968), Templado et al. (1986), Peñas et al. (in press). 7: Hidalgo (1917), Vives (1966). 8: Tomás (1909), De Chia (1911-1913), Altimira (1977b). 9: Hidalgo (1914), Rampal (1963), Altimira (1972b). 10: Odhner (1931), Hernández et al. (1991), LozanoSoldevilla and Hernández (1991), Hernández and Jiménez (1992), Hernández, Jiménez and Silva (1997a, 1997b), Ortea et al. (2001), Moro et al. (2003). Cavolinia uncinata (Rang, 1829) 8: Ballesteros (unpubl. data). 10: Lozano-Soldevilla and Hernández (1991), Ortea et al. (2001), Moro et al. (2003) Cavolinia flava (D’Orbigny, 1836) (37) 5: Hidalgo (1917), Rampal (2002).

Genus Diacria Gray, 1847 Diacria quadridentata (Lesueur, 1821) 6: Rampal (1968). 10: Lozano-Soldevilla and Hernández (1991), Ortea et al. (2001), Moro et al. (2003). Diacria trispinosa (Lesueur, 1821) (38) 2: Vayssière (1915), Rolán (1983), Urgorri and Besteiro (1983). 3: Hidalgo (1917), Locard (1897, as Calvolinia trispinosa, bathyal), Nobre (1938-40), Rampal (2002). 5: Hidalgo (1917). 6: Rampal (1968, 2002), Templado et al. (1986), Peñas et al. (in press). 7: Vives (1966). 10: Odhner (1932), Hernández et al. (1991), Hernández, Ferrandis and Lozano Soldevilla (1993), Lozano-Soldevilla and Hernández (1991), Ortea et al. (2001), Moro et al. (2003). Diacria atlantica Dupont in Bontes and Van der Spoel, 1998 12: Bontes and Van der Spoel (1998). Diacria rubecula Bontes and Van der Spoel, 1998 10: Bontes and Van der Spoel (1998). 12: Bontes and Van der Spoel (1998). Genus Clio Linnaeus, 1767 Clio pyramidata Linnaeus, 1767 2: Hidalgo (1917, as Cleodora), Rolán (1983), Urgorri and Besteiro (1983). 3: Locard (1897, bathyal), Hidalgo (1917). 5: Hidalgo (1917). 6: Rampal (1968, 2002), Vives, Santamaría and Trepat (1975), Templado et al. (1986), SánchezMoyano et al. (2000), Peñas et al. (in press).

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8: Hidalgo (1917). 9: Rampal (2002). 10: Odhner (1931), Hernández et al. (1991), LozanoSoldevilla and Hernández (1991), Hernández and Jiménez (1992), Hernández, Jiménez and Silva (1997a,b), Ortea et al. (2001), Moro et al. (2003). Clio cuspidata (Bosc, 1802) 3: Hidalgo (1917, as Cleodora), McAndrew (1850, in Nobre 1938-40, as Cleodora). 5: Vives, Santamaría and Trepat (1975, as Euclio). 6: Rampal (1968, as Euclio), Peñas et al. (in press). 7: Hidalgo (1917). 10: Lozano-Soldevilla and Hernández (1991), Ortea et al. (2001), Moro et al. (2003). Clio recurva (Children, 1823) 1: Hidalgo (1917, as Cleodora balantium). Clio polita (Pelseneer, 1887) 10: Lozano-Soldevilla and Hernández (1991), Hernández and Jiménez (1992), Hernández, Jiménez and Silva (1997a,b), Ortea et al. (2001), Moro et al. (2003). Genus Creseis Rang, 1828 Creseis acicula Rang, 1828 2: Cadée (1968). 5: Hidalgo (1917), Vives, Santamaría and Trepat (1975). 6: Rampal (1968, 2002), Peñas et al. (in press). 7: Hidalgo (1917), Vives (1966). 8: Hidalgo (1917). 9: Rampal (1963). 10: Hernández et al. (1991), Hernández and Jiménez (1993), Hernández, Ferrandis and Lozano Soldevilla (1993), Hernández, Jiménez and Silva (1997a,b), Ortea et al. (2001), Moro et al. (2003). 12: Rampal (2002). Creseis conica Eschscholtz, 1829 2: Rolán (1983), Rampal (2002). 3: Rampal (2002). 6: Rampal (1968, 2002). 9: Rampal (1963). 10: Hernández, Ferrandis and Lozano Soldevilla (1993), Ortea et al. (2001), Moro et al. (2003). 12: Rampal (2002). All records except those of Rampal (2002) as C. virgula Rang, 1828.
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Genus Hyalocylis Folin, 1875 Hyalocylis striata (Rang, 1828) 6: Rampal (1966). 10: Lozano-Soldevilla and Hernández (1991), Hernández and Jiménez (1992), Hernández, Jiménez and Silva (1997a,b), Ortea et al. (2001), Moro et al. (2003). Genus Styliola Blainville, 1827 Styliola subula (Quoy and Gaimard, 1827) 3: Locard (1897, as S. subulata, batthyal). 6: Rampal (1968), Sánchez-Moyano et al. (2000). 7: Hidalgo (1917). 8: Ros (1976a). 9: Locard (1868), Rampal (1963), Altimira (1973). 10: Odhner (1931), Nordsieck and García-Talavera (1979), Lozano-Soldevilla and Hernández (1991), Hernández and Jiménez (1993), Hernández, Ferrandis and Lozano Soldevilla (1993), Hernández, Jiménez and Silva (1997a,b), Ortea et al. (2001), Moro et al. (2003). Genus Cuvierina Boas, 1886 Cuvierina columnella (Rang, 1827) 3: Locard (1897, as Cuvieria). 6: Rampal (1963, 1968, 2002), Peñas et al. (in press). 10: Hernández and Jiménez (1992), Hernández, Jiménez and Silva (1997a,b), Ortea et al. (2001), Rampal (2002), Moro et al. (2003). Cuvierina spoeli Rampal, 2002 3: Rampal (2002). 7: Rampal (2002). Genus Diacavolinia Van der Spoel, 1987 Diacavolinia limbata (D’Orbigny, 1836) (40) 6: Rampal (1968). 8: Hidalgo (1917). 10: Odhner (1931), Nordsieck and García-Talavera (1979), Van der Spoel, Bleeker and Kobayasi (1993), Ortea et al. (2001), Moro et al. (2003). All records as C. longirostris, except those of Van der Spoel, Bleeker and Kobayasi (1993), Ortea et al. (2001) and Moro et al. (2003).

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Diacavolinia constricta Van der Spoel, Bleeker and Kolayashi, 1993 10: Van der Spoel, Bleeker and Kobayasi (1993). Diacavolinia deshayesi Van der Spoel, Bleeker and Kolayashi, 1993 10: Van der Spoel, Bleeker and Kobayasi (1993). Diacavolinia atlantica Van der Spoel, Bleeker and Kolayashy, 1993 10: Van der Spoel, Bleeker and Kobayasi (1993). Family Limacinidae Gray, 1840 Genus Limacina Bosc, 1817 Limacina helicina (Phipps, 1774) 1: Hidalgo (1917). 2: Hidalgo (1917), Rolán (1983). 3: Nordsieck (1972, as Spiratella). Limacina retroversa (Fleming, 1823) 2: Rolán and Pérez Gándaras (1981), Rolán (1983). 6: Peñas et al. (in press). 10: Hernández and Jiménez (1992), Hernández, Jiménez and Silva (1997a,b), Ortea et al. (2001), Moro et al. (2003). Limacina bulimoides (D’Orbigny, 1836) 2: Rolán (1983). 3: Rampal (1968, as Spiratella). 10: Lozano-Soldevilla and Hernández (1991), Hernández and Jiménez (1992), Hernández, Ferrandis and Lozano Soldevilla (1993), Hernández, Jiménez and Silva (1997a,b), Ortea et al. (2001), Moro et al. (2003). Limacina inflata (D’Orbigny, 1836) 2: Rolán (1983). 4: Vives, Santamaría and Trepat (1975). 5: Vives, Santamaría and Trepat (1975). 6: Rampal (1968), Vives, Santamaría and Trepat (1975), Peñas et al. (in press). 7: Vives (1966). 8: Ros (1976a). 9: Rampal (1963), Riera and Blasco (1967). 10: Hernández et al. (1991), Lozano-Soldevilla and Hernández (1991), Hernández and Jiménez (1992), Hernández, Ferrandis and Lozano Soldevilla (1993), Hernández, Jiménez and Silva (1997a,b), Ortea et al. (2001), Moro et al. (2003).

All records except those of Rolán (1983) and Ortea et al. (2001), as Spiratella. Limacina lesueurii (D’Orbigny, 1836) 1: Nordsieck (1972). 6: Rampal (1963, 1968), Peñas et al. (in press). 10: Lozano-Soldevilla and Hernández (1991), Hernández and Jiménez (1993), Ortea et al. (2001), Moro et al. (2003). The records from areas 1 and 6 as Spiratella. Limacina trochiformis (D’Orbigny, 1836) 6: Rampal (1968), Vives, Santamaría and Trepat (1975), Peñas et al. (in press). 7: Vives (1966). 9: Rampal (1963). 10: Lozano-Soldevilla and Hernández (1991), Hernández and Jiménez (1993), Ortea et al. (2001), Moro et al. (2003). All records as Spiratella, except those of Ortea et al. (2001) and Moro et al. (2003). Suborder PSEUDOTHECOSOMATA Meisenheimer, 1905 Family Cymbuliidae Cantraine, 1841 Genus Cymbulia Péron and Lesueur, 1810 Cymbulia peroni Blainville, 1827 1: Martínez, Rodríguez and Rodríguez (1993). 2: Vayssière (1915). 6: Rampal (1968), Vives, Santamaría and Trepat (1975), Sánchez Tocino, Ocaña and García (2000a), Ocaña et al. (2000). 7: Vayssière (1902), García Raso et al. (1992). 8: Ros (1975). 10: Hernández, Ferrandis and Lozano Soldevilla (1993), Hernández, Jiménez and Silva (1997a,b), Ortea et al. (2001), Moro et al. (2003). Cymbulia parvidentata Pelseneer, 1888 6: Vives, Santamaría and Trepat (1975). Genus Corolla Dall, 1871 Corolla ovata (Quoy and Gaimard, 1832) 10: Hernández, Jiménez and Silvia (1997a), Ortea et al. (2001), Moro et al. (2003). Family Desmopteridae Chun, 1889 Genus Desmopterus Chun, 1889

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Desmopterus cirroptera (Gegenbaur, 1855) 3: Nordsieck (1972). 10: Pruvot-Fol (1954), Ortea et al. (2001), Moro et al. (2003). Desmopterus papilio Chun, 1889 10: Hernández et al. (1991), Hernández, Jiménez and Silva (1997a,b), Ortea et al. (2001), Moro et al. (2003). Family Peraclidae Tesch, 1913 Genus Peracle Forbes, 1844 Peracle reticulata (D’Orbigny, 1836) 3: Hidalgo (1917, as Peraclis). 5: Vives, Santamaría and Trepat (1975). 6: Rampal (1968), Peñas et al. (in press). 10: Hernández et al. (1991, as Peraclis), Ortea et al. (2001), Moro et al. (2003). Peracle bispinosa (Pelseneer, 1888) 3: Locard (1897, as P. diversa, bathyal). 6: Rampal (1968). Peracle triacantha (Fischer, 1882) 5: Vives, Santamaría and Trepat (1975). 6: Hidalgo (1917, as Peraclis). Order GYMNOSOMATA Blainville, 1894 Family Pneumodermatidae Latreille, 1825 Genus Pneumoderma Perón and Lesueur, 1910 Pneumoderma mediterraneum Van Beneden, 1836 8: Pruvot-Fol (1924). Pneuderma violaceum (D’Orbigny, 1836) 2: Vayssière (1902). 7: Pruvot-Fol (1924). 8: Pruvot-Fol (1924). 9: Pruvot-Fol (1924). 10: Odhner (1931), Ortea et al. (2001), Moro et al. (2003). All records, except those of Ortea et al. (2001) and Moro et al. (2003) as Pneumoderma atlanticum. Family Clionidae Oken, 1815 Genus Clione Pallas, 1774 Clione limacina (Phipps, 1773) 3: Nordsieck (1972). 8: Ballesteros (unpubl. data).

Genus Paraclione Tesch, 1903 Paraclione longicaudata (Souleyeti, 1840) 9: Pruvot-Fol (1924). Family Notobranchaeidae Pelseneer, 1886 Genus Notobranchaea Pelseneer, 1886 Notobranchaea hjorti (Bonnevie, 1913) 2: Van der Spoel and Pafort (1985). Notobranchaea bleekerae Van der Spoel and Pafort (1985) 12: Van der Spoel and Pafort (1985). Genus Schleschia Strand, 1932 Schleschia tetrabranchiata (Bonnevie, 1913) 12: Van der Spoel and Pafort (1985). Order SACOGLOSSA Von Ihering, 1876 (41) Suborder OXYNOACEA H. Adams and A. Adams, 1854 Family Volvatellidae Pilsbry, 1895 Genus Ascobulla Marcus, 1972 Ascobulla fragilis (Jeffreys, 1856) 1: Pruvot-Fol (1954), Nordsieck (1972). 6: Ballesteros et al. (1986). 7: Hidalgo (1917, as Cylindrobulla), Templado, Talavera and Murillo (1983, as Cylindrobulla), Murillo, Templado and Talavera (1985, as Cylindrobulla), Marín and Ros (1988). 10: Ortea et al. (1998, 2001), Moro et al. (2003). 11: Watson (1897, as Cylindrobulla), Nobre (1937, as Cylindrobulla), Nordsieck and García-Talavera (1979, as Cylindrobulla), Malaquias et al. (2001). Family Oxynoidae H. Adams and A. Adams, 1854 Genus Oxynoe Rafinesque, 1819 Oxynoe olivacea Rafinesque, 1819 3: Macedo, Macedo and Borges (1999). 5: García-Gómez (2002). 7: Templado (1982b, 1983, 1984), Murillo, Templado and Talavera (1985), Marín and Ros (1988). 9: Bucquoy, Dautzenberg and Dollfus (1886), Hidalgo (1917), Nordsieck (1972). 10: Ortea (1981), Pérez-Sánchez and Moreno (1990), Ortea et al. (1998, 2001), Moro et al. (2003). Oxynoe benchijigua Ortea, Moro and Espinosa, 1999 (42) 10: Ortea, Moro and Espinosa (1999), Ortea et al. (2001), Moro et al. (2003).

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Genus Lobiger Krohn, 1847 Lobiger serradifalci (Calcara, 1840) 5: García Gómez (2002). 7: Templado (1982b, 1983, 1984), Murillo, Templado and Talavera (1985), Marín and Ros (1988). 8: Altaba and Traveset (1985). 9: Hidalgo (1917). 10: Pérez-Sánchez and Moreno (1990), Ortea et al. (1998, 2001), Moro et al. (2003).

7: Templado (1982b), Murillo and Talavera (1983), Olmo and Ros (1984), Ros and Rodríguez (1985), Ballesteros (1985), Marín and Ros (1987, 1988, 1992, 1993), Giménez-Casalduero (1997, 1999), Aguado-Giménez (2000). 8: Ballesteros (1979, 1985), Pereira (1980), Huelin and Ros (1984). 9: Ros (1981b, 1985b), Ballesteros (1985). Elysia ornata (Swainson, 1840) 10: Jensen (1992a), Ortea, Moro and Espinosa (1997), Ortea et al. (1998, 2001), Moro et al. (2003). 11: Wirtz (1999). 12: Wirtz (1995b, 1998), Ávila et al. (1998), Ávila (2000), Malaquias (2001), Wirtz and Debelius (2003). Elysia flava Verrill, 1901 7: Ballesteros et al. (1986). 8: Ballesteros (unpubl. data). 10: Ortea (1981), Ortea et al. (1998, 2001), Moro et al. (2003). 11: Ortea, Moro and Espinosa (1997), Malaquias et al. (2001). Elysia papillosa Verrill, 1901 10: Ortea et al. (1998, 2001), Moro et al. (2003). 11: Wirtz (1999). Elysia subornata Verrill, 1901 10: Ortea, Moro and Espinosa (1997), Ortea et al. (1998) both as Elysia cause, Ortea et al. (2001, 2003), Moro et al. (2003). 11: Ortea, Moro and Espinosa (1997, as Elysia cause). Elysia translucens Pruvot-Fol, 1957 (44) 6: García Raso et al. (1992). 7: Marín and Ros (1987, 1988), Templado, Talavera and Murillo (1987), Templado et al. (2002). 9: Ballesteros and Templado (1996). Elysia fezi Vilella, 1968 (45) 8: Vilella (1968). Elysia margaritae Fez, 1974 (46) 7: De Fez (1974). Elysia gordanae Thompson and Jaklin, 1988 (46) 4: Cervera and López-González (1996). 6: García Raso et al. (1992). 10: Ortea et al. (1998, 2001, 2003, all as E. margaritae), Moro et al. (2003, as E. margaritae), Wirtz and Debelius (2003, as E. margaritae).

Suborder PLAKOBRANCHACEA Rang, 1829 Superfamily PLAKOBRANCHOIDEA Rang, 1829 Family Plakobranchidae Rang, 1829 (= Elysiidae Forbes and Hanley, 1851) Genus Elysia s. l. Risso, 1818 (43) Elysia viridis (Montagu, 1804) 1: Ortea (1977a,c). 2: Ortea (1977a,c), Urgorri and Besteiro (1983), Rolán (1983). 3: De Oliveira (1895), Hidalgo (1916), Nobre (1932), García-Gómez et al. (1991), Macedo, Macedo and Borges (1999), Malaquias and Morenito (2000), Calado et al. (2003). 4: Cervera (1988). 5: García-Gómez (1982), García-Gómez et al. (1989), Sánchez-Moyano et al. (2000). 6: Ballesteros et al. (1986), Sánchez Tocino, Ocaña and García (2000a), Ocaña et al. (2000). 7: De Fez (1974), Templado (1982b, 1983, 1984), Murillo and Talavera (1983), Olmo and Ros (1984), Ballesteros et al. (1986), Marín and Ros (1987, 1988), Templado et al. (2002). 8: Maluquer (1904, 1907), Maluquer (1906, 1909, 1912, 1915, 1916), Ros (1975), Altimira, Huelin and Ros (1981), Ballesteros (1984a, 1985), Huelin and Ros (1984). 9: Templado (1982a), Altaba (1993, as Elysia cf. viridis). 10: Malaquias and Calado (1997), Ortea et al. (1998, 2001), Moro et al. (2003). 11: Wirtz (1995a). 12: Azevedo (1991), Ávila (2000), Malaquias (2001). Elysia timida (Risso, 1818) 5: García Gómez (2002). 6: Ocaña et al. (2000).

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12: Wirtz and Debelius (2003, as E. margaritae). Genus Thuridilla Bergh, 1872 (47) Thuridilla hopei (Vérany, 1853) 4: Cervera and García-Gómez (1986). 5: García-Gómez (1982). 6: Luque (1983, 1986, both as Elysia), Schick (1998), Sánchez Tocino, Ocaña and García (2000a), Ocaña et al. (2000), García Raso et al. (1992). 7: De Fez (1974, as T. splendida), Templado (1983, as Elysia), Ballesteros et al. (1986, as Elysia), Marín and Ros (1987, 1988), Templado et al. (2002). 8: Vicente (1964, as T. splendida), Storch and Welsch (1972), Ros (1975, 1978, 1985a), Ros and Altimira (1981), Pereira (1981), Huelin and Ros (1984), Ballesteros (1985). 9: Ros (1975, 1978b, 1981b), Ballesteros (1985), Ballesteros, Álvarez and Mateo (1986), Dekker (1986). Thuridilla picta (Verrill, 1901) 10: Ortea, Luque and Templado (1988, as Elysia), Ortea, Moro and Espinosa (1997), Ortea et al. (1998, 2001, 2003), Pérez-Sánchez and Moreno (1990, as T. hopei). 11: Wirtz (1999, as Elysia). Family Boselliidae Marcus, 1982 Genus Bosellia Trinchese, 1891 Bosellia mimetica Trinchese, 1891 6: García Raso et al. (1992). 7: Templado (1982b), Ballesteros et al. (1986), Marín and Ros (1987, 1988), Templado et al. (2002). 8: Altava and Traveset (1985). 9: Ballesteros (1979). Bosellia leve Fernández-Ovies and Ortea, 1986 (48) 10: Fernández-Ovies and Ortea (1986), Ortea et al. (1998, 2001, 2003), Moro et al. (2003). Superfamily LIMAPONTIOIDEA Gray, 1847 Family Polybranchiidae O’Donoghue, 1929 (= Caliphyllidae Thiele, 1931) (49) Genus Polybranchia Pease, 1860 Polybranchia viridis (Deshayes, 1857) 10: Ortea (1981), Ortea et al. (1998, 2001), Moro et al. (2003), Wirtz and Debelius (2003).

Polybranchia borgnini (Trinchese, 1896) 10: Ortea (1981), Ortea et al. (1998, 2001), Moro et al. (2003). Genus Caliphylla A. Costa, 1867 Caliphylla mediterranea A. Costa, 1867 5: García-Gómez (2002). 6: Luque (1983, 1986), García Raso et al. (1992), Sánchez Tocino, Ocaña and García (2000a), Ocaña et al. (2000). 7: Templado, Talavera and Murillo (1987), Templado et al. (2002). 10: Ortea (1981), Ortea et al. (1998, 2001), Moro et al. (2003). Genus Cyerce Bergh, 1871 Cyerce antillensis Engel, 1927 11: Wirtz (pers. comm.). 12: Wirtz and Debelius (2003). Family Hermaeidae H. Adams and A. Adams, 1854 Genus Aplysiopsis Deshayes, 1853 Aplysiopsis elegans (Deshayes, 1854 ) 9: Ballesteros and Templado (1996). 10: Ortea et al. (1998, 2001), Moro et al. (2003). Aplysiopsis formosa Pruvot-Fol, 1953 4: Cervera (unpubl. data). 10: Ortea, Bacallado and Pérez Sánchez (1990), Ortea et al. (1998, 2001), Moro et al. (2003), Wirtz and Debelius (2003). 12: Jensen (1995), Wirtz (1998), Ortea et al. (1998), Ávila (2000), Malaquias (2001), Wirtz and Debelius (2003). Genus Hermaea Lovén, 1844 (50) Hermaea bifida (Montagu, 1815) 2: Rolán (1983). 3: De Oliveira (1895), Hidalgo (1917), Nobre (1936), Machado and Fonseca (1997, as H. cf. bifida), Calado et al. (1999, 2003). 4: Cervera, García-Gómez and Ortea (1991, as H. boucheti). 5: García-Gómez (2002). 7: Fez (1974), Templado (1982b, 1983, 1984), Marín and Ros (1988). 8: Ballesteros (unpubl. data).

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Hermaea cruciata A. A. Gould, 1870 10: Ortea et al. (2001, 2003), Moro et al. (2003). Hermaea paucicirra Pruvot-Fol, 1953 1: Ortea (1977a,c). 2: Urgorri and Besteiro (1983). 3: Calado et al. (1999). 4: Cervera and García-Gómez (1986), Cervera, García-Gómez and Ortea (1991). 6: Sánchez Tocino, Ocaña and García (2000a). 7: Marín and Ros (1987, 1988). 8: Ballesteros (1980b). 10: Ortea et al. (2003). Genus Hermaeopsis A. Costa, 1869 (51) Hermaeopsis variopicta A. Costa, 1869 1: Martínez et al. (1990). 2: Ortea (1977a,c), Urgorri and Besteiro (1983). 3: Calado et al. (1999, 2005). 4: Cervera (unpubl. data). 5: García-Gómez (1987). 6: García Raso et al. (1992). 7: Templado, Talavera and Murillo (1987), Templado, Luque and Moreno (1988). 9: Ballesteros and Templado (1996, as Hermaea). 10: Ortea et al. (1998, 2001). All published records, except Calado et al. (2003) as Hermaea. Family Limapontiidae Gray, 1847 (= Stiligeridae Iredale and O’Donoghue, 1923) (50) Genus Stiliger Ehrenberg, 1831 Stiliger llerai Ortea, 1981 10: Ortea (1981), Pérez-Sánchez and Moreno (1990), Malaquias and Calado (1997), Ortea et al. (1998, 2001), Moro et al. (2003). Genus Limapontia Johnston, 1836 Limapontia capitata O. F. Müller, 1774 1: Ortea (1977a,c, as Limapontia nigra). 2: Urgorri and Besteiro (1983). 3: Hidalgo (1916), Nobre (1932). 5: García-Gómez (1982). 7: Templado, Talavera and Murillo (1983, as L. nigra), Marín and Ros (1987, 1988). Limapontia senestra (Quatrefages, 1844) 1: Ortea (1977c, as Acteonia corrugata), Ortea (1977a, as A. senestra). 2: Urgorri and Besteiro (1983).

Genus Calliopaea D’Orbigny, 1837 Calliopaea bellula D’Orbigny, 1837 2: Ortea and Urgorri (198la), Urgorri and Besteiro (1983), Rolán (1983). All records as Stiliger bellulus. 3: García-Gómez et al. (1991), Calado (unpubl. data). 7: Fez (1974, as Ercolanea funerea), Templado, Talavera and Murillo (1983), Marín and Ros (1987, 1988). 10: Ortea et al. (1998). Genus Ercolania s. l. Trinchese, 1872 (52) Ercolania viridis (A. Costa, 1866) 5: García-Gómez (1987). 7: Marín and Ros (1987). Ercolania funerea (A. Costa, 1867) 7: Marín and Ros (1988). Ercolania siottii Trinchese, 1872 11: Ortea and Moro (1998a), Ortea et al. (1998). Ercolania coerulea Trinchese, 1892 7: Templado (1982b, 1983, 1984), Marín and Ros (1988). 10: Wirtz and Debelius (2003). 11: Wirtz (1995a). 12: Wirtz and Debelius (2003). Ercolania lozanoi Ortea, 1981 4: Cervera (unpubl. data). 5: Cervera and López-González (1996). 9: Ballesteros and Templado (unpubl. data). 10: Ortea (1981), Fernández-Ovies, Ortea and Pérez (1984), Ortea et al. (1998, 2001), Moro et al. (2003). Genus Placida Trinchese, 1876 (50) (53) Placida dendritica (Alder and Hancock, 1843) 1: Ortea (1977a,c, as Hermaea). 2: Urgorri and Besteiro (1983, as Hermaea), Trigo and Otero (1987, as Hermaea). 3: García-Gómez et al. (1991). 6: García Raso et al. (1992). 7: Fez (1974, as Hermaea), Templado, Talavera and Murillo (1983), Templado et al. (2002), Ballesteros et al. (1986), Marín and Ros (1987, 1988).

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8: Ros (1975, 1978b, 1985a), Ros and Altimira (1977), Ballesteros (1985). 9: Ballesteros and Templado (unpubl. data). 11: Wirtz (1999, as P. cf. dendritica). Placida tardyi (Trinchese, 1873) (54) 3: Calado et al. (2003). 4: Cervera (1988, as P. cf. tardy), Cervera, GarcíaGómez and Ortea (1991). Placida brevicornis (A. Costa, 1876) 5: García-Gómez (1987). Placida cremoniana Trinchese, 1892 3: García-Gómez et al. (1991). 4: Cervera (1988). 5: García-Gómez (1983), García-Gómez et al. (1989). 6: Ballesteros et al. (1986), García Raso et al. (1992), Ocaña et al. (2000). 7: Fez (1974, as Hermaea carmeni), Templado, Talavera and Murillo (1983), Marín and Ros (1987, 1988). 8: Ballesteros (1980b, as Hermaea). 9: Ballesteros, Álvarez and Mateo (1986). 10: Ortea et al. (1998, 2001), Moro et al. (2003), Wirtz and Debelius (2003). 12: Fontes, Tempera and Wirtz (2001), Wirtz and Debelius (2003). Placida verticillata Ortea, 1981 (55) 1: Ortea (1977a,c, as Hermaea viridis). 3: Calado et al. (2003). 5: García-Gómez (1987), Sánchez-Moyano et al. (2000). 6: Sánchez Tocino, Ocaña and García (2000a). 7: Marín and Ros (1988). 10: Ortea (1981), Ortea et al. (1998, 2001), Moro et al. (2003). 11: Malaquias (unpubl. data). 12: Ávila (2000), Malaquias (2001). Genus Costasiella Pruvot-Fol, 1951 Costasiella virescens Pruvot-Fol, 1951 10: Ortea et al. (1998, 2001), Moro et al. (2003).

Tylodina perversa (Gmelin, 1791) 3: Calado and Urgorri (1999), Calado et al. (1999). 5: García-Gómez et al. (1989). 6: Templado et al. (1993b), Ocaña et al. (2000), Peñas et al. (in press). 7: Templado, Talavera and Murillo (1983), Templado et al. (2002). 8: Vicente (1964), Ros (1975, 1978b), Ros and Altimira (1977), Altimira, Huelin and Ros (1981), Ebel, Marín and Proskch (1999), Becerro et al. (2003). 9: Templado (1982a). 10: McAndrew (1857), Odhner (1931, as T. citrina), Pruvot-Fol (1954), Nordsieck (1972), PérezSánchez and Moreno (1990), Malaquias and Calado (1997), Ortea et al. (2001, 2003), Moro et al. (2003). 11: Watson (1897, as T. citrina and T. rafinesque), Nobre (1937), Nordsieck and García-Talavera (1979), Wirtz (1999), Malaquias et al. (2001), Wirtz and Debelius (2003). 12: Dautzenberg (1889, as T. citrina), Wirtz (1998), Ávila et al. (1998), Ávila (2000), Malaquias (2001). Genus Anidolyta Willan, 1987 (59) Anidolyta duebenii Lovén, 1846 (59) 3: Sykes (1905, as Tylodinella duebeni), Pruvot-Fol (1954, as T. duebeni), Nordsieck (1972, as T. duebeni). 6: Peñas et al. (in press). Family Umbraculidae Dall, 1889 Genus Umbraculum Schumacher, 1817 (60) Umbraculum umbraculum (Lightfoot, 1786) (60) 3: Hidalgo (1917), Nobre (1932, as U. mediterraneum). 4: Hidalgo (1917, as U. mediterraneum). 5: García Gómez (unpubl. data). 6: Hidalgo (1917), Luque (1983, as U. mediterraneum), Templado et al. (1993b), Schick (1998), Sánchez Tocino, Ocaña and García (2000a), Ocaña et al. (2000), Peñas et al. (in press). 7: Hidalgo (1917), Templado, Talavera and Murillo (1983, as U. mediterraneum). 8: Hidalgo (1917), Ros (1975, 1978b), Ros and Altimira (1977, as U. mediterraneum). 9: Carus (1889-1893), Hidalgo (1917, as U. mediterraneum), Ballesteros (1998).

Order UMBRACULACEA Dall, 1889 (56) (57) Family Tylodinidae Gray, 1847 Genus Tylodina Rafinesque, 1814 (58)

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10: Odhner (1931, as U. mediterraneum), PérezSánchez and Moreno (1990, as U. mediterraneum), Ortea et al. (2001, 2003), Moro et al. (2003). 11: Nobre (1895, 1937, both as Umbrella mediterranea), Watson (1886, as Umbrella mediterranea), Wirtz (1999, as U. mediterraneum), Malaquias et al. (2001), Wirtz and Debelius (2003). 12: Menezes (1991), Ávila et al. (1998), Ávila (2000), Malaquias (2001).

11: Clode (unpubl. data). Pleurobranchus lowei Watson, 1897 11: Watson (1897), Nobre (1937), Malaquias (2004). Pleurobranchus garciagomezi Cervera, CattaneoVietti and Edmunds, 1996 10: Ortea et al. (2001), Malaquias (2000), Wirtz and Debelius (2003, as Pleurobranchus sp.). 11: Wirtz and Debelius (2003, as Pleurobranchus sp.), Malaquias (unpubl. data). 12: Fontes, Tempera and Wirtz (2001), Wirtz and Debelius (2003), both records as Pleurobranchus sp. Tribe Berthellini Burn, 1962 Genus Berthella Blainville, 1824 Berthella plumula (Montagu, 1803) 1: Hidalgo (1917, as Pleurobranchus), Ortea (1977c, as Susania testudinaria), Ávila Escartín (1993). 2: Urgorri and Besteiro (1983), Rolán (1983). 3: De Oliveira (1895, as Pleurobranchus plumula), Nobre (1932), García-Gómez et al. (1991), Calado et al. (1999, 2003). 4: Cervera and García-Gómez (1986), Cervera et al. (2000). 6: Sánchez Tocino, Ocaña and García (2000a), Peñas et al. (in press). 7: Templado (1982b, 1983, 1984), Ballesteros et al. (1986), Marín and Ros (1987), García Raso et al. (1992). 9: Hidalgo (1917, as Pleurobranchus). 10: Ortea et al. (2001). 11: Watson (1897, as Pleurobranchus plumula), Nobre (1937). 12: Bergh (1892, 1899, both as Pleurobranchus plumula), Malaquias (2001). Berthella aurantiaca (Risso, 1818) (61) 1: Hidalgo (1917, as Pleurobranchus aurantiacus), Ros (1975, 1978b), Ortea (1977c, as Bouvieria), Ávila Escartín (1993). 5: García-Gómez (1987), Cervera et al (2000). 6: Ocaña et al. (2000). 7: Marín and Ros (1987). 8: Maluquer, J. (1907), Maluquer, M. (1906-1909, 1912, all as Pleurobranchus), Ros (1975, 1978b), Altimira, Huelin and Ros (1981, as Bouvieria).

Superorder NUDIPLEURA Wägele and Willan, 2000 (57) Order PLEUROBRANCHACEA Férussac,1822 Family Pleurobranchidae Férussac,1822 Subfamily Pleurobranchinae Férussac, 1822 Tribe Pleurobranchini Férussac, 1822 Genus Pleurobranchus Cuvier, 1805 Pleurobranchus membranaceus (Montagu, 1815) 1: Hidalgo (1917, as Oscanius tuberculatus), Ávila Escartín (1993). 3: De Oliveira (1895), Hidalgo (1917), Nobre (1932, as O. membranaceus), Marqués et al. (1982). 5: Cervera (unpubl. data). 6: Moreno and Templado (1998). 8: Maluquer, J. (1907), Maluquer M. (1906-1909, 1912), Ros (1975, 1978b, both as Oscanius). 9: Ballesteros and Templado (1996). 11: Malaquias (unpubl. data). Pleurobranchus testudinarius (Cantraine, 1836) 4: Templado et al. (1993b). 6: Moreno and Templado (1998), Schick (1998), Sánchez Tocino, Ocaña and García (2000a), Ocaña et al 2000), Peñas et al. (in press). 7: Templado (1982b, as Susania). 8: Ros (1975, 1978b, as Susania). 9: Ros and Gili (1985), Ballesteros (1998) (both as Susania). 10: Ortea et al. (2001), Moro et al. (2003), Wirtz and Debelius (2003). 11: Wirtz (unpubl. data). 12: Wirtz and Martins (1993), Wirtz (1992, 1998), Ávila et al. (1998), Ávila (2000), Malaquias (2001), Wirtz and Debelius (2003). Pleurobranchus areolatus (Mörch, 1863) 10: Pérez-Sánchez and Moreno (1990), Ortea et al. (2001), Moro et al. (2003).

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9: Hidalgo (1917), Ros (1981b), Ros and Gili (1984, 1985). 12: Bergh (1892, as Pleurobranchus aurantiacus), Malaquias (2001). Berthella stellata (Risso, 1826) 1: Ortea (1977c, as B. plumula), Ávila Escartín (1993). 2: Fernández-Ovies (1981, as B. plumula). 3: García-Gómez et al. (1991), Calado et al. (1999, 2003). 4: Cervera and García-Gómez (1986), Cervera et al. (2000). 5: Cervera and García-Gómez (1986), GarcíaGómez (1987), García-Gómez et al. (1989), Cervera et al. (2000). 6: García Raso et al. (1992), Sánchez Tocino, Ocaña and García (2000a). 7: Ballesteros et al. (1986), Templado (1982b), Marín and Ros (1987a), Templado et al. (2002). 9: Ros and Gili (1985, as B. cf. stellata), Ballesteros, Álvarez and Mateo (1986). 10: Malaquias and Calado (1997), Ortea et al. (2001), Wirtz and Debelius (2003). 11: Malaquias (unpubl. data). 12: Wirtz and Debelius (2003). Berthella ocellata (Delle Chiaje, 1828) 4: Templado et al. (1993b, as Berthella cf. ocellata). 5: García-Gómez (1987), Cervera et al. (2000). 6: Sánchez Tocino, Ocaña and García (2000a), Peñas et al. (in press, as Berthella cf. ocellata). 8: Ros (1975, 1978b, as Bouvieria). 9: Templado (1982a), Ros and Gili (1985, as Berthella cf. ocellata). 10: Ortea et al. (2001), Wirtz and Debelius (2003). Berthella sideralis Lovén, 1846 1: Bouchet (1977, bathyal). Berthella dautzenbergi Watson, 1897 11: Watson (1897, as Pleurobranchus dautzenbergi), Nobre (1937, as P. dautzenbergi), Nordsieck and García-Talavera (1979, as Bouvieria dautzenbergi), Malaquias (2004). Berthella africana (Pruvot-Fol, 1953) 10: Ortea et al. (2001).

Berthella canariensis Cervera et al., 2000 10: Cervera, García-Gómez and Megina (2000), Ortea et al. (2001). Genus Berthellina Gardiner, 1936 (61) (62) Berthellina edwardsi (Vayssière, 1897) (62) 1: Gofas (unpubl. data). 3: Marqués et al. (1982, as B. citrina), GarcíaGómez et al. (1991), Calado et al. (1999), Muzavor and Morenito (1999). 4: Cervera and García (1986, as Berthellina sp.), Templado et al. (1993b, as Berthellina sp.), Cervera, García-Gómez and Megina (2000). 5: Cervera (unpubl. data). 6: Ballesteros et al. (1986, as Berthella aurantiaca), Ocaña et al. (2000), Peñas et al. (in press). 7: Ballesteros et al. (1986, as Berthella aurantica), Templado et al. (2002). 9: Lacaze-Duthiers (1859, as Pleurobranchus aurantiacus). 10: Pérez-Sánchez and Moreno (1990, as Berthellina quadridens), Malaquias (2000), Ortea et al. (2001), Moro et al. (2003), Wirtz and Debelius (2003). 11: Wirtz (1999), Malaquias et al. (2001), Wirtz and Debelius (2003). 12: Vayssière (1896, 1898, 1902), Azevedo and Gofas (1990, as Berthellina sp.), Wirtz (1998), Ávila et al. (1998), Ávila (2000), Malaquias (2001), Wirtz and Debelius (2003). Subfamily Pleurobranchaeinae Pilsbry, 1896 Genus PIeurobranchaea Meckel in Leue, 1813 Pleurobranchaea meckelii (Blainville, 1825) (63) 1: Ávila Escartín (1993). 3: Nordsieck (1972), García-Gómez et al. (1991, collected from fisheries trawlings). 4: Cervera and García-Gómez (1988), Templado et al. (1993b). 5: Cervera (unpubl. data). 6: Luque (1983, 1986), Templado et al. (1993b), Templado and Moreno (1998), Sánchez Tocino, Ocaña and García (2000a), Ocaña et al. (2000), Peñas et al. (in press). 7: Templado, Talavera and Murillo (1983), Ávila Escartín (1993). 8: Ros (1975, 1978b), Ávila Escartín (1993). 9: Vayssière (1901, 1902). 10: Odhner (1931), Ortea et al. (2001), Wirtz and Debelius (2003).

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11: Wirtz (unpubl. data). 12: Bergh (1899), Malaquias (2001), Wirtz and Debelius (2003). Pleurobranchaea morosa (Bergh, 1892) (63) 12: Bergh (1892, as Pleurobranchillus morosus), Malaquias (2001).

Onchidoris sparsa (Alder and Hancock, 1846) 1: Ortea (1979d). 2: Ortea (1979d), Fernández-Ovies (1981), Urgorri and Besteiro (1983, 1984). 7: Templado, Talavera and Murillo (1987). 8: Ballesteros (1984b). Onchidoris inconspicua (Alder and Hancock, 1851) 2: Ortea and Ballesteros (1982).

Order NUDIBRANCHIA Blainville, 1814 (64) Suborder ANTHOBRANCHIA Minichev, 1970 Infraorder DORlDINA Pelseneer, 1894 “PHANEROBRANCHIA” Fischer, 1883 (65) Family Corambidae Bergh, 1871 Genus Corambe Bergh, 1869 Corambe testudinaria Fischer, 1889 2: Urgorri (1981, as Corambe sp.), García, Urgorri and López González (1990). 4: García, Urgorri and López González (1990). Family Onchidorididae Alder and Hancock, 1845 Genus Adalaria Bergh, 1878 Adalaria proxima (Alder and Hancock, 1854) (66) 3: ? Marques et al. (1982). Genus Onchidoris Blainville, 1816 Onchidoris neapolitana (Delle Chiaje, 1841-44) 5: Sánchez-Santos (in press). 8: Ros (1975, 1978b, 1985a), Ros and Altimira (1977), Altimira, Huelin and Ros (1981), Ortea and Ballesteros (1982), Huelin and Ros (1984), Ballesteros (1985). All records before 1982 as Lamellidoris neopolitana. Onchidoris depressa (Alder and Hancock, 1842) 2: Ortea and Urgorri (1979a), Ortea and Ballesteros (1982), Urgorri and Besteiro (1983, 1984). 3: Nobre (1938-40, as Doris). 4: García-Gómez (2002, as Onchidoris sp.). Onchidoris pusilla (Alder and Hancock, 1845) 2: Ortea (1979b), Urgorri and Besteiro (1983, 1984). 5: Sánchez Santos (pers. comm.).

Onchidoris albonigra (Pruvot-Fol, 1951) 8: Ortea and Ballesteros (1982), Ballesteros (1985). Onchidoris reticulata Ortea, 1979 2: Ortea (1979b), Ortea, Llera and Vizcaino (1982). Onchidoris cervinoi Ortea and Urgorri, 1979 (67) 1: Ortea (1977c, as Adalaria proxima), Ortea and Urgorri (1979a). 2: Ortea and Urgorri (1979a), Urgorri and Besteiro (1983, 1984). Onchidoris tridactila Ortea and Ballesteros, 1982 1: Ortea and Ballesteros (1982). Genus Acanthodoris Gray, 1850 Acanthodoris pilosa (Abilgaard, 1789) (68) 1: Thorson (1965). 5: García-Gómez (1987, 2002, as A. cf. pilosa). Genus Diaphorodoris Iredale and O’Donoghue, 1923 Diaphorodoris luteocincta (Sars, 1870) 1: Cervera et al. (1988), Ávila Escartín (1993). 3: García-Gómez et al. (1991), Calado et al. (1999, 2003). 5: García-Gómez (1983), García-Gómez et al. (1989). 6: Luque (1983, 1986), Sánchez Tocino, Ocaña and García (2000a), Ocaña et al. (2000), Peñas et al. (in press). 7: Ballesteros et al. (1986), Marín and Ros (1987). 8: Ros (1975, 1978b, 1985a), Ros and Altimira (1977), Ballesteros (1985). 9: Ballesteros and Templado (1996). 10: Ortea et al. (2001), Moro et al. (2003). 12: Wirtz and Martins (1993), Wirtz (1998), Ávila et al. (1998), Ávila (2000), Malaquias (2001).

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All records before 1988, except those of Ballesteros et al. (1986) and Marín and Ros (1987), are referred to the variety alba of this species. Diaphorodoris papillata Portmann and Sandmeier, 1960 1: Ávila Escartín (1993). 3: García-Gómez et al. (1991), Calado et al. (1999, 2005), Wirtz and Debelius (2003). 5: García-Gómez (1983), García-Gómez et al. (1989). 6: Luque (1983, 1986), Templado, Luque and Moreno (1988), Sánchez Tocino, Ocaña and García (2000a), Ocaña et al. (2000), Peñas et al. (in press). 7: Templado (1982b, 1983, 1984), Templado, Luque and Moreno (1988). 8: Ros (1975, 1978b, 1985a), Ros and Altimira (1977), Altimira, Huelin and Ros (1981), Huelin and Ros (1984), Ballesteros (1985), Wirtz and Debelius (2003). Family Goniodorididae H. and A. Adams, 1854 Genus Goniodoris Forbes and Goodsir, 1839 Goniodoris nodosa (Montagu, 1808) 1: Ortea (1977c). 2: Ortea (1977c), Urgorri and Besteiro (1983), Rolán (1983). 3: Nobre (1932), García-Gómez et al. (1991). Goniodoris castanea Alder and Hancock, 1845 1: Ortea (1977c). 2: Ortea (1977c), Urgorri and Besteiro (1983, 1984). 3: De Oliveira (1895), Nobre (1932), GarcíaGómez et al. (1991), Calado et al. (1999, 2003). 4: Cervera and García-Gómez (1986), Wägele and Cervera (2001). 5: García-Gómez (1983), García-Gómez et al. (1989), Sánchez-Moyano et al. (2000). 7: De Fez (1974), Marín and Ros (1987). 8: Ballesteros (1985). 9: Templado (1982a). 10: Ortea et al. (1996, 2001), Moro et al. (2003). 11: Malaquias (unpubl. data). Genus Okenia Menke, 1830 Okenia aspersa Alder and Hancock, 1845 (69) 3: Cervera, García-Gómez and Ortea (1991).

Okenia mediterranea (Ihering, 1886) 2: Valdés and Ortea (1995). 3: Calado et al. (2003). 4: Cervera, García-Gómez and Ortea (1991), Valdés and Ortea (1995). 5: Valdés and Ortea (1995). 6: Moreno and Templado (1998). 11: Valdés and Ortea (1995). Okenia zoobotryon (Smallwod, 1910) 10: Ortea et al. (1996, 2001, 2003), Moro et al. (2003). Okenia cupella (Vogel and Schultz, 1970) 5: Valdés and Ortea (1995). 6: Valdés and Ortea (1995), Peñas et al. (in press). 7: Templado (1982b, as O. impexa), Valdés and Ortea (1995), Templado et al. (2002). Okenia elegans (Leuckart, 1828) 5: Sánchez-Santos (unpubl. data). 8: Ballesteros (unpubl. data). Okenia hispanica Valdés and Ortea, 1995 6: Templado et al. (1993b, as Okenia sp.), Valdés and Ortea (1995), Villena et al. (1997), Peñas et al. (in press). Genus Ancula Lovén, 1846 Ancula gibbosa (Risso, 1818) 1: Ortea (1977c). 2: Urgorri and Besteiro (1983, 1984), Rolán (1983). 3: García-Gómez et al. (1991). 8: Arias and Morales (1963). Genus Trapania Pruvot-Fol, 1931 Trapania tartanella (Ihering, 1885) 1: Ortea et al. (1989), Templado et al. (1993a). 2: Urgorri and Besteiro (1983). 3: García-Gómez et al. (1991), Calado et al. (1999, 2003). 4: Cervera, García-Gómez and Megina (2000). 6: Templado, Luque and Moreno (1988). Trapania lineata Haefelfinger, 1960 5: Sánchez Santos (unpubl. data). 6: Sánchez Tocino, Ocaña and García (2000a), Ocaña et al. (2000).

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7: Templado (1982b, 1983, 1984), Ballesteros et al. (1986), Ávila Escartín (1993), Templado et al. (2002). 8: Ros (1978b), Ballesteros (1985), Ávila Escartín (1993). 9: Ávila Escartín (1993). Trapania maculata Haefelfinger, 1960 1: Ortea (1977c), Cervera and García-Gómez (1989c), Ávila Escartín (1993). 2: Ortea (1977c), Urgorri and Besteiro (1983, 1984). 4: Cervera and García-Gómez (1989c). 5: Cervera and García-Gómez (1989c), GarcíaGómez et al. (1989). 6: Cervera and García-Gómez (1989c), Sánchez Tocino, Ocaña and García (2000a), Ocaña et al. (2000). 7: Ballesteros et al. (1986), Templado, Talavera and Murillo (1987), Templado et al. (2002), Cervera and García-Gómez (1989c). 8: Ros (1975), Altimira, Huelin and Ros (1981), Huelin and Ros (1984), Ballesteros (1985), Cervera and García-Gómez (1989c), Ávila Escartín (1993). 9: Templado (1982a), Ávila Escartín (1993). Trapania pallida Kress, 1968 2: Ortea and Urgorri (1981a), Urgorri and Besteiro (1983, 1984). 4: García-Gómez (2002). Trapania orteai García-Gómez and Cervera in Cervera and García-Gómez, 1989 (70) 3: Gavaia et al. (2004). 4: García-Gómez (1984a, as T. cf. maculata), Cervera and García (1986, as T. cf. maculata), Cervera and García-Gómez (1989a), Templado et al. (1993a), Cervera, García-Gómez and Megina (2000). 5: García-Gómez (1987, as T. cf. maculata), Cervera and García-Gómez (1989a). Trapania hispalensis Cervera and García-Gómez, 1989 (70) 2: Martínez et al. (1990). 5: Cervera and García-Gómez (1989a), GarcíaGómez et al. (1989), Templado et al. (1993a). 6: Templado et al. (1993b, as T. cf. hispalensis), Sánchez Tocino, Ocaña and García (2000a), Ocaña et al. (2000). Trapania luquei Ortea, 1989 10: Moro, Ortea and Bacallado (1997), Moro et al. (2003), Ortea et al. (2001).

Trapania sanctipetrensis Cervera, García-Gómez and Megina, 2000 4: Cervera, García-Gómez and Megina (2000). Genus Bermudella Odhner, 1941 Bermudella polycerelloides Ortea and Bouchet, 1983 10: Ortea and Bouchet (1983), Ortea et al. (1996, 2001), Moro et al. (2003). Family Polyceridae Alder and Hancock, 1845 (71) Genus Limacia O. F. Müller, 1781 Limacia clavigera (O. F. Müller, 1776) 1: Hidalgo (1917), Ortea et al. (1989), Ávila Escartín (1993). 2: Pruvot-Fol (1954), Ortea (1977c), Urgorri and Besteiro (1983), Trigo and Otero (1987). 3: De Oliveira (1895), Hidalgo (1917), Nobre (1932), Ortea et al. (1989), García-Gómez et al. (1991), Calado et al. (1999, 2003), Muzavor and Morenito (1999), Malaquias and Morenito (2000). 4: Cervera (unpubl. data). 5: García-Gómez (1983), Sánchez-Moyano et al. (2000), Megina and Cervera (2003). 6: Sánchez Tocino, Ocaña and García (2000a), Ocaña et al. (2000). 7: Templado (1983, 1984), Ortea et al. (1989). 8: Ros (1975, 1978b, 1985a), Ros and Altimira (1977), Altimira, Huelin and Ros (1981). 9: Templado (1982a). 10: Ortea et al. (1989, 1996, 2001), Pérez-Sánchez and Moreno (1990), Pérez Sánchez, Ortea and Bacallado (1990), Pérez Sánchez et al. (1991), Moro et al. (2003). 12: Wirtz (1998), Ortea, Moro and Espinosa (1996), Ávila et al. (1998), Ávila (2000), Malaquias (2001). Genus Polycera Cuvier, 1817 Polycera quadrilineata (O. F. Müller, 1776) 1: Hidalgo (1917), Fez (1974), Ortea (1977c). 2: Ortea (1977c), Urgorri and Besteiro (1983, 1984). 3: De Oliveira (1895), Hidalgo (1916), Nobre (1932), García-Gómez et al. (1991), Calado et al. (1999, 2003). 4: García-Gómez (1982).

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5: García-Gómez (1982), García-Gómez et al. (1989), Megina and Cervera (2003). 6: Luque (1983, 1986), Templado, Luque and Moreno (1988), Schick (1998), Sánchez Tocino, Ocaña and García (2000a), Ocaña et al. (2000). 7: De Fez (1974), Templado (1982b, 1983, 1984), Marín and Ros (1987), Templado, Luque and Moreno (1988). 8: Ros (1975), Ballesteros (1985). 9: Ballesteros, Álvarez and Mateo (1986), Dekker (1986), Wirtz and Debelius (2003). 10: Pérez Sánchez, Ortea and Bacallado (1990), Pérez Sánchez, Bacallado and Ortea (1991), Ortea et al. (1996, 2001), Moro et al. (2003). 11: Wirtz (1995b, 1999), Ortea et al. (1996), Wirtz and Debelius (2003). 12: Ortea et al. (1996), Wirtz (1998), Morton et al. (1998), Ávila et al. (1998), Ávila (2000), Malaquias (2001), Wirtz and Debelius (2003). Polycera dubia Sars, 1829 2: Fernández-Ovies (1979), Ortea and Urgorri (198la), Urgorri and Besteiro (1983), Rolán (1983). All references as Palio dubia. 8: Vilella (1994, as Palio espagnoli n. sp.). Polycera elegans Bergh, 1894 1: Ortea (1977c), Fernández-Ovies (1981). Both records as Greilada elegans. 3: Calado et al. (1999). 5: García-Gómez et al. (1989), Wirtz and Debelius (2003). 8: Ballesteros (unpubl. data). 9: Wirtz and Debelius (2003). 10: Ortea et al. (1996, 2001), Moro et al. (2003). 12: Wirtz and Martins (1993), Wirtz (1998), Ortea et al. (1996), Ávila et al. (1998), Ávila (2000), Malaquias (2001), Wirtz and Debelius (2003). Polycera faeroensis Lemche, 1929 1: Martínez et al. (1990). 2: Ortea and Urgorri (1981a), Urgorri and Besteiro (1983, 1984). 3: Calado et al. (1999, 2003), Wirtz and Debelius (2003). 5: García-Gómez (1983), García-Gómez et al. (1989), Megina and Cervera (2003). 6: Sánchez Tocino, Ocaña and García (2000a), Ocaña et al. (2000). Polycera hedgpethi Marcus, 1964 1: Caballer and Ortea (2002).

Polycera aurantiomarginata García-Gómez and Bobo, 1984 (72) 3: Gavaia et al. (2004). 4: García-Gómez and Bobo (1984), Cervera and García-Gómez (1986), Templado et al. (1993a), Megina and Cervera (2003). 6: Templado, Luque and Moreno (1988), Sánchez Tocino, Ocaña and García (2000a), Ocaña et al. (2000). Genus Thecacera Fleming, 1828 Thecacera pennigera (Montagu, 1815) 1: Hidalgo (1916), Ros (1975), Fernández-Ovies (1981). 3: Gavaia et al. (2004). 4: Cervera and García-Gómez (1986), Megina and Cervera (2003). 10: Ortea et al. (1996, 2001), Malaquias and Calado (1997), Moro et al. (2003). 11: Wirtz (1995a,b, 1999), Ortea et al. (1996), Wirtz and Debelius (2003). Genus Plocamopherus Leuckart, 1828 Plocamopherus maderae (Lowe, 1842) 10: Malaquias and Calado (1997), Malaquias (2000), Ortea et al. (1996, 2001, 2003), Moro et al. (2003), Wirtz and Debelius (2003). 11: Lowe (1842), Watson (1897), Eliot (1906), Nobre (1937), Nordsieck (1972), Ortea and Pérez (1992), Wirtz (1995b, 1999), Ortea et al. (1996), Malaquias et al. (2001), Wirtz and Debelius (2003). Genus Crimora Alder and Hancock, 1862 Crimora papillata Alder and Hancock, 1862 1: Ros (1975). 2: Urgorri and Besteiro (1983). 3: García-Gómez et al. (1991), Calado et al. (1999, 2003). 4: Cervera (unpubl. data). 5: García-Gómez (1983), García-Gómez et al. (1989). 6: Templado, Luque and Moreno (1988), Sánchez Tocino, Ocaña and García (2000a), Ocaña et al. (2000), Peñas et al. (in press). 7: Templado, Talavera and Murillo (1987). 8: Ballesteros (1985), Wirtz and Debelius (2003). 10: Ortea et al. (1996, 2001), Moro et al. (2003), Wirtz and Debelius (2003).

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Genus Roboastra Bergh, 1877 Roboastra europaea García-Gómez, 1985 3: García-Gómez et al. (1991), Pola, Cervera and Gosliner (2003, in press), Wirtz and Debelius (2003), Calado et al. (2003). 4: Megina and Cervera (2003). 5: García-Gómez (1985), Megina and Cervera (2003). 6: Moreno and Templado (1998), Schick (1998), Sánchez Tocino, Ocaña and García (2000a), Ocaña et al. (2000), Pola, Cervera and Gosliner (2003, in press), Wirtz and Debelius (2003). 8: Pola, Cervera and Gosliner (in press). 11: Pola, Cervera and Gosliner (in press). Genus Polycerella Verrill, 1880 Polycerella emertoni Verrill, 1880 3: García-Gómez et al. (1991). 4: García-Gómez and Bobo (1986), Cervera (1988), Megina and Cervera (2003). Genus Kaloplocamus Bergh, 1880 (73) Kaloplocamus ramosus (Cantraine, 1835) 5: García Gómez (2002). 6: Templado et al. (1993b), Peñas et al. (in press). 7: Templado, Talavera and Murillo (1987), Templado et al. (2002). 8: Ros (1975). 9: Ballesteros and Templado (1996). 10: Odhner (1931), Ortea, Moro and Caballer (2001), Ortea et al. (1996, as K. aureus, 2001, 2003), Moro et al. (2003). 11: Malaquias (unpubl. data). 12: Wirtz (1998), Ávila et al. (1998), Ávila (2000), Malaquias (2001), Wirtz and Debelius (2003). Kaloplocamus atlanticus (Bergh, 1892) 10: Malaquias and Calado (1997), Malaquias (2000). 12: Bergh (1892, 1899, both as Euplocamus atlanticus), Nordsieck (1972, as Kaloplocamus ramosus), Malaquias (2001). Genus Tambja Burn, 1962 Tambja ceutae García-Gómez and Ortea, 1988 5: García-Gómez and Ortea (1988), García-Gómez et al. (1989), Megina and Cervera (2003), Wirtz and Debelius (2003), Ocaña, Sánchez-Tocino and García (2004).

6: Templado and Moreno (1998), Schick (1998), Sánchez Tocino, Ocaña and García (2000a,b), Ocaña et al. (2000), Ocaña, Sánchez-Tocino and García (2004). 10: Ortea et al. (1996, 2001), Caballer, Moro and Ortea (2001), Moro et al. (2003), Wirtz and Debelius (2003). 11: Malaquias et al. (2001). 12: Wirtz and Martins (1993), Ortea et al. (1996), Wirtz (1995b, as Tambja ceutae and also as Roboastra europea), Wirtz (1998 as Tambja ceutae and as Tambja sp.), Ávila et al. (1998), Ávila (2000, as Tambja ceutae and Tambja sp.), Malaquias (2001), Wirtz and Debelius (2003). Tambja marbellensis Schick and Cervera, 1998 3: Malaquias and Morenito (2000). 5: Sánchez-Santos (unpubl. data). 6: Schick and Cervera (1998), Sánchez Tocino, Ocaña and García (2000a,b), Ocaña et al. (2000), Ocaña, Sánchez-Tocino and García (2004). Family Aegiridae Fischer, 1883 (74) Genus Aegires Lovén, 1844 Aegires punctilucens (D’Orbigny, 1837) (75) 1: Ortea (1977c), Templado, Luque and Ortea (1987). 2: Urgorri and Besteiro (1983, 1984). 3: García-Gómez et al. (1991), Calado et al. (1999, 2003). 5: García-Gómez et al. (1989). 6: Templado, Luque and Ortea (1987). 7: Templado (1982b, 1983, 1984), Ballesteros et al. (1986), Templado, Luque and Ortea (1987), Marín and Ros (1987). 8: Ballesteros (unpubl. data). Aegires leuckarti Vérany, 1853 (75) 5: García-Gómez et al. (1989). 6: Ballesteros et al. (1986, as A. punctilucens), Sánchez Tocino, Ocaña and García (2000a), Ocaña et al. (2000). 7: Templado (1982b, 1983, 1984, all as A. punctilucens), Marín and Ros (1987, as A. punctilucens), Templado, Luque and Ortea (1987, as A. punctilucens leuckarti), Templado, Talavera and Murillo (1987, as A. punctilucens leuckarti). 8: Ballesteros (unpubl. data). 9: Ballesteros, Álvarez and Mateo (1986, as A. punctilucens leuckarti). Aegires sublaevis Odhner, 1931 7: Templado, Talavera and Murillo (1987).

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10: Odhner (1931), Altimira and Ros (1979, as Serigea sublaevis), Pérez Sánchez, Ortea and Bacallado (1990), Pérez Sánchez, Bacallado and Ortea (1991), Ortea et al. (1996, 2001, 2003), Malaquias and Calado (1997). 11: Malaquias et al. (2001). 12: Calado (2002), Fahey and Gosliner (2004). Aegires palensis Ortea, Luque and Templado, 1990 (76) 6: Moreno and Templado (1998), Fahey and Gosliner (2004). 7: Ortea, Bacallado and Pérez Sánchez (1990), Templado et al. (1993a). “CRYPTOBRANCHIA” Fischer, 1883 LABIOSTOMATA Valdés, 2002 (77) Family Chromodorididae Bergh, 1891 Genus Glossodoris Ehrenbergh, 1831 Glossodoris edmundsi Cervera, García-Gómez and Ortea, 1989 (78) 10: Odhner (1931), Altimira and Ros (1979), Pérez Sánchez, Ortea and Bacallado (1991, as Chromodoris punctilucens), Cervera, García-Gómez and Ortea (1989), Templado et al. (1993a), Ortea, Valdés and García-Gómez (1996), Ortea et al. (2001), Moro et al. (2003), Wirtz and Debelius (2003). 11: Wirtz (1995a,b, 1999), Ortea, Valdés and GarcíaGómez (1996), Wirtz and Debelius (2003). 12: Gosliner (1990), Wirtz (1995b, 1998), Ávila et al. (1998), Ávila (2000), Malaquias (2001), Wirtz and Debelius (2003). Genus Hypselodoris Stimpson, 1855 (79) Hypselodoris villafranca (Risso, 1818) (80) 1: Hidalgo (1916), Ros (1975, as Glossodoris gracilis), Ávila et al. (1991), Ávila Escartín (1993), Fontana et al. (1993), Ortea, Valdés and García-Gómez (1996). 2: Ortea (1977c, as G. gracilis), Urgorri and Besteiro (1983, as Hypselodoris gracilis), Otero and Trigo (1987, as H. gracilis), Ortea, Valdés and García-Gómez (1996). 3: De Oliveira (1895, as Chromodoris villafranca and C. gracilis), Nobre (1932, as Chromodoris), Saldanha (1974, as Glossodoris gracilis), García-Gómez et al. (1991), Calado et al. (1999, 2003), Macedo, Macedo and Borges (1999), Muzavor and Morenito (1999), Malaquias and Morenito (2000), Wirtz and Debelius (2003). 4: Cervera and García-Gómez (1986), GarcíaGómez, Medina and Coveñas (1991), Ortea, Valdés and García-Gómez (1996).

5: García-Gómez (1982, as G. gracilis), García-Gómez et al. (1989), García-Gómez, Medina and Coveñas (1991), Ortea, Valdés and García-Gómez (1996). 6: Luque (1983, 1986, both as H. gracilis), Salas and Luque (1986, as G. gracilis), Ortea, Valdés and García-Gómez (1996), Schick (1998), Sánchez Tocino, Ocaña and García (2000a), Ocaña et al. (2000), Peñas et al. (in press). 7: Fez (1974, as G. gracilis), Templado (1982b, 1983, 1984, all as H. gracilis), Ballesteros et al. (1986, as H. gracilis), Marín and Ros (1987), Templado et al. (2002). 8: Ros (1975, 1978b, 1985a, all as G. gracilis), Ros and Altimira (1977, as G. gracilis), Pereira (1980, as G. gracilis), Altimira, Huelin and Ros (1981, as G. gracilis), Huelin and Ros (1984, as H. gracilis), Ballesteros (1985, as H. gracilis), Ortea, Valdés and García-Gómez (1996). 9: Ros (1981b, as G. gracilis), Ballesteros (1981a, as G. gracilis), Dekker (1986). Hypselodoris picta (Schultz, 1836) (81) 1: Ros (1975, 1978b), Ortea (1977c), Ávila Escartín (1993), Fontana et al. (1993). 2: Urgorri and Besteiro (1983). 3: Calado et al. (1999) 4: Templado et al. (1993b), García-Gómez, Cimino and Medina (1990), García-Gómez, Medina and Coveñas (1991), Ortea, Valdés and GarcíaGómez (1996), Gosliner and Johnson (1999). 6: Ros (1975), Luque (1983, 1986), Salas and Luque (1986), Ballesteros et al. (1986), Ortea, Valdés and García-Gómez (1996), Schick (1998), Sánchez Tocino, Ocaña and García (2000a), Ocaña et al. (2000), Peñas et al. (in press). 7: De Fez (1974, as Chromodoris villafranca), Templado (1982b, 1983, 1984), Ortea and Templado (1984), Ballesteros (1985), Ramos (1985), Ballesteros et al. (1986), Marín and Ros (1987, as Hypselodoris elegans), Ortea, Valdés and García-Gómez (1996), Aguado-Giménez (2000), Templado et al. (2002). 8: Ros (1975, 1978b, 1985a,b), Ros and Altimira (1977), Pereira (1980), Altimira, Huelin and Ros (1981), Huelin and Ros (1984), Ballesteros (1985), Ávila et al. (1991, as H. webbi), Ortea, Valdés and García-Gómez (1996). 9: Ballesteros (1981a), Ros (1981b), Ros and Gili (1985), Ballesteros, Álvarez and Mateo (1986), Altaba (1993, as H. elegans), Wirtz and Debelius (2003). 10: Odhner (1931), Pruvot-Fol (1954), Nordsieck (1972), Altimira and Ros (1979), Ortea and

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Templado (1984), Pérez-Sánchez and Moreno (1990), Pérez Sánchez, Bacallado and Ortea (1991), Ortea, Valdés and García-Gómez (1996), Malaquias and Calado (1997, as H. picta webbi), Malaquias (2000, as H. picta webbi), Ortea et al. (2001, as H. picta webbi), Moro et al. (2003), Wirtz and Debelius (2003). 11: Wirtz (1994, as H. webbi), Ortea, Valdés and García-Gómez (1996), Malaquias et al. (2001). 12: Bergh (1899, as Chromodoris cantrainei), Gosliner (1990), Wirtz (1994, 1998, as H. picta azorica), Ortea, Valdés and García-Gómez (1996, as H. picta azorica), Ávila et al. (1998), Gosliner and Johnson (1999), Ávila (2000), Malaquias (2001), Wirtz and Debelius (2003). Most of the records before 1996 refer to Glossodoris valenciennesi, Hypselodoris valenciennesi or H. webbi. After that year, many of the records refer to H. picta webbi. Hypselodoris orsinii (Verany, 1846) (82) 1: Ros (1975, 1978b, as Glossodoris tricolor), Ávila Escartín (1993). 5: García-Gómez (1983, as H. coelestis), García-Gómez et al. (1989, as H. coelestis), García-Gómez, Medina and Coveñas (1991, as H. coelestis), Ortea, Valdés and García-Gómez (1996), Gosliner and Johnson (1999). 6: Ortea, Valdés and García-Gómez (1996), Ocaña et al. (2000), Peñas et al. (in press). 7: Templado, Talavera and Murillo (1983, as H. coelestis), Templado et al. (2002), Ballesteros (1985, as H. coelestis), Ballesteros et al. (1986, as H. coelestis). 8: Ballesteros (1985, as H. coelestis), Ortea, Valdés and García-Gómez (1996). 9: Ballesteros, Álvarez and Mateo (1986, as H. coelestis), Gosliner and Johnson (1999), Wirtz and Debelius (2003). Hypselodoris fontandraui (Pruvot-Fol, 1951) (83) 1: Ortea (1977c, Glossodoris), Ávila Escartín (1993), Ortea, Valdés and García-Gómez (1996). 3: Calado et al. (2003). 5: García-Gómez (1983, as H. messinensis), GarcíaGómez, Medina and Coveñas (1991, as H. cf. messinensis), Ortea, Valdés and García-Gómez (1996), Gosliner and Johnson (1999). 6: Luque (1983, 1986, both as H. messinensis), Ortea, Valdés and García-Gómez (1996), Sánchez Tocino, Ocaña and García (2000a), Ocaña et al. (2000). 7: Templado (1982b, 1983, 1984, all as H. messinensis). 8: Vicente (1964), Ros (1975, 1978), Ros and Altimira (1977), Altimira, Huelin and Ros

(1981), Huelin and Ros (1984). All records but the last one, as Glossodoris. 9: Ros (1981b, as H. messinensis, 1985b), Ros and Gili (1985). 10: Wirtz and Debelius (2003). 12: Wirtz (1995b, 1998), Ávila et al. (1998), Ávila (2000), Malaquias (2001), Wirtz and Debelius (2003). Hypselodoris bilineata (Pruvot-Fol, 1953) 3: García-Gómez et al. (1991), Ortea, Valdés and García-Gómez (1996), Calado et al. (1999, 2003), Wirtz and Debelius (2003). 4: Cervera and García-Gómez (1986), GarcíaGómez, Medina and Coveñas (1991), Ortea, Valdés and García-Gómez (1996). 5: García-Gómez (1983), García-Gómez et al. (1989), García-Gómez, Medina and Coveñas (1991), Ortea, Valdés and García-Gómez (1996), Gosliner and Johnson (1999). 6: Luque (1983, 1986), Ávila Escartín (1993), Schick (1998), Sánchez Tocino, Ocaña and García (2000a), Ocaña et al. (2000), Peñas et al. (in press). 7: Ortea, Valdés and García-Gómez (1996), Templado et al. (2002). 8: Ávila Escartín (1993). 9: Ballesteros and Templado (1996). 10: Ortea, Valdés and García-Gómez (1996), Ortea et al. (2001, 2003), all as H. bilineata viridis, Malaquias and Calado (1997, as H. bilineata bilineata), Moro et al. (2003). 11: ?Ledoyer (1967, as Glossodoris gracilis), Ortea, Valdés and García-Gómez (1996), Wirtz (1999), Malaquias et al. (2001), Wirtz and Debelius (2003). Hypselodoris cantabrica Bouchet and Ortea, 1980 1: Bouchet and Ortea (1980), Ávila Escartín (1993), Fontana et al. (1993), Ortea, Valdés and García-Gómez (1996). 2: Bouchet and Ortea (1980). 3: García-Gómez et al. (1991), Calado et al. (1999, 2005), Malaquias and Morenito (2000), Wirtz and Debelius (2003). 4: García Gómez, Medina and Coveñas (1991), Ortea, Valdés and García-Gómez (1996). 5: García-Gómez (1983), García-Gómez et al. (1989), García-Gómez, Cimino and Medina (1990), Ortea, Valdés and García Gómez (1996), Gosliner and Johnson (1999). 6: Luque (1983, 1986), Ortea, Valdés and García Gómez (1996), Schick (1998), Sánchez Tocino, Ocaña and García (2000a), Ocaña et al. (2000).

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Hypselodoris malacitana Luque, 1986 5: Sánchez-Santos (pers. comm.). 6: Luque (1986), Ortea, Valdés and García-Gómez (1996), Ocaña et al. (2000), Peñas et al. (in press). Hypselodoris tricolor (Cantraine, 1835) / Hypselodoris midatlantica Gosliner, 1990 (84) 1: Ávila Escartín (1993). 2: Ortea (1977c, as Glossodoris tricolor), Ortea, Valdés and García-Gómez (1996). 3: Calado et al. (1999, 2005), Muzavor and Morenito (1999), Malaquias and Morenito (2000). 4: García Gómez, Medina and Coveñas (1991). 5: García-Gómez (1983), García-Gómez et al. (1989), García Gómez, Medina and Coveñas (1991), Ortea, Valdés and García-Gómez (1996), Gosliner and Johnson (1999). 6: Luque (1983, 1986), Salas and Luque (1986), Schick (1998), Ocaña et al. (2000), Peñas et al. (in press). 7: Ortea, Valdés and García-Gómez (1996), Marín and Ros (1987), Templado et al. (2002). 8: Ballesteros et al. (1986), Ortea, Valdés and García-Gómez (1996). 9: Vicente (1964), Ros (1975, 1978b), Ros and Altimira (1977), Pereira (1980), Altimira, Huelin and Ros (1981), Huelin and Ros (1984), Ballesteros (1985), Ballesteros and Templado (1996). 10: Ballesteros (1981a), Ortea, Valdés and GarcíaGómez (1996), Ortea et al. (2001, 2003), Malaquias and Calado (1997), Moro et al. (2003). 11: Ortea, Valdés and García-Gómez (1996), Wirtz (1999). 12: Gosliner (1990), Ortea, Valdés and GarcíaGómez (1996), Wirtz (1998), Ávila et al. (1998), Ávila (2000), Malaquias (2001), Wirtz and Debelius (2003). Genus Chromodoris Alder and Hancock, 1855 Chromodoris luteorosea (Rapp, 1827) (85) 1: Ros (1975), Ortea and Valdés (1991), Wirtz and Debelius (2003). 2: Ortea (1977c, as Glossodoris). 3: Calado et al. (1999, 2003), Wirtz and Debelius (2003). 4: Cervera and García-Gómez (1986), GarcíaGómez et al. (1989). 5: Gacía-Gómez (1983), García-Gómez et al. (1989), García-Gómez, Medina and Coveñas (1991).

6: Templado et al. (1993b), Sánchez Tocino, Ocaña and García (2000a), Ocaña et al. (2000), Peñas et al. (in press). 7: Templado (1982b, 1983, 1984), Templado et al. (2002). 8: Vicente (1964), Ros (1975, 1978b), Ros and Altimira (1977), Pereira (1980), Altimira, Huelin and Ros (1981) (all these records as Glossodoris), Huelin and Ros (1984), Ballesteros (1985). 10: Pérez Sánchez and Moreno (1990), Ortea et al. (2001), Moro et al. (2003). Chromodoris purpurea (Laurillard, 1831) (85) 1: Ortea (1977c, as Glossodoris), Ortea and Peréz (1983), Ávila Escartín (1993). 2: Ortea (1977c), Urgori and Besteiro (1983), Otero and Trigo (1987). 3: De Oliveira (1895, as C. albescens), Nobre (1932, as C. albescens), García-Gómez et al. (1991), Calado et al. (1999, 2005), Muzavor and Morenito (1999), Malaquias and Morenito (2000). 4: Cervera and García-Gómez (1986). 5: García-Gómez (1983), García-Gómez et al. (1989), García Gómez, Medina and Coveñas (1991). 6: Luque (1983, 1986), Salas and Luque (1986), Templado, Luque and Moreno (1988), Schick (1998), Sánchez Tocino, Ocaña and García (2000a), Ocaña et al. (2000), Peñas et al. (in press). 7: Templado (1982b, 1983, 1984), Ballesteros (1985), Ballesteros et al. (1986), Marín and Ros (1987), Templado et al. (2002). 8: Altimira, Huelin and Ros (1981, as Glossodoris), Huelin and Ros (1984), Ballesteros (1985). 9: Ros (1975, as Glossodoris, 1985b), Ros and Gili (1985), Dekker (1986). 10: Pérez-Sánchez and Moreno (1990), PerézSánchez et al. (1991), Malaquias (2000), Ortea et al. (2001, 2003). 11: Wirtz (1994, 1999), Malaquias et al. (2001). 12: Gosliner (1990), Wirtz (1994, 1995a, 1998), Morton et al. (1998), Ávila et al. (1998), Ávila (2000), Malaquias (2001), Wirtz and Debelius (2003). Chromodoris krohni (Vérany, 1846) (85) 1: Ros (1975, as Glossodoris), Ávila Escartín (1993). 2: Ortea (1977c, as Glossodoris), Fernández-Ovies (1981, as Glossodoris), Urgorri and Besteiro (1983).

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3: García-Gómez et al. (1991), Calado et al. (1999, 2003), Malaquias and Morenito (2000), Wirtz and Debelius (2003). 4: Cervera and García-Gómez (1986). 5: García-Gómez (1982), García-Gómez et al. (1989), García Gómez, Medina and Coveñas (1991). 6: Hergueta (1985), Luque (1986), Salas and Hergueta (1986), Schick (1998), Sánchez Tocino, Ocaña and García (2000a), Ocaña et al. (2000), Peñas et al. (in press). 7: Templado (1982b), Ballesteros et al. (1986), Marín and Ros (1987), Templado et al. (2002). 8: Ros (1975, 1978b, both as Glossodoris), Ros and Altimira (1977, as Glossodoris), Ballesteros (1985). 9: Ballesteros, Álvarez and Mateo (1986), Dekker (1986). 10: Ortea et al. (2001), Moro et al. (2003). 12: Ávila et al. (1998), Ávila (2000), Malaquias (2001), Wirtz and Debelius (2003). Chromodoris luteopunctata (Gantès, 1962) (86) 3: Malaquias and Morenito (2000). 4: Cervera, García-Gómez and Ortea (1989), García Gómez, Medina and Coveñas (1991). 5: García-Gómez et al. (1989). 6: Sánchez Tocino, Ocaña and García (2000a), Ocaña et al. (2000), Wirtz and Debelius (2003). 10: Ortea and Valdés (1991), Ortea et al. (2001), Moro et al. (2003), Wirtz and Debelius (2003). All these records as C. rodomaculata. Chromodoris britoi Ortea and Pérez, 1983 (87) 1: Ávila Escartín (1993). 5: García-Gómez (1987), García Gómez, Medina and Coveñas (1991). 6: Luque (1986), Sánchez Tocino, Ocaña and García (2000a), Ocaña et al. (2000). 7: Templado, Talavera and Murillo (1983), Templado et al. (2002), Ballesteros et al. (1986). 8: Cervera et al. (1988). 10: Ortea and Pérez (1983), Pérez Sánchez, Bacallado and Ortea (1991), Malaquias and Calado (1997), Malaquias (2000), Ortea et al. (2001), Moro et al. (2003). 11: Ortea, Valdés and Espinosa (1994), Wirtz (1994, 1999). 12: Gosliner (1990, as C. clenchi), Ortea, Valdés and Espinosa (1994), Wirtz (1994, 1995a, 1998), Ávila et al. (1998), Ávila (2000), Malaquias (2001), Wirtz and Debelius (2003).

Chromodoris goslineri Ortea and Valdés in Ortea, Valdés and García-Gómez, 1996 12: Ortea, Valdés and García-Gómez (1996), Villena et al. (1997), Malaquias (2001). Genus Cadlina Bergh, 1878 (88) Cadlina laevis (Linnaeus, 1767) 2: Ortea and Urgorri (1981a). 5: García-Gómez (1982). 7: Templado (1982b, 1983, 1984). 8: Ros (1975, 1978b, 1985a), Ros and Altimira (1977), Altimira, Huelin and Ros (1981), Vilella (1994, as C. boscai n. sp.). 9: Ballesteros and Templado (1996). Cadlina pellucida (Risso, 1826) 1: Ortea (1977c), Fernández-Ovies (1981). 2: Ortea (1977c). 3: García-Gómez et al. (1991), Calado et al. (1999, 2003). 5: García-Gómez et al. (1989). 6: Moreno and Templado (1998), Sánchez Tocino, Ocaña and García (2000a), Ocaña et al. (2000). 7: Templado (1982b, 1983, 1984). 9: Ballesteros and Templado (1996). 10: Ortea et al. (2001), Moro et al. (2003). Family Dorididae Rafinesque, 1815 (89) Genus Doris Linnaeus, 1758 Doris verrucosa Linnaeus, 1758 1: Nordsieck (1972), Ortea (1977c), FernándezOvies (1981), Ávila Escartín (1993). 2: Urgorri and Besteiro (1983, 1984), Rolán (1983), Trigo and Otero (1987). 3: De Oliveira (1895, as Staurodoris), Hidalgo (1916, as Staurodoris), Nobre (1932, as Staurodoris), Saldanha (1974), García-Gómez et al. (1991). 4: Megina (unpubl. data). 5: García-Gómez (1982, 2002). 6: Luque (1983, 1986), Hergueta and Salas (1987). 7: Fez (1974, as Archidoris). 8: Ros (1975, 1985a, b), Ros and Altimira (1977), Ballesteros (1978, 1985), Altimira, Huelin and Ros (1981), Huelin and Ros (1984). 9: Ros (1985b).

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10: Ortea, Pérez Sánchez and Llera (1982), Pérez Sánchez and Moreno (1990), Pérez Sánchez, Bacallado and Ortea (1991), Ortea et al (2001), Moro et al. (2003). Doris pseudoargus Rapp, 1827 (90) 1: Ortea (1977c, as Archidoris tuberculata), Ávila Escartín (1993, as A. tuberculata). 2: Ortea (1977c, as A. pseudoargus), Urgorri and Besteiro (1983, 1984, both as A. pseudoargus), Rolán (1983, as A. pseudoragus), Valdés (2002a). 3: De Oliveira (1895, as A. tuberculata), Nobre (1932, as A. tuberculata), Calado et al. (1999, as A. pseudoargus, 2003). 5: García-Gómez (1983, as A. tuberculata, 2002, as A. pseudoargus), Rueda, Salas and Gofas (2000, as A. pseudoargus). 6: Luque (1983, 1986), Templado et al. (1993b) (all these records as A. tuberculata). 8: Ros (1975, as A. tuberculata), Ballesteros (1985, as A. tuberculata). 9: Altaba (1993, as A. tuberculata). Doris bertheloti (D’Orbigny, 1839) 10: D’Orbigny (1839, as Doridigitata), Ortea and Bacallado (1981), Ortea, Pérez Sánchez and Llera (1982), Pérez Sánchez, Bacallado and Ortea (1991), Ortea et al. (2001), Moro et al. (2003). 11: Wirtz (1999). Doris ocelligera (Bergh, 1881) 1: Ortea (1977c), Fernández-Ovies (1981). 2: Urgorri and Besteiro (1983, 1984), Rolán (1983). 3: García-Gómez et al. (1991), Calado et al. (1999). 5: García-Gómez et al. (1989). 6: Ballesteros et al. (1986). 7: Templado (1982b, 1983, 1984), Ballesteros et al. (1986), Marín and Ros (1987a), Templado, Luque and Moreno (1988). 9: Templado (1982a). 12: Azevedo and Gofas (1990), Ávila et al. (1998), Ávila (2000), Malaquias (2001). Doris sticta (Iredale and O’Donoghue, 1923) (91) 1: Cervera el al. (1988, as D. maculata). 3: Gavaia et al. (2004), Calado et al. (2003, as D. cf. sticta). 5: García-Gómez (1987, as D. maculata). 8: Ballesteros (1985, as D. maculata). 11: Malaquias (unpubl. data).

Doris ? alboranica Bouchet, 1977 6: Bouchet (1977). Genus Aldisa Bergh, 1878 Aldisa zetlandica (Alder and Hancock, 1854) 3: Nobre (1896). 12: Bergh (1899), Nodsieck (1972), Picton and Morrow (1994), Malaquias (2001). Aldisa berghi Vayssière, 1901 1: Hidalgo (1916). Aldisa banyulensis Pruvot-Fol, 1951 (92) 5: García-Gómez (1982), García et al. (1986), García-Gómez et al. (1989). 6: Sánchez Tocino, Ocaña and García (2000a), Ocaña et al. (2000). 7: Templado (1982b, 1983, 1984). 8: Ballesteros (1985). 9: Ballesteros and Templado (1996). Aldisa smaragdina Ortea, Pérez and Llera, 1982 (92) 2: Ortea (1978a, as A. banyulensis). 3: García-Gómez et al. (1991), Calado et al. (1999, as A. binotata), Calado et al. (2003). 5: García-Gómez (1983), García-Gómez et al. (1989). 6: Luque (1983, 1986), Templado et al. (1993b), Ocaña et al. (2000), Gavagnin et al. (2002). 7: Templado, Talavera and Murillo (1983), Ballesteros et al. (1986), Gavagnin et al. (2002). 9: Ballesteros and Templado (1996). 10: Ortea, Pérez Sánchez and Llera (1982), PérezSánchez and Moreno (1990), Pérez Sánchez, Bacallado and Ortea (1991), Malaquias and Calado (1997), Ortea et al. (2001, 2003), Moro et al. (2003), Wirtz and Debelius (2003). 11: Wirtz (1999), Malaquias et al. (2001). 12: Wirtz (1998), Ávila et al. (1998), Ávila (2000, as A. binotata), Malaquias (2001), Wirtz and Debelius (2003). Aldisa expleta Ortea, Pérez and Llera, 1982 (92) 10: Ortea, Pérez Sánchez and Llera (1982), Ortea et al. (2001), Moro et al. (2003). Family Discodorididae Bergh, 1891 (89) Genus Jorunna Bergh, 1876

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Jorunna tomentosa (Cuvier, 1804) 1: Ortea (1977c). 2: Ortea (1977c), Urgorri and Besteiro (1983, 1984), Rolán (1983), Valdés and Gosliner (2001). 3: De Oliveira (1895, as J. johnstoni), Hidalgo (1916, as J. johnstoni), Nobre (1932, as J. johnstoni), García-Gómez et al. (1991), Machado and Fonseca (1997, as J. johnstoni), Calado et al. (1999, 2003), Malaquias and Morenito (2000). 4: Camacho and Gosliner (pers. comm.). 5: García-Gómez (1983). 6: Ocaña et al. (2000), Peñas et al. (in press). 7: Fez (1974), Marín and Ros (1987). 8: Ros (1975), Ballesteros (1984a, 1985). 10: Ortea et al. (2001), Moro et al. (2003). 12: Morton et al. (1998), Malaquias (2001). Jorunna onubensis Cervera, García-Gómez and García, 1986 3: Malaquias and Morenito (2000). 4: Cervera, García-Gómez and García (1986), Cervera (unpubl. data). 6: Templado, Luque and Moreno (1988), Sánchez Tocino, Ocaña and García (2000a), Ocaña et al. (2000), Wirtz and Debelius (2003). 10: Ortea et al. (2001), Moro et al. (2003), Wirtz and Debelius (2003). 11: Wirtz (1999). Genus Discodoris Bergh, 1877 Discodoris maculosa Bergh, 1884 (93) 1: Ortea (1977c). 5: Sánchez Santos (pers. comm.). 6: Sánchez Tocino, Ocaña and García (2000, as D. fragilis), Peñas et al. (in press). 7: Ballesteros, Llera and Ortea (1985, 1986), Marín and Ros (1987). 8: Ballesteros, Llera and Ortea (1985). Discodoris stellifera (Vayssière, 1904) (94) 1: Ávila Escartín (1993). 3: Calado et al. (1999). 5: García-Gómez (1983, as D. planata). 8: Ros (1975, as Anisodoris), Ballesteros (1985, as D. planata). Discodoris tristis Bergh, 1892 12: Bergh (1892), Malaquias (2001).

Discodoris edwardsi Vayssière, 1902 3: Nordsieck (1972). Discodoris rubens Vayssière, 1919 8: Ballesteros (1985). Discodoris ? rosi Ortea, 1979 (95) 1: Ortea (1979a), Ávila Escartín (1993). 2: Ortea (1979a), Ortea and Urgorri (1979c), Urgorri and Besteiro (1983), Rolán (1983). 3: García-Gómez et al. (1991), Malaquias and Morenito (2000), Calado et al. (1999, 2003). 5: García-Gómez (1983), García-Gómez et al. (1989). 6: Luque (1986), Sánchez Tocino, Ocaña and García (2000a), Ocaña et al. (2000). 8: Cervera et al. (1988). Discodoris confusa Ballesteros, Llera and Ortea, 1985 (93) 10: Ortea, Pérez Sánchez and Bacallado (1981, as D. fragilis), Ballesteros, Llera and Ortea (1985), Ortea et al. (2001), Moro et al. (2003). 11: Wirtz (1995b, as D. fragilis, 1999), Malaquias et al. (2001), Wirtz and Debelius (2003). Genus Thordisa Bergh, 1877 Thordisa filix Pruvot-Fol, 1951 3: García-Gómez et al. (1991), Calado et al. (1999). 7: Templado, Luque and Moreno (1988). 8: Cervera et al. (1988). Thordisa azmanii Cervera and García-Gómez, 1989 (96) 1: Ortea and Martínez (1990, as T. diuda). 3: García-Gómez et al. (1991), Calado and Urgorri (1999), Calado et al. (1999). 4: Cervera and García-Gómez (1989b), Templado et al. (1993a). Genus Platydoris Bergh, 1877 Platydoris argo (Linnaeus, 1767) 3: De Oliveira (1895), Hidalgo (1916), Nobre (1932), García-Gómez et al. (1991), Calado et al. (1999). 4: Templado et al. (1993b). 5: Ros (1975), García-Gómez (1983), García, García-Gómez and Cervera (1988), García, García-Gómez and Medel-Soteras (1988),

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García and García-Gómez (1989, 1990b), García-Gómez et al. (1989), Megina (2000), Megina et al. (2002). 6: Luque (1983, 1986), Ballesteros et al. (1986), Schick (1998), Sánchez Tocino, Ocaña and García (2000a), Ocaña et al. (2000), Valdés and Ortea (2001), Peñas et al. (in press). 7: Templado (1982b), Ballesteros (1985), Ballesteros et al. (1986), Marín and Ros (1987), Dorgan, Valdés and Gosliner (2002), Templado et al. (2002). 8: Ros (1975, 1985b), Altimira, Huelin and Ros (1981), Huelin and Ros (1984), Ballesteros (1985), Ávila Escartín (1993). 9: Ros (1981b, 1985b), Templado (1982a), Ros and Gili (1985). 10: D’Orbigny (1839, as Doris canariensis), Bergh (1877, 1892), Odhner (1931, as Argus argo), Nordsieck (1972), Altimira and Ros (1979, as P. cf. argo cf. canariensis), Ortea and Bacallado (1981), Ortea, Pérez Sánchez and Llera (1982), Pérez-Sánchez and Moreno (1990), Pérez Sánchez, Bacallado and Ortea (1991), Malaquias and Calado (1997), Ortea et al. (2001), Valdés and Gosliner (2001), Dorgan, Valdés and Gosliner (2002), Moro et al. (2003), Wirtz and Debelius (2003). 11: Wirtz (1994, 1999), Valdés and Gosliner (2001), Malaquias et al. (2001), Dorgan, Valdés and Gosliner (2002). 12: Bergh (1899), Wirtz and Martins (1993), Wirtz (1994, 1998), Ávila et al. (1998), Ávila (2000), Malaquias (2001), Wirtz and Debelius (2003). Platydoris stomascuta Bouchet, 1977 (97) 12: Bouchet (1977), Malaquias (2001). Genus Rostanga Bergh, 1879 Rostanga rubra (Risso, 1818) (98) 1: Hidalgo (1916). 2: Vayssière (1913), Ortea (1977c), FernándezOvies (1981), Urgorri and Besteiro (1983, 1984), Rolán (1983), Valdés and Gosliner (2001). 3: De Oliveira (1895), Hidalgo (1916), Nobre (1932), García-Gómez et al. (1991), Calado et al. (1999, 2003). 4: Cervera (1988). 5: García-Gómez (1982, 1986b, 2002). 6: Templado, Luque and Moreno (1988), Sánchez Tocino, Ocaña and García (2000a), Ocaña et al. (2000). 7: Templado (1982b, 1983, 1984).

8: Ros (1975). 10: Ortea et al. (2001), Moro et al. (2003), Wirtz and Debelius (2003). 11: Wirtz (1999). Genus Peltodoris Bergh, 1880 (99) Peltodoris punctifera (Abraham, 1877) 10: D’Orbigny (1839, as Doris punctata), Ortea and Bacallado (1981), Ballesteros, Llera and Ortea (1985), Pérez Sánchez, Bacallado and Ortea (1991), Ortea et al. (2001, 2003), Moro et al. (2003). 11: Wirtz (1999, as Discodoris). Peltodoris atromaculata Bergh, 1880 1: Ros (1975). 3: Gavaia et al. (2004). 5: García-Gómez (1983), García-Gómez et al. (1989). 6: Luque (1986), Schick (1998), Sánchez Tocino, Ocaña and García (2000a), Ocaña et al. (2000), Peñas et al. (in press). 7: Templado (1982b), Ballesteros (1985), Ballesteros et al. (1986), Marín and Ros (1987), Ávila Escartín (1993), Valdés (2002a), Templado et al. (2002). 8: Vicente (1964), Ros (1975, 1978b, 1985 a, b), Ros and Altimira (1977), Pereira (1980, 1981), Altimira, Huelin and Ros (1981), Bibiloni (1981), Huelin and Ros (1984), Ballesteros (1985), Ávila Escartín (1993), Ávila (1996), Valdés (2002a). 9: Ros (1975, 1978b, 1981b, 1985b), Ballesteros (1981a, 1985), Ros and Gili (1995), Ballesteros et al. (1986), Dekker (1996), Altaba (1993), Ávila Escartín (1993). 10: Pérez-Sánchez and Moreno (1990), Pérez Sánchez, Bacallado and Ortea (1991), Ortea et al. (2001), Moro et al. (2003), Wirtz and Debelius (2003). 11: Wirtz (1994, 1999), Malaquias et al. (2001). 12: Wirtz and Martins (1993), Wirtz (1994, 1995a, 1998), Morton et al. (1998), Ávila et al. (1998), Ávila (2000), Malaquias (2001), Valdés (2002a). Genus Paradoris Bergh, 1884 Paradoris indecora Bergh, 1881 3: Wirtz and Debelius (2003). 4: Cervera (unpubl. data). 5: Ávila Escartín (1993). 6: Ávila Escartín (1993).

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7: Templado (1982b, as Discodoris, 1983, 1984), Ballesteros et al. (1986, as Discodoris), Marín and Ros (1987, as Discodoris), Marín et al. (1997), Valdés (2002a), Templado et al. (2002). 8: Ballesteros (unpubl. data). 9: Ballesteros and Templado (1996). 10: Ortea (1995), Ortea et al. (2001), Moro et al. (2003), Wirtz and Debelius (2003). Paradoris ceneris Ortea, 1995 10: Ortea (1995), Templado, Villena and Fernández (1995), Ortea et al. (2001), Moro et al. (2003). Paradoris inversa Ortea, 1995 10: Ortea (1995), Templado, Villena and Fernández (1995), Ortea et al. (2001), Moro et al. (2003). Paradoris mollis Ortea, 1995 10: Ortea (1995), Templado, Villena and Fernández (1995), Ortea et al. (2001), Moro et al. (2003). Genus Baptodoris Bergh, 1884 Baptodoris cinnabarina Bergh,1884 (100) 1: Bouchet (1977, bathyal, as Platydoris maculata). 5: Sánchez-Santos (pers. comm.) 7: Valdés and Gosliner (2001), Templado et al. (2002). 9: Ballesteros and Valdés (1999). 10: Ballesteros and Valdés (1999). Baptodoris perezi Llera and Ortea in Ortea, Pérez and Llera, 1982 (101) 4: Cervera et al. (1986). 6: Cervera et al. (1986). 10: Ortea, Pérez Sánchez and Llera (1982), Ortea et al. (2001, 2003), Moro et al. (2003). 11: Wirtz (1999). Genus Geitodoris Bergh, 1891
(102)

8: Ballesteros (unpubl. data) 9: Ballesteros and Templado (1996). 10: Ortea (1990), Malaquias and Calado (1997), Ortea et al. (2001), Moro et al. (2003). 11: Wirtz (1999). 12: Azevedo and Gofas (1990, as G. cf. planata), Wirtz (1998), Ávila et al. (1998), Ávila (2000), Malaquias (2001), Wirtz and Debelius (2003). Geitodoris pusae (Marcus, 1955) (103) 10: Ortea, Luque and Templado (1988), Ortea et al. (2001), Ortea (1990), Moro et al. (2003). 11: Malaquias and Cervera (unpubl. data). Geitodoris portmanni (Schmekel, 1972) 6: Sánchez Tocino, Ocaña and García (2000a), Ocaña et al. (2000). 7: Marín and Ros (1987, as Carryodoris). 8: Cervera et al. (1988). Geitodoris bonosi Ortea and Ballesteros, 1981 1: Ortea and Ballesteros (1981). 2: Ortea and Ballesteros (1981), Ballesteros (1981a, 1985). 8: Ballesteros (unpubl. data) Geitodoris bacalladoi Ortea, 1990 10: Ortea (1990), Ortea et al. (2001), Moro et al. (2003). Geitodoris perfossa Ortea, 1990 10: Ortea (1990), Malaquias and Calado (1997, as G. cf. perfossa), Ortea et al. (2001), Moro et al. (2003), Wirtz and Debelius (2003). 11: Wirtz (1995b, 1999). Genus Taringa Marcus, 1955 (104) Taringa millegrana (Alder and Hancock, 1854) (105) 5: García-Gómez, Cervera and García-Martín (1993, as T. tarifensis). 10: Ortea and Martínez (1992b, as T. fanabensis), Ortea et al. (2001), Moro et al. (2003, as T. fanabensis). 11: Wirtz (1999, as T. cf. fanabensis), Malaquias et al. (2001, T. cf. fanabensis). Taringa oleica Ortea, Pérez and Llera, 1982 10: Ortea, Pérez Sánchez and Llera (1982), Ortea et al. (2001), Ortea and Martínez (1992b), Moro et al. (2003).

Geitodoris planata (Alder and Hancock, 1846) (94) 1: Cervera et al. (1988), Ortea (1990). 3: De Oliveira (1895, as Platydoris), Nobre (1932, as Platydoris), Ferreira (1966, as Archidoris planata), García-Gómez et al. (1991), Calado et al. (1999), Macedo, Macedo and Borges (1999). 4: Cervera, García-Gómez and García (1985). 5: Sánchez-Santos (pers. comm.). 6: Sánchez Tocino, Ocaña and García (2000a), Ocaña et al. (2000).

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Taringa ascitica Ortea, Pérez and Llera, 1982 10: Ortea, Pérez Sánchez and Llera (1982), Ortea et al. (2001), Ortea and Martínez (1992b), Moro et al. (2003). Taringa tritorquis Ortea, Pérez and Llera, 1982 10: Ortea, Pérez Sánchez and Llera (1982), Ortea et al. (2001), Ortea and Martínez (1992b), Moro et al. (2003). Taringa bacalladoi Ortea, Pérez and Llera, 1982 10: Ortea, Pérez Sánchez and Llera (1982), Ortea et al. (2001), Ortea and Martínez (1992b), Moro et al. (2003). Taringa faba Ballesteros, Llera and Ortea, 1985 8: Ballesteros, Llera and Ortea (1985), Cervera et al. (1988), Ortea and Martínez (1992b), Giribet and Peñas (1997). Genus Thorybopus Bouchet, 1977 Thorybopus lophatus Bouchet, 1977 12: Bouchet (1977), Malaquias (2001). LABIOSTOMATA incerta sedis Genus Carminodoris Bergh, 1889 (106) Carminodoris ? boucheti Ortea, 1979 (106) 2: Ortea (1979a), Ortea (1980a), Fernández-Ovies (1981). 5: Sánchez-Santos (pers. comm.). 8: Ballesteros and Ortea (1981), Ballesteros (1985), Cervera et al. (1988). Carminodoris ? spinobranchialis Ortea and Martínez, 1992 (106) 1: Ortea and Martínez (1992a), Villena et al. (1997). POROSTOMATA Bergh, 1878 Family Phyllidiidae Rafinesque, 1814 Genus Phyllidia Cuvier, 1797 Phyllidia flava (Aradas, 1847) (107) 8: Pruvot-Fol (1954), Ros (1980b, 1985b), Altimira, Huelin and Ros (1981), Huelin and Ros (1984). 9: Ros (1981b, 1985b), Ros and Gili (1985), Dekker (1986). 10: Ortea et al. (2001), Moro et al. (2003), Wirtz and Debelius (2003). All records, except those from the region 10, as P. rolandiae (Pruvot-Fol, 1954) or P. Pulitzeri (Pruvot-Fol, 1954).

Genus Phyllidiopsis Bergh, 1875 Phyllidiopsis berghi (Vayssière, 1902) 10: Valdés and Ortea (1996), Ortea et al. (2001), Moro et al. (2003). 12: Bouchet (1977, as P. gynenopla), Valdés and Ortea (1996), Malaquias (2001). Phyllidiopsis bayi (Bouchet, 1983) (108) 5: García-Gómez (1987, as Fryeria bayi). 6: Valdés and Gosliner (1999), Peñas et al. (in press). 7: Cervera et al. (1988). 9: Ballesteros and Templado (1996). Phyllidiopsis boucheti Valdés and Ortea, 1996 10: Valdés and Ortea (1996), Ortea et al. (2001), Moro et al. (2003). Genus Reticulidia Brunckhorst, 1990 Reticulidia gofasi Valdés and Ortea, 1996 12: Valdés and Ortea (1996), Malaquias (2001). Family Dendrodorididae O’Donoghue, 1924 Genus Dendrodoris Ehrenberg, 1831 Dendrodoris limbata (Cuvier, 1804) (109) (110) 3: De Oliveira (1895, as Doriopsis), Nobre (1932, as Doriopsis), García-Gómez et al. (1991), Calado et al. (1999, 2003). 4: García-Gómez (1982), Cervera and GarcíaGómez (1986). 5: García-Gómez (1982), García-Gómez et al. (1989). 6: Luque (1983, 1986), Ballesteros et al. (1986), Sánchez Tocino, Ocaña and García (2000a), Ocaña et al. (2000), Valdés et al. (1996). 7: De Fez (1974, as Doriopsis), Templado (1982b, 1983, 1984), Ballesteros et al. (1986), Ávila Escartín (1993), Templado et al. (2002). 8: Ros (1975, 1985b), Ballesteros (1978, 1985), Pereira (1980), Altimira, Huelin and Ros (1981), Huelin and Ros (1984), Ávila Escartín (1993), Valdés et al. (1996). 9: Ros (1985b), Ballesteros, Álvarez and Mateo (1986), Ávila Escartín (1993), Valdés et al. (1996). Dendrodoris grandiflora (Rapp, 1827) (109) (110) 3: De Oliveira (1895, as Doriopsis), Nobre (1932, as

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Doriopsis), García-Gómez et al. (1991), Valdés et al. (1996), Calado et al. (1999), Muzavor and Morenito (1999), Malaquias and Morenito (2000), Wirtz and Debelius (2003). 4: García-Gómez (1982), Cervera (1988, unpubl. data). 5: García-Gómez (1983), García-Gómez et al. (1989), Valdés et al. (1996). 6: Luque (1983, 1986), Ocaña et al. (2000), Valdés et al. (1996). 7: Templado (1982b, 1983, 1984), Marín and Ros (1987), Valdés et al. (1996). 8: Ros (1975), Pereira (1980), Altimira, Huelin and Ros (1981), Huelin and Ros (1984), Ballesteros (1985), Valdés et al. (1996). 9: Ballesteros (1981a, 1985), Ros (1985b), Ros and Gili (1985), Ballesteros, Álvarez and Mateo (1986), Valdés et al. (1996). 10: Pérez-Sánchez and Moreno (1990, as D. limbata), Pérez Sánchez, Bacallado and Ortea (1991, as D. limbata), Valdés et al. (1996), Ortea et al. (2001), Moro et al. (2003), Wirtz and Debelius (2003). 11: Malaquias (unpubl. data). Dendrodoris herytra Valdés and Ortea in Valdés, Ortea, Ávila and Ballesteros, 1996 (110) 1: Ávila Escartín (1993, as D. grandiflora). 2: Ortea (1977c, as D. limbata and D. grandiflora), Rolán, Otero and Rolán-Álvarez (1989, as D. grandiflora), Valdés et al. (1996). 3: Gavaia et al. (2004), Calado et al. (2003). 4: Valdés et al. (1996), Cervera (unpubl. data). 5: García-Gómez (1984a, as Dendrodoris sp., 2002). 6: Valdés et al. (1996). 10: Valdés et al. (1996), Ortea et al. (2001), Moro et al. (2003). 11: Valdés et al. (1996), Wirtz (1999). 12: ? Bergh (1892, as Doriopsis limbata), Odhner (1931, as Dendrodoris grandiflora), Valdés et al. (1996), Villena et al. (1997), Wirtz (1995a, as Dendrodoris n. sp., 1998), Ávila et al. (1998), Ávila (2000), Malquias (2001). Genus Doriopsilla Bergh, 1880 Doriopsilla areolata Bergh, 1880 (111) 1: Hidalgo (1916), Ballesteros and Ortea (1980), Ávila Escartín (1993), Valdés and Ortea (1997). 2: Ballesteros and Ortea (1980), Urgorri and Besteiro (1983), Valdés and Ortea (1997).

3: De Oliveira (1895), Hidalgo (1916), Nobre (1932), García-Gómez et al. (1991), Valdés and Ortea (1997), Calado et al. (1999, 2003), Muzavor and Morenito (1999), Malaquias and Morenito (2000), Wirtz and Debelius (2003). 4: Cervera and García-Gómez (1986), Templado et al. (1993b). 5: García-Gómez (1982), García, García-Gómez and Cervera (1986a), García-Gómez et al. (1989), Valdés and Ortea (1997). 6: Luque (1983, 1986), Hergueta (1985), Salas and Hergueta (1986), Templado et al. (1986, 1993b), Valdes and Ortea (1997), Schick (1998), Sánchez Tocino, Ocaña and García (2000a), Ocaña et al. (2000), Peñas et al. (in press). 7: Templado, Talavera and Murillo (1987). 8: Ros (1975, as D. pusilla), Ballesteros and Ortea (1980, as D. evanae), Ballesteros (1985, as D. evanae), Valdés and Ortea (1997). 9: Ballesteros and Ortea (1980, as D. evanae), Ballesteros (1981a, 1985, both as D. evanae), Templado (1982a, as D. evanae), Valdés and Ortea (1997), Villena et al. (1997). 10: Valdés and Ortea (1997), Ortea et al. (2001), Moro et al. (2003), Wirtz and Debelius (2003). Doriopsilla pelseneeri Oliveira, 1895 (112) 1: Ballesteros and Ortea (1980). 2: Ortea and Urgorri (1979c, as Dendrodoris racemosa), Ballesteros and Ortea (1980), Urgorri and Besteiro (1983, 1984). 3: De Oliveira (1895), Hidalgo 1916), Nobre (1932), García-Gómez et al. (1991), Valdés and Ortea (1997), Calado et al. (1999, 2003). 4: Templado et al. (1993b). 5: García-Gómez et al. (1989). 6: Templado et al. (1993b), Valdés and Ortea (1997), Schick (1998). 8: Pruvot-Fol (1954, as Dendrodoris minima), Cervera et al. (1988). DEXIARCHIA Schrödl, Wägele and Willan, 2001 (113) Suborder CLADOBRANCHIA Willan and Morton, 1984 (114) “DENDRONOTINA” Sars, 1878 Family Tritoniidae Lamarck, 1809 Genus Tritonia Cuvier, 1803 Tritonia hombergi Cuvier, 1803 2: Rolán, Rolán-Álvarez and Ortea (1991).

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5: García-Gómez (1982). 7: Hidalgo (1916). 8: Ros (1975). Tritonia plebeia Johnston, 1828 2: Urgorri and Besteiro (1983), Rolán (1983). 3: Nobre (1938-40, as Candiella plebeia), Calado et al. (1999). 8: Ros (1975). Tritonia manicata Deshayes, 1853 (115) 1: Ortea (1977a,b), Fernández-Ovies (1981). All as Duvaucelia. 2: Ortea (1977a,b), Fernández-Ovies (1981), Urgorri and Besteiro (1983). 3: De Oliveira (1895), Hidalgo (1916), Nobre (1932) (all these as T. moesta), García-Gómez et al. (1991a), Calado et al. (1999, 2003). 4: Cervera and García (1986). 5: García-Gómez (1983), García-Gómez et al. (1989). 6: Luque (1983, 1986, as Duvaucelia), Ballesteros et al. (1986, as Duvaucelia), Hergueta and Salas (1987, as Duvaucelia), Templado, Luque and Moreno (1988), Sánchez Tocino, Ocaña and García (2000a). 7: Templado (1982b, 1983, 1984), Ballesteros (1985), Ballesteros et al. (1986) (all of them as Duvaucelia), Marín and Ros (1987), Templado et al. (2002). 8: Ros (1975, 1978b, 1985b), Ros and Altamira (1977), Altamira et al. (1981), Huelin and Ros (1984), Ballesteros (1985). All of them as Duvaucelia. 9: Templado (1982a), Ballesteros, Álvarez and Mateo (1986). Both records as Duvaucelia. Tritonia (Tritonidoxa) griegi Odhner, 1922 12: Bouchet (1977), Malaquias (2001). Tritonia striata (Haefelfinger, 1963) 1: Ávila Escartín (1993). 5: Sánchez Santos (unpubl. data). 6: Moreno and Templado (1998), Sánchez Tocino, Ocaña and García (2000a). 7: Templado, Talavera and Murillo (1987), Templado et al. (2002). 8: Ros (1975), Pereira (1981), Altimira, Huelin and Ros (1981), Huelin and Ros (1984), Ballesteros (1985). 9: Wirtz and Debelius (2003), Ballesteros and Templado (unpubl. data). Records before 1985 as Duvaucelia.

Tritonia nilsodhneri Marcus, 1983 (116) 1: Ortea and Urgorri (1981a), Ávila Escartín (1993). 2: Ortea and Urgorri (1981a), Urgorri and Besteiro (1983, 1984), Rolán (1983). 3: García-Gómez et al. (1991), Calado et al. (1999, 2003). 5: García-Gómez (1983), García-Gómez et al. (1989). 6: Sánchez Tocino, Ocaña and García (2000a). 7: Templado, Talavera and Murillo (1983), Templado et al. (2002). 8: Ballesteros (1987). Almost all records as Duvaucelia or Tritonia odhneri. Genus Marionia Vayssière, 1877 Marionia blainvillea (Risso, 1818) 1: Ávila Escartín (1993). 3: De Oliveira (1895), Hidalgo (1916), Nobre (1932) (all these records as M. quadrilatera), Calado and Urgorri (1999), Calado et al. (1999), Wirtz and Debelius (2003). 4: Vayssière (1913), Hidalgo (1916). 5: García-Gómez (1982), García-Gómez et al. (1989), Templado et al. (1993b). 6: Templado et al. (1986), Sánchez Tocino, Ocaña and García (2000a), Peñas et al. (in press). 7: Templado, Talavera and Murillo (1983), Templado et al. (2002), Ballesteros et al. (1986). 8: Ros (1975). 9: Ballesteros, Álvarez and Mateo (1986). 10: Ortea et al. (2001, 2003), Moro et al. (2003), Wirtz and Debelius (2003). 11: Wirtz (1995a,b, 1999). 12: Wirtz (1995b, 1998), Ávila et al. (1998), Ávila (2000), Malaquias (2001), Wirtz and Debelius (2003). Genus Tritoniopsis Eliot, 1905 Tritoniopsis cincta (Pruvot-Fol, 1937) 7: Templado, Luque and Moreno (1988). Family Scyllaeidae Fischer, 1883 Genus Scyllaea Linnaeus, 1758 Scyllaea pelagica Linnaeus, 1758 1: Hidalgo (1916). 3: Hidalgo (1916). 12: Simroth (1888), Morton et al. (1998), Ávila et al. (1998), Ávila (2000), Malaquias (2001).

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Family Hancockiidae MacFarland, 1923 Genus Hancockia Gosse, 1877 Hancockia uncinata (Hesse, 1872) 1: Fernández-Ovies (1981). 2: Ortea and Urgorri (1979b), Urgorri and Besteiro (1983, 1984). 3: Gavaia et al. (2004), Calado et al. (2003). 5: García-Gómez et al. (1989). 6: Moreno and Templado (1998), Sánchez Tocino, Ocaña and García (2000a). 7: Templado, Talavera and Murillo (1987). 8: Ballesteros (1985). 9: Ballesteros (unpubl. data). 10: Ortea et al. (2001, 2003), Moro et al. (2003). Family Lomanotidae Bergh, 1892 Genus Lomanotus Vérany, 1844 Lomanotus marmoratus (Alder and Hancock, 1845) 2: Urgorri and Besteiro (1983, 1984, 1986). 8: Ballesteros (unpubl. data). Lomanotus barlettai García-Gómez, López González and García, 1990 4: García-Gómez, López-González and García (1990). 6: Templado et al. (1993b). Family Tethyidae Alder and Hancock, 1855 Genus Tethys Linnaeus, 1767 Tethys fimbria Linnaeus, 1767 1: Ávila Escartín (1993). 3: Nobre (1932, as T. leporina), García-Gómez et al. (1991, as T. cf. fimbria). 4: Templado et al. (1993b). 6: Luque (1983, 1986, as Fimbria), Sánchez Tocino, Ocaña and García (2000a). 7: Templado, Talavera and Murillo (1983), Ballesteros (1985) (both as Fimbria). 8: Pruvot (1897, 1901), Maluquer (1907), Maluquer (1906-1909), Ros (1975, as Fimbria). 9: Hidalgo (1916), Templado (1982a, as Fimbria), Wirtz and Debelius (2003). 10: McAndrew (1852, as Fimbria), Ortea et al. (2001), Moro et al. (2003).

Family Phylliroidae Férussac, 1821 Genus Phylliroe Péron and Lesueur, 1810 Phylliroe atlantica Bergh, 1871 10: Odhner (1931), Ortea et al. (2001), Moro et al. (2003). 11: Bergh (1899). 12: Wirtz (1998), Malaquias (2001), Wirtz and Debelius (2003). Phylliroe bucephala Péron and Lesueur, 1810 10: Hernández and Giménez (1996), Ortea et al. (2001), Moro et al. (2003). Genus Cephalopyge Hanel, 1905 Cephalopyge trematoides (Chun, 1889) 10: Odhner (1931), Ortea et al. (2001), Moro et al. (2003). Family Dendronotidae Sars, 1878 Genus Dendronotus Alder and Hancock, 1845 Dendronotus frondosus (Ascanius, 1774) 1: Hidalgo (1916, as D. arborescens). Family Dotoidae Gray, 1853 Genus Doto Oken, 1815 Doto coronata (Gmelin, 1791) 1: Hidalgo (1916), Ortea (1977c), Fernández-Ovies (1981), Fernández-Ovies and Ortea (1981). 2: Ortea (1977c), Urgorri and Besteiro (1983, 1984). 3: Hidalgo (1916), Nobre (1932), Calado et al. (1999). 5: García-Gómez (1983), García-Gómez et al. (1989). 7: Templado (1982b, 1983, 1984), Marín and Ros (1987). 8: Ballesteros (1985). Doto pinnatifjda (Montagu, 1804) 2: Ortea and Urgorri (1978), Fernández-Ovies (1981), Fernández-Ovies and Ortea (1981), Urgorri and Besteiro (1983, 1984), Wirtz and Debelius (2003). 3: García-Gómez et al. (1991), Calado et al. (1999, 2003). 5: García-Gómez (1983), García-Gómez et al. (1989).

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Doto fragilis (Forbes, 1838) 1: Hidalgo (1916), Ortea and Urgorri (1978). 2: Ortea and Urgorri (1978), Fernández-Ovies (1981), Urgorri and Besteiro (1983, 1984). Doto pygmaea Bergh, 1871 10: Ortea, Moro and Espinosa (1997a), Ortea et al. (2001), Moro et al. (2003). Doto rosea Trinchese, 1881 3: De Oliveira (1895), Hidalgo (1916), Nobre (1832), García-Gómez et al. (1991), Calado et al. (1999, 2003). 4: Cervera (unpubl. data). 5: García-Gómez (1987), García-Gómez et al. (1989). 6: Templado, Luque and Moreno (1988). 7: Marín and Ros (1991). Doto paulinae Trinchese, 1881 7: Marín and Ros (1991). 8: Ballesteros (1985, as D. cf. paulinae). Doto cinerea Trinchese, 1881 6: Ballesteros et al. (1986). 7: Templado, Talavera and Murillo (1983). 9: Templado (1982a, as Doto sp.). Doto floridicola Simroth, 1888 3: Calado et al. (1999, 2003), García-Gómez et al. (1991). 5: García-Gómez (1983), García-Gómez et al. (1989). 6: Templado, Luque and Moreno (1988). 7: Templado (1982b). 8: Ballesteros (1985). 9: Ballesteros and Templado (1996). 10: Ortea et al. (2003), Ortea, Caballer and Moro (2003). 11: Ortea, Cabeller and Moro (2003). 12: Simroth (1888), Wirtz (1998), Ávila et al. (1998), Ávila (2000), Malaquias (2001). Doto pita Marcus, 1955 10: Ortea, Moro and Espinosa (1999), Ortea et al. (2001, 2003), Moro et al. (2003). Doto doerga Marcus and Marcus, 1963 7: Marín and Ros (1991). Doto dunnei Lemche, 1976 1: Ortea and Urgorri (1978).

2: Urgorri and Besteiro (1983, 1984). 3: Calado et al. (1999, 2003). 5: García-Gómez (1983). Doto millbayana Lemche, 1976 1: Ortea and Urgorri (1978), Fernández-Ovies (1981), Fernández-Ovies and Ortea (1981). 3: Gavaia et al. (2004). 4: Cervera and García (1986). 5: García-Gómez et al. (1989). Doto koenneckeri Lemche, 1976 1: Ortea and Urgorri (1978), Fernández-Ovies (1981). 2: Ortea and Urgorri (1978), Fernández-Ovies (1981), Fernández-Ovies and Ortea (1981), Urgorri and Besteiro (1983, 1984). 3: García-Gómez et al. (1991), Calado et al. (1999, 2003). 6: Templado, Luque and Moreno (1988), Sánchez Tocino, Ocaña and García (2000a). 8: Ballesteros (1984a, 1985). 12: Calado (2002). Doto eireana Lemche, 1976 1: Ortea and Urgorri (1978), Fernández-Ovies (1981), Fernández-Ovies and Ortea (1981). 2: Urgorri and Besteiro (1983, 1984). 3: Calado et al. (2003). Doto tuberculata Lemche, 1976 2: Ortea and Urgorri (1978), Fernández-Ovies (1981), Fernández-Ovies and Ortea (1981), Urgorri and Besteiro (1983, 1984). 10: Pérez Sánchez, Ortea and Bacallado (1990), Pérez Sánchez, Bacallado and Ortea (1991). Doto acuta Schmekel and Kress, 1977 7: Marín and Ros (1990). Doto arteoi Ortea, 1978 1: Ortea (1978b). 2: Ortea (1978b). 3: García-Gómez et al. (1991). Doto lemchei Ortea and Urgorri, 1978 1: Ortea and Urgorri (1978). 2: Ortea and Urgorri (1978), Fernández-Ovies (1981), Fernández-Ovies and Ortea (1981), Urgorri and Besteiro (1983, 1984). 3: Calado et al. (1999).

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Doto oblicua Ortea and Urgorri, 1978 1: Ortea and Urgorri (1978), Fernández-Ovies (1981). 2: Urgorri and Besteiro (1983, 1984). Doto verdicioi Ortea and Urgorri, 1978 1: Ortea and Urgorri (1978), Fernández-Ovies (1981), Fernández-Ovies and Ortea (1981). 2: Urgorri (1983), Urgorri and Besteiro (1983, 1984). 3: García-Gómez et al. (1991), Calado et al. (1999, 2003). Doto fluctifraga Ortea and Pérez, 1982 10: Ortea and Pérez (1982), Pérez Sánchez, Ortea and Bacallado (1990), Pérez Sánchez, Bacallado and Ortea (1991), Ortea et al. (2001), Moro et al. (2003). Doto furva García-Gómez and Ortea, 1983 6: García-Gómez and Ortea (1983), GarcíaGómez et al. (1989), García-Gómez, López de la Cuadra and Balbuena Marcilla (1989). 12: Calado (2002), Wirtz and Debelius (2003, as D. fluctifraga). Doto ungis Ortea and Rodríguez, 1989 6: Ortea and Rodríguez (1989), Templado et al. (1993a,b). Doto escatilari Ortea, Moro and Espinosa, 1997 10: Ortea, Moro and Espinosa (1997a), Ortea et al. (2001, 2003), Moro et al. (2003). Doto sotilloi Ortea, Moro and Espinosa, 1997 10: Ortea, Moro and Espinosa (1997a), Ortea et al. (2001, 2003), Moro et al. (2003).

8: Ballesteros (1981b, 1985), Ávila Escartín (1993). 9: Altaba and Traveset (1993), Ávila Escartín (1993). 11: Wirtz (unpubl. data). Armina tigrina Rafinesque, 1814 3: De Oliveira (1895), Nobre (1938-40). Both records as Pleurophyllidia undulata. 6: Ocaña et al. (2000), Witz and Debelius (2003). 7: Templado et al. (2002). 8: Ballesteros (1983). Armina neapolitana (Delle Chiaje, 1824) 3: De Oliveira (1895), Hidalgo (1916), Nobre (1932). All records as Pleurophyllidia undulata. 8: Ballesteros (1987). Armina loveni (Bergh, 1860) 3: Ferreira (1966, as A. lineata). 10: Ortea et al. (2001), Moro et al. (2003). Genus Heterodoris Verrill and Emerton in Verrill, 1882 Heterodoris robusta Verrill and Emerton in Verrill, 1882 1: Bouchet (1977, bathyal). Family Madrellidae Preston, 1911 Genus Madrella Alder and Hancock, 1864 Madrella aurantiaca Vayssiére, 1902 9: Ballesteros and Templado (1996). Family Proctonotidae Gray, 1853 (118) Genus Janolus Bergh, 1884 (119) Janolus cristatus (Delle Chiaje, 1841) 1: Hidalgo (1916), Fernández-Ovies (1981, as Antiopella cristata). 2: Urgorri and Besteiro (1983, 1984, both records as Antiopella). 3: Nobre (1932, as Antiopa cristata), García-Gómez et al. (1991), Calado et al. (1999, 2003). 4: Cervera and García (1986). 5: García-Gómez (1983), García-Gómez et al. (1989). 6: Luque (1983, 1986, as Antiopella), Templado, Luque and Moreno (1988), Sánchez Tocino, Ocaña and García (2000a), Ocaña et al. (2000).

“ARMlNINA” Odhner, 1934 (117) Family Arminidae Iredale and O’Donoghue, 1923 Genus Armina Rafinesque, 1814 Armina maculata Rafinesque, 1814 3: De Oliveira (1895), Hidalgo (1916), Nobre (1938-40). All records as Pleurophyllidia pustulosa. 4: Cervera (unpubl. data). 5: García-Gómez (1982), García and GarcíaGómez (1988, 1990a,c). 6: Luque (1983, 1986), Sánchez Tocino, Ocaña and García (2000a).

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7: Fez (1974, as Janus cristatus), Templado, Talavera and Murillo (1987). 8: Theodor (1964), Ballesteros (1985). 10: Ortea et al. (2001), Moro et al. (2003), Wirtz and Debelius (2003). 11: Wirtz (1995a, 1999). Janolus hyalinus (Alder and Hancock, 1854) 1: Ortea (1978a). 2: Ortea (1978a), Urgorri and Besteiro (1983, 1984). 3: Calado et al. (2003). 5: García-Gómez et al. (1989). 7: Templado (1982b, 1983, 1984). Janolus faustoi Ortea and Llera, 1988 10: Ortea and Llera (1988), Ortea et al. (2001, 2003), Moro et al. (2003). 11: Malaquias (unpubl. data).

“AEOLlDINA” Odhner, 1934 Family Flabellinidae Bergh, 1889 Genus Flabellina Voigt, 1834 (120) Flabellina affinis (Gmelin, 1791) 3: García-Gómez et al. (1991), Calado and Urgorri (1999), Calado et al. (1999). 4: García-Gómez (1984a), Cervera and GarcíaGómez (1986), Wirtz and Debelius (2003). 5: García-Gómez (1982, 1986a, 2002), Schulze and Wägele (1998), García-Gómez et al. (1989). 6: Luque (1983, 1986), Ballesteros et al. (1986), Cervera, López-González and García-Gómez (1998), Schick (1998), Sánchez Tocino, Ocaña and García (2000a), Ocaña et al. (2000), Peñas et al. (in press). 7: Fez (1974), Templado (1982b), Ballesteros (1983), Ballesteros et al. (1986), Marín and Ros (1987), Templado et al. (2002). 8: Vicente (1964), Ros (1975, 1978b, 1985a,b), Ros and Altimira (1977), Pereira (1980, 1981), Altimira, Huelin and Ros (1981), Bibiloni (1981), Huelin and Ros (1984), Ballesteros (1985). 9: Ros (1975, 1978b, 1981), Ballesteros (1981b, 1985), Ballesteros, Llera and Ortea (1985). 10: Pérez Sánchez, Ortea and Bacallado (1990), Pérez Sánchez, Bacallado and Ortea (1991), Moro et al. (1995, 2003), Ortea and Espinosa (1998), Ortea et al. (2001), Wirtz and Debelius (2003).

Flabellina pedata (Montagu, 1815) (120) 1: Hidalgo (1916), Ros (1975), Ortea (1977c). 2: Ortea (1977c), Urgorri and Besteiro (1983, 1984), Rolán (1983). 3: De Oliveira (1895), Hidalgo (1916), Nobre (1932), García-Gómez et al. (1991), Calado et al. (1999, 2003), Muzavor and Morenito (1999), Malaquias and Morenito (2000). 4: García-Gómez (1984a), Cervera and GarcíaGómez (1986). 5: García-Gómez (1982, as Coryphella sp., 1983, 2002), García-Gómez et al. (1989), SánchezMoyano et al. (2000), Wirtz and Debelius (2003). 6: Luque (1983, 1986), Templado, Luque and Moreno (1988), Sánchez Tocino, Ocaña and García (2000a), Ocaña et al. (2000), Peñas et al. (in press). 7: Fez (1974), Templado (1982b, 1983, 1984), Ballesteros (1985), Ballesteros et al. (1986). 8: Vicente (1964), Ros (1975, 1978b, 1985a), Ros and Altimira (1977), Altimira, Huelin and Ros (1981), Huelin and Ros (1984), Ballesteros (1985). 9: Ros (1978), Ballesteros (1981a), Templado (1982a), Ballesteros, Álvarez and Mateo (1986), Dekker (1986), Wirtz and Debelius (2003). 12: Gosliner (1994a), Wirtz (1998), Ávila et al. (1998), Ávila (2000), Malaquias (2001), Wirtz and Debelius (2003). Many of all these records are referred as Coryphella pedata, except Nobre (1932) that refers as C. landsburgii. Flabellina pellucida (Alder and Hancock, 1843) (120) (121) 8: Ros (1975, 1985a), Ros and Altimira (1977). All records referred as Coryphella. Flabellina gracilis (Alder and Hancock, 1844) (120) 1: Hidalgo (1916, as Coryphella). Flabellina lineata (Lovén, 1848) (120) 3: Calado and Urgorri (1999), Calado et al. (1999). 5: García-Gómez (1982, 2002), García-Gómez et al. (1989), Wirtz and Debelius (2003). 7: Fez (1974), Marín and Ros (1987), Templado, Luque and Moreno (1988). 8: Ros (1975), Ballesteros (1985). 9: Ballesteros (1981a). All records before 1988 and that of Calado et al. refer to Coryphella.

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Flabellina dushia (Ev. Marcus and Er. Marcus, 1963) 10: Ortea, Caballer and Moro (2004, as Coryphella). Flabellina babai Schmekel, 1972 3: García-Gómez et al. (1991), Calado and Urgorri (1999), Calado et al. (1999, 2003), Wirtz and Debelius (2003). 4: Megina (unpubl. data). 5: García-Gómez (1984a, 1986a, 2002). 6: Luque (1986), Templado, Talavera and Murillo (1987), Schick (1998), Sánchez Tocino, Ocaña and García (2000a), Ocaña et al. (2000). 8: Wirtz and Debelius (2003), Ballesteros (unpubl. data). Flabellina baetica García-Gómez, 1984 4: Megina (unpubl. data). 5: García-Gómez (1984b, 1986a, 2002), GarcíaGómez et al. (1989), Megina (unpubl. data). Flabellina insolita García-Gómez and Cervera, 1989 3: Ortea and Espinosa (1998). 5: García-Gómez and Cervera (1989), Templado et al. (1993a). Flabellina ischitana Hirano and Thompson, 1990 3: Ortea and Espinosa (1998), Calado et al. (1999, 2005), Wirtz and Debelius (2003). 4: Cervera, López-González and García-Gómez (1998). 5: Cervera, López-González and García-Gómez (1998). 6: Sánchez Tocino, Ocaña and García (2000a), Ocaña et al. (2000). 8: Ballesteros (unpubl. data). Genus Calmella Eliot, 1906 Calmella cavolini (Vérany, 1846) 6: Ballesteros et al. (1986), Sánchez Tocino, Ocaña and García (2000a), Ocaña et al. (2000), Wirtz and Debelius (2003). 7: De Fez (1974), Templado (1982b, 1983, 1984), Ballesteros et al. (1986), Marín and Ros (1987). 8: Ros (1975, 1978b), Ballesteros (1978, 1985), Altimira, Huelin and Ros (1981), Huelin and Ros (1984). 9: Ballesteros (1981a, 1985), Ballesteros, Álvarez and Mateo (1986), Dekker (1986). Family Piseinotecidae Edmunds, 1970 Genus Piseinotecus Marcus, 1955

Piseinotecus sphaeriferus (Schmekel, 1965) 10: Ortea et al. (2003). Piseinotecus gabinierei (Vicente, 1975) 6: Templado, Luque and Moreno (1988), Sánchez Tocino, Ocaña and García (2000a), Ocaña et al. (2000). Piseinotecus gaditanus Cervera, García-Gómez and García, 1987 3: García-Gómez et al. (1991), Calado et al. (2003). 4: Cervera and García-Gómez (1986, as Calmella sp.), Cervera, García-Gómez and García (1987), Templado et al. (1993a). 10: Ortea et al. (2003). Family Facelinidae Bergh, 1889 Genus Favorinus Gray, 1850 Favorinus branchialis (Rathke, 1806) 1: Ortea (1977c), Fernández-Ovies (1981). 2: Urgorri and Besteiro (1983, 1984), Rolán (1983). 3: García-Gómez et al. (1991), Calado et al. (1999, 2005). 4: Cervera (unpubl. data). 5: García-Gómez (1983, 2002), García-Gómez et al. (1989), Sánchez-Moyano et al. (2000). 6: Ballesteros et al. (1986), Ocaña et al. (2000). 7: De Fez (1974), Templado (1982b, 1983, 1984), Ballesteros et al. (1986), Marín and Ros (1987). 8: Ros (1975), Ballesteros (1985). 10: Ortea (1982), Pérez Sánchez, Ortea and Bacallado (1990), Pérez Sánchez and Moreno (1990), Pérez Sánchez, Bacallado and Ortea (1991), Moro et al. (1995, 2003), Ortea et al. (2001). 11: Wirtz (unpubl. data). 12: Calado (2002). Favorinus ghanensis Edmunds, 1968 10: Moro et al. (1995, 2003), Ortea et al. (2001). Favorinus blianus Lemche and Thompson, 1974 2: Ortea and Urgorri (1981), Urgorri and Besteiro (1983). 3: Gavaia et al. (2004). Favorinus vitreus Ortea, 1982 7: Templado (1982b). 8: Giribet and Peñas (1997), Ortea et al. (2001, 2003).

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10: Ortea (1982), Pérez Sánchez, Ortea and Bacallado (1990), Pérez Sánchez, Bacallado and Ortea (1991), Moro et al. (1995, 2003), Ortea et al. (2001, 2003). Genus Facelina Alder and Hancock, 1855 Facelina annulicornis (Chamisso and Eisenhart, 1821) (122) 1: Ortea (1977c, as F. punctata). 2: Ortea (1977c), Fernández-Ovies (1981, as F. punctata), Urgorri and Besteiro (1983), Rolán (1983). 3: De Oliveira (1895), Hidalgo (1916), Nobre (1932) (all these records as F. punctata), Calado et al. (1999, 2003). 5: García-Gómez (1983, 2002), García-Gómez et al. (1989). 6: Templado, Luque and Moreno (1988), Sánchez Tocino, Ocaña and García (2000a), Ocaña et al. (2000). 7: De Fez (1974), Templado (1982b, 1983, 1984). 8: Ballesteros (1985). 9: Templado (1982a). 10: Pérez-Sánchez and Moreno (1990), Moro et al. (1995, 2003), Ortea et al. (2001, 2003). 11: Wirtz (1999). 12: Calado (2002). Facelina bostoniensis (Couthouy, 1838) (123) 1: Ortea (1977c, as F. drummondi). 3: De Oliveira (1895), Hidalgo (1916), Nobre (1932) (all records as F. drummondi), GarcíaGómez et al. (1991). 7: Templado (1982b, as F. drummondi). 8: Ros (1975, 1985a, as F. drummondi), Ros and Altimira (1977, as F. drummondi), Pereira (1980a, as F. drurmmondi), Ballesteros (1984b, 1985, as F. drummondi). Facelina coronata (Forbes and Goodsir, 1839) (123) 1: Ortea (1977c), Lastra et al. (1988, as F. auriculata). 2: Ortea (1977c), Urgorri and Besteiro (1983, 1984), Rolán (1983). 3: De Oliveira (1895), Hidalgo (1916), Nobre (1932), García-Gómez et al. (1991), Calado et al. (1999, 2003). 4: Cervera and García (1986, as F. auriculata). 5: García-Gómez (1983, 2002), García-Gómez et al. (1989). 6: Templado, Luque and Moreno (1988, as F. auriculata), Sánchez Tocino, Ocaña and García (2000a), Ocaña et al. (2000).

7: Fez (1974), Templado (1982b, 1983, 1984), Marín and Ros (1987, as F. auriculata). 10: Moro et al. (1995, 2003), Ortea et al. (2001), Wirtz and Debelius (2003, as F. auriculata). Facelina rubrovittata (A. Costa, 1866) 4: Cervera and García (1986). 5: García-Gómez et al. (1989). 6: Luque (1983, 1986), Ballesteros et al. (1986), Sánchez Tocino, Ocaña and García (2000a), Ocaña et al. (2000), Peñas et al. (in press). 7: Templado (1982b, 1983, as Acanthopsole), Marín and Ros (1987). 8: Ballesteros (1985, as Acanthopsole). 9: Ballesteros (1981a, 1985, as Acanthopsole). Facelina quatrefagesi (Vayssière, 1888) 2: Ortea (1977c). Facelina variegata De Oliveira, 1895 3: De Oliveira (1895), Hidalgo (1916), Nobre (1932). Facelina schwobi (Labbé, 1923) 2: Villena et al. (1997). 8: Ballesteros et al. (1993). Facelina dubia Pruvot-Fol, 1948) 8: Ballesteros et al. (1993). Facelina fusca Schmekel, 1966 8: Ros (1975, as F. cf. fusca). Genus Phidiana Gray, 1850 Phidiana lynceus Bergh, 1867 10: Ortea et al. (2001), Moro et al. (2003). Genus Cratena Bergh, 1864 Cratena peregrina (Gmelin, 1791) 3: Calado et al. (1999, 2003). 4: García-Gómez (1984a, 2002), Cervera and García (1986). 5: García-Gómez et al. (1989). 6: Ballesteros et al. (1986), Schick (1998), Sánchez Tocino, Ocaña and García (2000a), Ocaña et al. (2000). 7: Templado (1982b), Ballesteros (1985), Ballesteros et al. (1986), Marín and Ros (1987), Aguado Giménez (2000), Templado et al. (2002).

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8: Vicente (1964), Ros (1975, 1978b), Ros and Altimira (1977), Ballesteros (1978, 1985), Pereira (1980, 1981), Altimira, Huelin and Ros (1981), Huelin and Ros (1984). 9: Ballesteros (1981a), Ballesteros, Álvarez and Mateo (1986), Wirtz and Debelius (2003). 10: Moro et al. (1995, 2003), Ortea et al. (2001). Most of the records before 1986 as Hervia costai. Genus Caloria Trinchese, 1888 (124) Caloria elegans (Alder and Hancock, 1845) 3: Calado and Urgorri (1999), Calado et al. (1999, 2003). 5: García-Gómez (1983, 2002), García-Gómez et al. (1989). 6: Sánchez Tocino, Ocaña and García (2000a), Ocaña et al. (2000). 7: Fez (1974, as C. maculata), Templado (1982b, 1983, as C. maculata), Templado (1984), Ballesteros et al. (1986), Marín and Ros (1987), Templado et al. (2002). 8: Ros (1975, 1978b), Ros and Altimira (1977), Altimira, Huelin and Ros (1981), Huelin and Ros (1984), Ballesteros (1985) (all records as C. maculata, except that of Ballesteros (1985)). 9: Ballesteros (198la, as C. maculata), Ballesteros, Álvarez and Mateo (1986), Dekker (1986). 10: Moro et al. (1995, 2003), Ortea et al. (2001), Wirtz and Debelius (2003). 11: Moro et al. (1995), Wirtz (1998, 1999). 12. Moro et al. (1995), Wirtz (1998), Ávila et al. (1998), Ávila (2000), Malaquias (2001), Wirtz and Debelius (2003). Genus Learchis Bergh, 1896 (124) Learchis poica Marcus and Marcus, 1960 11: Cervera and Malaquias (unpubl. data). 12: Moro (com. pers.). Genus Facelinopsis Pruvot-Fol, 1954 Facelinopsis marioni (Vayssière, 1888) 4: Megina (unpubl. data). 5: García-Gómez (1983, 2002), García-Gómez et al. (1989). 6: Luque (1983, 1986), Ocaña et al. (2000). 8: Ros (1975), Pereira (1980), Ballesteros (1985).

Genus Dondice Marcus, 1958 (125) Dondice occidentalis (Engel, 1925) 10: Ortea et al. (2001), Moro et al. (2003). Dondice banyulensis Portman and Sandmeier, 1960 (125) 3: García-Gómez et al. (1991), Malaquias and Morenito (2000), Calado and Urgorri (1999), Calado et al. (1999, 2003), Muzavor and Morenito (1999), Wirtz and Debelius (2003). 5: García-Gómez (1982, 2002), García-Gómez and García (1984a, as Godiva), García and García-Gómez (1985, as Godiva), García-Gómez et al. (1989). 6: Luque (1983, 1986), Templado, Luque and Moreno (1988), Schick (1998), Sánchez Tocino, Ocaña and García (2000a), Ocaña et al. (2000). 7: Templado (1982b, 1983, 1984), Templado, Luque and Moreno (1988), Templado et al. (2002). 8: Vicente (1964), Ros (1975, 1985b), Altimira, Huelin and Ros (1981), Pereira (1981), Huelin and Ros (1984), Ballesteros (1985, as Godiva). 9: Ballesteros (1985, as Godiva), Wirtz and Debelius (2003). Genus Antonietta Schmekel, 1966 Antonietta luteorufa Schmekel, 1966 7: Marín and Ros (1987, 1990). Genus Dicata Schmekel, 1967 Dicata odhneri Schmekel, 1967 3: García-Gómez et al. (1991), Calado and Urgorri (1999), Calado et al. (1999), Wirtz and Debelius (2003). 6: Templado and Moreno (1998), Sánchez Tocino, Ocaña and García (2000a), Ocaña et al. (2000). 8: Ballesteros (unpubl. data). 12: Gosliner (pers. comm.). Genus Pruvotfolia Tardy, 1969 (126) Pruvotfolia pselliotes (Labbé, 1923) (126) 2: Ortea (1977c), Ortea and Urgorri (1981b), Urgorri and Besteiro (1983). 3: García-Gómez et al. (1991), Calado et al. (1999, 2003). 4: Cervera and García (1986).

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5: García-Gómez (1983, 2002). 6: Sánchez Tocino, Ocaña and García (2000a). 7: Templado et al. (2002). 8: Pruvot-Fol (1954, as Rolandia hispanica). 10: Moro et al. (1995, 2003), Ortea et al. (2001). Genus Babakina Roller, 1972 Babakina anadoni (Ortea, 1979) (127) 1: Ortea (1979c, as Rioselleolis). 2: Rolán, Rolán-Álvarez and Ortea (1991). 3: Calado (unpubl. data). 4: Megina (unpubl. data). 5: García-Gómez (1987). 10: Fernández-Ovies, Ortea and Pérez (1984, as Rioselleolis), Pérez Sánchez and Moreno (1990), Moro et al. (1995, 2003), Ortea et al. (2001, 2003). Genus Algarvia García-Gómez and Cervera, 1989 Algarvia alba García-Gómez and Cervera, 1989 3: García-Gómez and Cervera (1989). Family Aeolidiidae D’Orbigny, 1834 Genus Aeolidia Cuvier, 1798 Aeolidia papillosa (Linnaeus, 1761) 1: Hidalgo (1916), Ortea (1977c, 1980b). 2: Ortea (1977c, 1980b), Urgorri and Besteiro (1983, 1986). 3: Nobre (1932), Almaça (1960), Calado et al. (1999). Genus Spurilla Bergh, 1864 (128) Spurilla neapolitana (Delle Chiaje, 1823) (129) 1: Ros (1975), Ortea (1977c), Fernández-Ovies (1981). 2: Ortea (1977c), Urgorri and Besteiro (1983, 1984), Rolán (1983). 3: García-Gómez et al. (1991), Malaquias and Morenito (2000), Calado et al. (1999, 2003), Muzavor and Morenito (1999, as S. vayssierei). 4: García-Gómez and Cervera (1985), Cervera and García (1986). 5: García-Gómez (1983, 2002). 6: Luque (1983, 1986), Ballesteros et al. (1986), Sánchez Tocino, Ocaña and García (2000a), Ocaña et al. (2000).

7: Fez (1974), Templado, Talavera and Murillo (1983), Ballesteros et al. (1986), Marín and Ros (1987, 1991). 8: Vilella (1968), Ros (1975, 1978b, 1985a), Ros and Altimira (1977), Ballesteros (1977, 1978, 1985). 9: Ballesteros, Álvarez and Mateo (1986). 10: Odhner (1931), Nordsieck (1972), Altimira and Ros (1979), Pérez Sánchez and Moreno (1990), Pérez Sánchez, Ortea and Bacallado (1990), Pérez Sánchez, Bacallado and Ortea (1991), Moro et al. (1995, 2003), Malaquias (2000), Ortea et al. (2001, 2003), Wirtz and Debelius (2003). 11: Wirtz (1999). 12: Simroth (1888), Wirtz (1998) (both records as S. sargassicola), Malaquias (2001). Genus Aeolidiella Bergh, 1867 Aeolidiella alderi (Cocks, 1852) 1: Ortea (1977c), Ballesteros (1980a). 2: Ortea (1977c), Urgorri and Besteiro (1983, 1984), Rolán (1983). 3: García-Gómez et al. (1991), Calado et al. (1999, 2003). 4: Cervera and García (1986). 5: García-Gómez (1982, 2002), García-Gómez et al. (1989). 6: Sánchez Tocino, Ocaña and García (2000a). 7: Templado (1982b, 1983, 1984), Ballesteros et al. (1986), Marín and Ros (1987, 1991). 8: Ros (1975, 1978b), Ballesteros (1985). 9: Ballesteros (1981a, 1985), Ros (1981b), Ballesteros, Álvarez and Mateo (1986). 10: Odhner (1931), Pérez Sánchez, Ortea and Bacallado (1990), Pérez Sánchez and Moreno (1990), Pérez Sánchez, Bacallado and Ortea (1991), Moro et al. (1995, 2003), Ortea et al. (2001). Some records after 1992 as A. soemmeringii. Aeolidiella glauca (Alder and Hancock, 1845) 3: De Oliveira (1895), Hidalgo (1916), Nobre (1932), García-Gómez et al. (1991), Calado et al. (1999, 2003), Wirtz and Debelius (2003). 5: García-Gómez (1983, 2002). 7: Fez (1974). Aeolidiella sanguinea (Normann, 1877) 2: Urgorri and Besteiro (1983, 1986). 3: García-Gómez et al. (1991), Calado et al. (1999, 2003).

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5: García-Gómez et al. (1989). 11: Wirtz (1998, 1999), Wirtz and Debelius (2003). 12: Morton et al. (1998), Ávila (2000), Malaquias (2001). Aeolidiella indica Bergh, 1888 (130) 5: García-Gómez (2002). 10: Pérez-Sánchez and Moreno (1990), Moro et al. (1995, 2003), Ortea et al. (2001). Genus Cerberilla Bergh, 1873 Cerberilla bernadettae Tardy, 1965 2: Urgorri (pers. comm.). 4: Cervera (unpubl. data). 10: Moro et al. (1995, 2003), Ortea et al. (2001). Genus Berghia Trinchese, 1877 (128) Berghia caerulescens (Laurillard, 1830) 1: Ros (1975). 3: Calado et al. (1999, as Spurilla). 5: García Gómez (1983, 2002, as Spurilla), GarcíaGómez and Thompson (1990, as Spurilla). 6: Hergueta (1985), Salas and Hergueta (1986), Hergueta and Salas (1987), Templado and Moreno (1998), Sánchez Tocino, Ocaña and García (2000a), Ocaña et al. (2000). 7: Templado, Talavera and Murillo (1987), Marín and Ros (1991). 8: Ballesteros (1985). 10: Moro et al. (1995, 2003), Ortea et al. (2001), Wirtz and Debelius (2003). Berghia verrucicornis (Costa, 1867) 1: Fernández-Ovies (1981). 3: García-Gómez et al. (1991, as Spurilla). 4: Cervera and García-Gómez (1986, as S. verrucicornis), García-Gómez and Thompson (1990, as Spurilla). 5: García-Gómez (1983, 2002, as Spurilla), GarcíaGómez and Thompson (1990, as Spurilla). 6: Ballesteros et al. (1986), Sánchez Tocino, Ocaña and García (2000a), Ocaña et al. (2000). 7: Fez (1974, as Berghia coerulescens), Templado (1982b, 1983, 1984), Ballesteros et al. (1986), Marín and Ros (1991). 8: Ros (1975, 1978b, 1985a), Ros and Altimira (1977), Ballesteros (1977, 1978, 1985). 10: Moro et al. (1995, 2003), Ortea et al. (2001).

Berghia columbina (García-Gómez and Thompson, 1990) 3: Calado et al. (1999). 4: García-Gómez and Thompson (1990), Templado et al. (1993a) (both records as S. columbina). 6: Templado and Moreno (1998). 10: Ortea et al. (2001), Moro et al. (2003). Genus Limenandra Haefelfinger and Stamm, 1958 Limenandra nodosa Haefelfinger and Stamm, 1958 (131) 7: Templado (1982c), Templado (1982b, 1983, 1984, as Baeolidia), Templado, Talavera and Murillo (1983, as Baeolidia). 9: Ballesteros and Templado (1996). 10: Moro et al. (1995, 2003), Ortea et al. (2001). All records from this area as Baeolidia. Family Eubranchidae Odhner, 1934 Genus Eubranchus Forbes, 1838 Eubranchus tricolor Forbes, 1838 (132) 2: Urgorri and Besteiro (1983). Eubranchus pallidus (Alder and Hancock, 1842) 2: Urgorri and Besteiro (1983, 1984). Eubranchus vittatus (Alder and Hancock, 1842) (133) 2: Urgorri and Besteiro (1983). 8: Ballesteros (1985, as E. cf. vittatus). Eubranchus farrani (Alder and Hancock, 1844) 2: Urgorri and Besteiro (1983, 1984), Rolán (1983). 3: García-Gómez et al. (1991), Calado et al. (1999, 2003). 4: Cervera and García-Gómez (1986). 5: García-Gómez et al. (1989). 6: Templado, Talavera and Murillo (1987), Templado, Luque and Moreno (1988), Sánchez Tocino, Ocaña and García (2000a), Ocaña et al. (2000). 7: Templado (1982b, 1983, 1984). 8: Ros (1975, 1978b, as E. cf. farrani), Ballesteros (1984a, 1985). 10: Ortea et al. (2001), Moro et al. (2003), Wirtz and Debelius (2003). 12: Fontes, Tempera and Wirtz (2001).

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Eubranchus cingulatus (Alder and Hancock, 1847) (133) 1: Ortea (1978a), Fernández-Ovies (1981). 2: Urgorri and Besteiro (1983, 1984). 3: García-Gómez et al. (1991). 5: García-Gómez et al. (1989). 7: Templado, Talavera and Murillo (1983), Marín and Ros (1987). Eubranchus exiguus (Alder and Hancock, 1848) 1: Ortea (1975-76). 2: Urgorri and Besteiro (1983, 1984). 3: Calado et al. (1999, 2005). 5: García-Gómez (1983, 2002). 8: Ballesteros (1985). Eubranchus doriae (Trinchese, 1874) (133) 3: Gavaia et al. (2004), Calado et al. (2003). Eubranchus arci Ortea, 1979-80 10: Ortea (1979-80), Pérez Sánchez, Ortea and Bacallado (1990), Pérez Sánchez, Bacallado and Ortea (1991), Moro et al. (1995, 2003), Ortea et al. (2001, 2003). Eubranchus prietoi Llera and Ortea, 1981 1: Llera and Ortea (1981). 5: García-Gómez (1987). Eubranchus linensis García-Gómez, Cervera and García, 1990 (133) 2: Urgorri (pers. comm.). 3: García-Gómez, Cervera and García (1990), García-Gómez et al. (1991), Calado and Urgorri (1999), Calado et al. (1999). 5: García-Gómez (1987, as E. tricolor), GarcíaGómez, Cervera and García (1990). Eubranchus leopoldoi Caballer, Ortea and Espinosa, 2001 10: Ortea, Caballer and Moro (2002a), Moro et al. (2003). Eubranchus telesforoi Ortea, Caballer and Bacallado, 2002 10: Ortea et al. (2002). Eubranchus vascoi Ortea, Caballer and Moro, 2002 12: Ortea et al. (2002). Family Pseudovermidae Thiele, 1931 Genus Pseudovermis Périaslavzeff, 1891 Pseudovermis artabrensis Urgorri, Cobo and Besteiro, 1991 2: Urgorri (1981, as P. papillifera), Urgorri, Cobo and Besteiro (1991).

Family Calmidae Iredale and O’Donoghue, 1923 Genus Calma Alder and Hancock, 1855 Calma glaucoides (Alder and Hancock, 1854) (134) 2: Ortea (1977c), Fernández-Ovies (1981), Calado (2001), Calado and Urgorri (2002). 3: García-Gómez et al. (1991), Calado et al. (1999), Calado (2001), Calado and Urgorri (2002). 4: Cervera (unpubl. data). 8: Ballesteros (unpubl. data). 10: Moro et al. (1995, 2003), Ortea et al. (2001). Calma gobioophaga Calado and Urgorri, 2002 (134) 2: Urgorri and Besteiro (1983, 1984, both as C. glaucoides), Calado and Urgorri (2002). 3: Calado and Urgorri (2002). 7: Templado, Talavera and Murillo (1987, as C. glaucoides). Family Glaucidae Menke, 1828 Genus Glaucus Forster, 1777 Glaucus atlanticus Forster, 1777 9: Hidalgo (1916), Bofill and Aguilar-Amat (1924). 10: D’Orbigny (1839), Pérez et al. (1990), Pérez Sánchez, Bacallado and Ortea (1991), Moro et al. (1995, 2003), Ortea et al. (2001). 11: Bergh (1899). 12: Simroth (1888), Bergh (1899), Wirtz (1998), Malaquias (2001), Wirtz and Debelius (2003). Family Tergipedidae Thiele, 1931 (135) Genus Tergipes Cuvier, 1805 Tergipes tergipes (Forskal, 1775) 2: Ortea and Urgorri (1981a), Fernández-Ovies (1981), Urgorri and Besteiro (1983, 1984). 3: García-Gómez et al. (1991), Calado et al. (1999). 4: Cervera (unpubl. data). 6: Luque (1983, 1986). 7: Marín and Ros (1987). 8: Ballesteros (1985). Genus Cuthona Alder and Hancock, 1855 (136) Cuthona caerulea (Montagu, 1804) 2: Urgorri and Besteiro (1983, 1984), Rolán (1983).

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3: De Oliveira (1895), Hidalgo (1916), Nobre (1932) (all the above records as Amphorina), García-Gómez et al. (1991), Calado et al. (1999, 2003). 5: García-Gómez (1983, 2002), García-Gómez et al. (1989). 7: De Fez (1974, as Amphorina), Templado (1982b, 1983, 1984), Marín and Ros (1987, 1991). 8: Ros (1975, 1978b, 1985a, all records as Trinchesia aurantia), Ros and Altimira (1977), Altimira, Huelin and Ros (1981), Pereira (1981), Huelin and Ros (1984), Ballesteros (1985). 9: Wirtz and Debelius (2003), Ballesteros and Templado (1996). 10: Moro et al. (1995, 2003), Ortea et al. (2001, 2003), Wirtz and Debelius (2003). 12: Calado (2002). Many records before 1985 as Trinchesia caerulea. Cuthona foliata (Forbes and Goodsir, 1838) 1: Ortea (1977c, as Trinchesia). 2: Urgorri and Besteiro (1983, 1984), Rolán (1983). 3: García-Gómez et al. (1991), Calado et al. (1999, 2003). 5: García-Gómez (1984a, 2002, both as C. cf. foliata), García-Gómez et al. (1989). 8: Ballesteros (unpubl. data). 12: Calado (2002). Cuthona amoena (Alder and Hancock, 1845) 1: Ortea (1977c, as Cratenopsis). 2: Urgorri and Besteiro (1983), Rolán (1983). 3: Calado et al. (2003). 5: García-Gómez (1983, 2002). 8: Ballesteros (1985). Cuthona pallida (Eliot, 1906) 7: Marín and Ros (1987a, as C. miniostriata). 8: Ros (1975, as Trinchesia cf. miniostriata). 10: Ortea, Moro and Caballer (2002), Moro et al. (2003). Cuthona genovae (O’Donoghue, 1929) 1: Ortea (unpubl. data). 3: García-Gómez et al. (1991), Calado et al. (1999). 4: Cervera and García (1986). 5: García-Gómez (1983, 2002). 6: Ballesteros et al. (1986), Sánchez Tocino, Ocaña and García (2000a).

7: Templado (1982b, 1983, 1984), Ballesteros et al. (1986), Marín and Ros (1990). 8: Ros (1975, as Trinchesia foliata), Ros (1978b, 1985a, as Trinchesia genovae), Ros and Altimira (1977, as Trinchesia), Ballesteros (1985). 9: Ballesteros, Álvarez and Mateo (1986). 10: Malaquias and Calado (1997, as C. cf. genovae), Moro et al. (1995, 2003), Ortea et al. (2001, 2003). Cuthona ocellata (Schmekel, 1966) 3: García-Gómez et al. (1991), Calado and Urgorri (1999), Calado et al. (1999, 2003). 5: García-Gómez et al. (1989). 7: Templado (1982b, 1983, 1984). 8: Ballesteros (1985, 1986). Cuthona granosa (Schmekel, 1966) 7: Marín and Ros (1991). Cuthona ilonae (Schmekel, 1968) 1: Fernández-Ovies (1981, as Trichesia). 2: Urgorri and Besteiro (1983, 1984, 1986). 3: García-Gómez et al. (1991). 7: Templado (1982b, 1983, 1984). Cuthona miniostriata (Schmekel, 1968) 7: Marín and Ros (1987). 8: Ros (1975, as Trinchesia cf. miniostriata). Cuthona albopunctata (Schmekel, 1968) 8: Ros (1975, as Trinchiesia cf. albopunctata). Cuthona thompsoni García, López-González and García-Gómez, 1991 3: Calado et al. (2003). 4: García, López-González and García-Gómez (1991), Templado et al. (1993a). 7: Wirtz and Debelius (2003). Cuthona willani Cervera, López-González and García-Gómez, 1992 3: Cervera, García-Gómez and López-González (1992). 4: Cervera, García-Gómez and López-González (1992). Cuthona fidenciae (Ortea, Moro and Espinosa, 1999) 10: Ortea, Moro and Espinosa (1999), Ortea, Caballer and Moro (2002a,c), Ortea, Caballer and Moro (2003), Ortea et al. (2001). 12: Ortea, Caballer and Moro (2002c).

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Cuthona correai Ortea, Moro and Caballer, 2002 10: Moro et al. (1995, as C. willani, 2003), Ortea et al. (2001, as C. willani), Ortea, Caballer and Moro (2002c). Genus Catriona Winckworth, 1941 (136) Catriona gymnota (Couthouy, 1838) 1: Ortea (1977c), Fernández-Ovies (1981, as Trinchesia aurantia). 2: Urgorri and Besteiro (1983, 1984, both as Cuthona gymnota). 3: García-Gómez et al. (1991). 4: Cervera and García (1986). 5: García-Gómez (1987). Catriona maua (Marcus and Marcus, 1960) 4: Cervera (unpubl. data). 7: Marín and Ros (1987, 1990, 1991). 10: Ortea, Caballer and Moro (2002b), Moro et al. (2003). Genus Tenellia A. Costa, 1866 Tenellia adspersa (Nordmann, 1845) 2: Urgorri and Besteiro (1983, 1984, 1986). 4: Cervera (unpubl. data). 7: Marín and Ros (1987, as Tenellia pallida).

Family Fionidae Alder and Hancock, 1855 Genus Fiona Alder and Hancock, 1851 Fiona pinnata (Eschscholtz, 1831) 6: Templado, Luque and Moreno (1988). 7: Templado, Talavera and Murillo (1983), Templado et al. (2002). 8: Ros (1975). 10: Odhner (1931), Pérez Sánchez, Ortea and Bacallado (1990), Pérez Sánchez, Bacallado and Ortea (1991), Moro et al. (1995, 2003), Ortea et al. (2001). 11: Wirtz (1999), Wirtz and Debelius (2003). 12: Bergh (1892, as Fiona marina), Wirtz (1998), Morton et al. (1998), Ávila et al. (1998), Ávila (2000), Malaquias (2001). Family Embletoniidae Schmekel, 1970 (137) Genus Embletonia Alder and Hancock, 1851 (137) Embletonia pulchra Alder and Hancock, 1851 2: Urgorri and Besteiro (1983, 1984). 3: Nobre (1938-40), García-Gómez et al. (1991), Malaquias and Morenito (2000), Calado et al. (1999, 2003). 5: García-Gómez et al. (1989). 7: Templado, Talavera and Murillo (1987, as E. pulchra faurei), Marín and Ros (1987a, as E. pulcra faurei). 8: Ballesteros (1985, as E. pulchra faurei).

REMARKS
(1) According to Malaquias, Martínez and Abreu (2002), the family Ringiculidae is poorly known, since most of the systematic work has been focused on shells only, which are very similar among species. As a result, the taxonomy of the northeast Atlantic species is confusing, and therefore it is very difficult to confidently recognise the different species. A revision of the Atlantic Ringiculidae is required, and since it is not yet available, we decided to keep all the names included in the previous catalogue (Cervera et al., 1988). (2) Ciccone and Savona (1982) pointed out that Ringicula nitida and Ringicula leptocheila are both valid species, the former inhabiting the Atlantic Ocean and the latter the Mediterranean Sea. Therefore, the reference to R. leptocheila off the Portuguese coasts by Nobre (1936) must be regarded as a misidentification of R. nitida. We also considered the species R. pulchella Morelet, 1880 as a synonym of R. nitida, based on the opinion of Bouchet, as noted in Platts (1985). (3) Ciccone and Savona (1982) highlighted the possibility that Ringicula minutula could be a synonym of Ringicula conformis. (4) The presence of Japonacteon pusillus in Azores was quoted by Bouchet (1975) with uncertainty. The subsequent references by Mikkelsen (1995) and Malaquias (2001) were based on Bouchet (1975). This species was referred to in the previous catalogue as Japonacteon pusillus (Forbes, 1944). (5) Callostracon meeki was described by Dall (1889) under the genus name Ovulacteon. (6) In the previous catalogue (Cervera et al., 1988), this family was under the name Hydatinidae Pilsbry, 1893, which is a synonym of Amplustridae Gray, 1847.

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(7) Although Hydatina physis (Gmelin, 1794) is considered by some authors a synonym of Hydatina vesicaria (Solander, 1786), we decided to maintain the former name. This name is more widely used, and until a revision of the family Amplustridae is available, no conclusive statements can be made. In many other groups of cephalaspideans, the majority of the systematic work has been concentrated only on the shells, which are very much similar between different species. Wirtz (1995b) shows an image of a live specimen of H. physis from the Canary Islands. The reference to the Madeira archipelago is made on the basis of a shell housed in the collections of the Museu Municipal do Funchal (História Natural). (8) As pointed out in the previous remark, considerable confusion surrounds the genus Hydatina. Since no systematic revision is yet available, we decided to maintain all names listed in the previous catalogue (Cervera et al., 1988). (9) Diaphana globosa was recorded in the previous catalogue (Cervera et al., 1988) under the name Diaphana hiemalis (Couthouy, 1839). (10) Nordsieck (1972) considered Retusa pellucida a form of R. truncatula. (11) Nordsieck (1972) described the new genus Mamilloretusa to include the species Retusa mmillata. However, this genus is not well supported, and several authors (e.g. Lemche, 1948) have even considered this species a synonym of Retusa truncatula. (12) Retusa obesa is a problematic taxon, requiring further study to clarify its taxonomic status. (13) Retusa multiquadrata is a problematic species, requiring further study to clarify its taxonomic status. (14) In the past, Cylichnina umbilicata has often been cited in the literature under the name Cylichnina subcylindrica (Brown, 1827). Cervera et al. (1988) recorded it as Retusa umbilicata (Montagu, 1803) in agreement with Aartsen, Menkhorst and Gittenberger (1984). The valid name in current use is Cylichnina umbilicata (Montagu, 1803), and it is therefore adopted here. (15) Nordsieck (1972) described the genus Mamillocylichna to include both species Cylichna richardi and Cylichna mirabilis. However, no justification was given to create this new genus, and therefore this generic designation is not used in the present catalogue. (16) In the previous catalogue (Cervera et al., 1988), Roxania pinguicola and Bulla pinguicola were considered two different species, and Bulla subrotunda Jeffreys, 1873, together with Bulla abyssicola Dall, 1887, were listed as synonyms of the latter. Although the taxonomic status of these species and their synonymy still needs to be fully assessed, we follow the current trend that includes B. pinguicola in the genus Roxania. (17) Nordsieck (1972) assigned Philine monterosatoi to a new genus, Phillingwynia. However, no anatomical data were provided to support the change, and further studies are required to assess whether or not this genus is valid. (18) Chelidonura africana was originally described based on specimens belonging to at least two different species, which has caused enormous confusion and controversy over the years. In the earlier catalogue (Cervera et al., 1988), this species was designated under the name Chelidonura italica Sordi, 1981 and a comprehensive remark concerning the taxonomic and nomenclatural problematic of the western Mediterranean species of the genus Chelidonura was included. Recently, Martínez, Malaquias and Cervera (2002) proposed the designation of a neotype for C. africana, and considered C. italica as a junior synonym of this species. (19) Ortea, Moro and Espinosa (1996) attributed this species to the genus Chelidonura on the basis of its external anatomy only. Some years later, these same authors (Ortea, Moro and Espinosa, 2003) transferred this species to the genus Odontoaglaja Rudman, 1978 based on the presence of a radula. Nevertheless, Gosliner (pers. comm.) suggests that a re-assessment of the phylogenetic relationships between both genera should be carried out, considering the presence of radula in another undescribed Chelidonura from Southern Africa (Gosliner, 1987, p. 43, fig. 13; 1994b, p. 280, fig. 18). (20) Gosliner (1980) transferred the species Aglaja depicta to the genus Philinopsis due to the fact that the body form, shell, penis, pharynx, mucous gland and gonoduct are identical to those described for members of the genus Philinopsis. (21) Doridium laurentianum is an incertae sedis taxon. This species was originally described based on four dredged shells, of which two were lost (Watson, 1897). The remaining two are untraceable, and the species was never illustrated by the author (Malaquias, 2004). (22) As Schmekel and Cappellato (2002) stated, the taxonomic history of Runcina coronata and its name is complex, mainly due to the existence of several dark Runcina species in the Eastern Atlantic and Mediterranean Sea that are very similar to each other. These are the case of Runcina ornata Quatrefages, 1844, Runcina calaritana Colosi, 1915, Runcina aurata García, López, Luque and Cervera, 1986, Runcina avellana Schmekel and Cappellato, 2001 and Runcina rotunda Schmekel and Cappellato, 2002. (23) The descriptions of R. ornata and Runcina macrodenticulata included in Cervera, García-Gómez and García (1991) are based on the specimens described in García et al. (1986) and García, García-Gómez and López de la Cuadra (1990), respectively.

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(24) The occurrence of Runcina capreensis on the Iberian Peninsula is doubtful. According to Schmekel and Cappellato (2002), R. capreensis (from Capri, Italy) was never found again after its original description. However, several records of this species on the Iberian coast can be found in the literature. These references are either names included on faunistic lists, or the result of identifications based on external morphology only, which is meaningless to discriminate confidently amongst many of the Runcina species. (25) We believe that the name Runcina adriatica has been used in the eastern Atlantic to name specimens belonging indeed to more than one species. For example, Malaquias and Calado (1997) cited several specimens from the Selvagens Islands as Runcina adriatica Thompson, 1980. However, a subsequent review of this material shows that this could have been a misidentification, and the specimens might belong indeed to a different species. (26) Much confusion surrounds the family Bullidae, and the identity of most of the species remains doubtful. A revision in order to clarify the systematics of this family in the Atlantic is required. Since no studies are yet available, we decided to keep all but one (B. pinguicola transferred in this catalogue to the genus Roxania – see remark 16) the species quoted in the previous catalogue. (27) Hidalgo (1917) cited the species Bulla roperiana Pilsbry, 1893 in the same localities as Bulla striata Bruguière, 1792. This is probably the result of a misidentification, and here we consider B. roperiana as a synonym of B. striata. The same criterion has already been followed by Cervera et al. (1988). Notable differences were observed between different populations of B. striata in the Mediterranean Sea, and several species have been reported in this area. (28) According to Bouchet (1975), anatomical studies are required to clarify the generic status of this species. (29) Hidalgo (1917) cited Haminoea hydatis along the Iberian coast and Balearic Islands, and considered Haminoea navicula a synonym of the former species. Both species are valid (Talavera, Murillo and Templado, 1987), and it is not possible to determine which one Hidalgo was dealing with (maybe even both). Therefore, the citations by Hidalgo (1917) are not included in this catalogue. Misidentifications between both species are common in the literature. Monterosato (1923: 1317, fig. 16) has described the species H. hydatis cf. cymoelium based on a single shell collected in Bengasi, Libya, Mediterranean Sea. Nordsieck (1972) elevated this form to the status of subspecies, and Piani (1980) later included it on the checklist of valid mediterranean species. However, Oliverio and Tringali (2001), after a revaluation of the type specimens described by Monterosato, pointed out that the holotype of H. cymoelium may be, in fact, a shell of H. hydatis (see Oliverio and Tringali, 2001, p. 30, fig. 45 for an illustration of the holotype). More details are given in Malaquias and Cervera (in press). (30) Hidalgo (1917) has considered H. navicula a synonym of H. hydatis. Since both species are valid (Talavera, Murillo and Templado, 1987) and it is impossible to know which one Hidalgo was dealing with (maybe even both), we decide to exclude Hidalgo’s records from this catalogue. The confusion in the literature as a result of misidentifications between both species is often common and we recommend caution in the use of such references. More details are given in Malaquias and Cervera (in press). (31) Several references report the presence of Haminoea elegans in the East Atlantic, from Gabon to Mauritania, the Canary Islands, Portugal, the British Isles and the Mediterranean Sea (Leach, 1852; Nobre, 1938-40; Nicklès, 1947; Nicklès, 1950; Marche-Marchad, 1958; Nordsieck and García-Talavera, 1979; Bernard, 1984; Sabelli, Gianuzzi-Sabelli and Bedulli, 1990). Nevertheless, all of these reports must be regarded as doubtful, since they were based only on shells. Martínez and Ortea (1997), after studying live specimens from Congo and São Tomé and Príncipe, concluded that they belong to H. elegans, and emphasise that this species should be at least present in the equatorial belt. However, the type locality of this species is the south of the British Isles, and the specimens studied by Martínez and Ortea (1997) are likely to be something different. The true H. elegans may probably be a synonym of either H. navicula or H. hydatis. Further studies are required to clarify the status of this species. (32) Several authors had included the genus Cylichnium in the family Atyidae (e.g. Thiele, 1931; Nordsieck, 1972). Bouchet (1975) based on anatomical features, transferred this genus to Scaphandridae, where it was included by Cervera et al. (1988). Presently, the genus Cylichnium Dall, 1908 is considered part of the family Haminoeidae Pilsbry, 1895 as adopted in the Checklist of European Marine Molluscs (CLEMAM); http://www.somali.asso.fr/clemam/biotaxis.php (33) Weinkauffia semistriata is an incertae sedis taxon in need of reassessment. (34) The family Akeridae was formerly considered within the cephalaspideans, mainly due to the shell shape. However, it is currently included within Anaspidea, according to the features of its pharynx, reproductive system, nervous system and pallial cavity, and associated organs (e.g. Morton and Holme, 1955; Morton, 1972; Willan and Morton, 1984; Gosliner, 1987, 1994b; Cervera et al., 1988; Martínez Cueto-Felgueroso, 1995; Mikkelsen, 1996, 2002). Phylogenetic analyses based on morphological and molecular data support this hypothesis (Medina and Walsh, 2000; Mikkelsen, 2002; Wägele, Vonnemann and Wägele, 2003; Vonnemann et al., in press).

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(35) Aplysia parvula is a species of small size which can be misidentified with young specimens of Aplysia punctata. Perhaps this is the reason why the first references from the second half of the 1980s were misidentifications (Ballesteros et al., 1986; Ballesteros and Templado, 1987). (36) Gosliner (pers. comm.) considers that Atlantic specimens of so-called Petalifera ramosa belong to a different species from those cited in the Pacific Ocean. (37) According to Rampal (2002), Cavolinia flava and Cavolinia gibbosa are different species, the former distributed in temperate Atlantic waters, and the later restricted to the South Atlantic. (38) The records of Diacria trispinosa may be interpreted with caution after the review of Bontes and Van der Spoel (1998). (39) Rampal (2002) considers Creseis conica a different species from Creseis virgula. The latter is mainly distributed in the Indo-Pacific, whereas all records form the North Atlantic belong to the former. (40) All previous records of Cavolinia longirostris should be reconsidered after the review of Van der Spoel, Bleeker and Kobayasi (1993). (41) Jensen (1992b) discussed the use of Ascoglossa versus Sacoglossa, arguing for the use of the latter name rather than the former. (42) According to Gosliner (pers. comm.), this species could be Oxynoe antillarum Mörch, 1863. (43) Phylogenetic analyses conducted by Gosliner (1995), Jensen (1996), and Mikkelsen (1998) show the genus Elysia to be a paraphyletic clade. For this reason, as suggested by Gosliner (1995), Elysiella, Pattyclaya, Tridachia and Tridachiella should be united with Elysia to maintain generic monophyly. (44) Elysia translucens was considered a junior synonym of Elysia viridis until Bouchet (1984) confirmed its validity; this is probably why there is a scarcity of records of this common species. (45) Bouchet (1984) considers that, if the description of Elysia fezi is correct, it should be considered as valid, even though it has not been collected again. If so, it would be the largest Mediterranean species of Elysia (44 mm), characterised by having radular teeth with a tricuspid anterior edge. After its description, this species has not been collected, although the opisthobranch populations of its type locality, Cubellas, have been very frequently sampled by several local experts during more than twenty years, one of them (Ballesteros) co-author of the present checklist. (46) Several authors have synonymised Elysia margaritae with other species of Elysia. Thus, Thompson and Jaklin (1988) considered it as a junior synonym of Elysia timida, without any justification, whereas Bouchet (1984) considered it a junior synonym of E. viridis, also providing no arguments. However, Ortea et al. (1998), discussing Canary Islands E. timida specimens, considered E. margaritae a valid species; moreover, they proposed that Elysia gordanae should be considered a junior synonym. Regarding this last statement, we have to point out that E. gordanae has a serrated edge to its radular teeth, and rounded edges of the parapodia, with small white protuberances, which have not been mentioned for E. margaritae. This leads us to consider both species to be different. Our conclusion is that E. margaritae is a valid species, because of its unique colour pattern, large size, and smooth radular teeth. Nevertheless, the lack of additional specimens with this morphology collected since its original description in 1962, even though the eastern Iberian coasts have been intensively studied over the last three decades by several authors, and the lack of data about the size of the radular teeth, suggests that some doubts about its true taxonomic identity still exist. (47) Some authors considered the genus Thuridilla as a junior synonym of Elysia (Thompson, 1981; Gascoigne, 1985; Thompson and Jaklin, 1988). However, recent phylogenetic analyses of the genus (Gosliner, 1995) and of Sacoglossa (Jensen, 1996, 1998; Mikkelsen, 1998) have eliminated any doubts regarding its validity. (48) According to Gosliner (pers. comm.), this species does not belong to Bosellia, but Elysia. This author states that it highly resembles E. pusilla (Bergh, 1872). (49) The monophyly of Polybranchiidae currently has weak support (Jensen, 1996; Mikkelsen, 1998). Nevertheless, Jensen (1996) proposed retaining it, considering the fact that most genera are poorly described anatomically, and also that monophyly could be ‘forced’ without seriously disrupting the other monophyletic groups. (50) Thompson (1988a) considered Hermaea to be a member of the family Stiligeridae, and considered Placida as a subgenus of the former. However, recent phylogenetic analyses by Jensen (1996, 1997) and Mikkelsen (1998) have validated the family Hermaeidae, in which Hermaea is included, and concluded that Stiligeridae Iredale and O’Donoghue, 1923 is a junior synonym of Limapontiidae Gray, 1847. (51) Jensen (1996, 1997) discussed the validity of the genus Hermaeopsis with regard to the genus Hermaea. Furthermore, this author indicated that it has to be considered within the family Hermaeidae. The phylogenetic analysis of Mikkelsen (1998) supports this view. (52) Jensen (1996) noted the probable non-monophyly of Ercolania and indicated that it may have to be split. Nevertheless, she retains the genus as Ercolania, and we follow this approach here.

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(53) Cervera et al. (1988) and Cervera, García-Gómez and Ortea (1991) mistakenly stated that Placida was dated in 1877-1879. These authors follow the statement by Trinchese (1893) indicating that this name was used for the first time in the monograph Aeolidiidae e famiglie affini del Porto di Genova (1877-1879) to replace Laura Trinchese, 1873, since this name was predated by Laura Lacaze-Duthiers, 1865 (type-species: Laura gerardiae Lacaze-Duthiers, 1865, Comptes rendus hébdomadaires des séances de l’Academie des Sciences, 61: 838-841). Nevertheless, the proposal for this change appears on p. 84 of Rendiconto delle Sessioni della Reale Accademia delle Scienze dell’Istituto di Bologna of 1876. Therefore, Placida would have to be dated in 1876. (54) Placida tardyi Trinchese, 1873 and Placida viridis Trinchese, 1873 were considered synonyms on the basis of the paper by Gascoigne and Sordi (1980). However, Cervera et al. (1988) provided arguments to retain both names as separate species. On the Iberian coast, P. viridis has been recorded both for the Mediterranean (Ros and Altimira, 1977; Ros, 1978b, 1985a; Templado, Talavera and Murillo, 1987; Marín and Ros, 1987, 1990), and the Atlantic (Ortea, 1977a, quoted as Hermaea viridis). However, most of these references only provide the name of the species without any kind of additional information which would make possible a comparison with the original description or any other references. Ortea (1977a) gives a few anatomical and colour pattern characteristics, although the figure referred to this species cited by this author (illus. 3, fig. 5) is based on the original figure by P. tardy (Trinchese, 1877-79; tab. XV, fig. 1). On the other hand, the description by Marín and Ros (1987) of a single specimen does not match the description by Trinchese (1873). For this reason, we prefer to omit the Iberian records of P. viridis from the present catalogue until more detailed records can confirm the existence of this species on Iberian coasts. (55) García-Gómez (1987), Cervera et al. (1988), Sánchez Tocino, Ocaña and García (2000a), and Sánchez-Moyano et al. (2000) spelt incorrectly the name of this species as Placida verticillata, rather than Placida verticilata. (56) Willan and Burn (2003) invoke the ICZN (1999, Article 23.9.2) to maintain Umbraculoidea Dall, 1889 as a nomen protectum instead of Tylodinoidea Gray, 1847. (57) Schmekel (1985) states that all characters defining Notaspidea are plesiomorphies, and Tylodinoidea as well as Pleurobranchoidea are so divergent in their morphology that they do not seem to share a common ancestor. Wägele and Willan (2000) provide an exhaustive phylogenetic analysis of the Nudibranchia, and one of their main conclusions is that Pleurobranchoidea is its sister group. These authors introduce the taxon Nudipleura, including both Nudibranchia and Pleurobranchoidea. This new taxon has been confirmed by subsequent phylogenetic analyses based on morphological (Wägele and Klussmann-Kolb, 2005) and molecular data (WollscheidLengeling et al., 2001; Wägele, Vonnemann and Wägele, 2003; Grande et al., 2004a,b; Vonnemann et al., in press). Obviously, Notaspidea therefore becomes a non-monophyletic taxon. (58) Valdés (2001) and Willan and Burn (2003) give detailed accounts of the publication date, authorship and type species of Umbraculum and Tylodina. (59) Willan (1987a) discussed the taxonomic identity of the genus Tylodinella Mazzarelli, 1898, rendering it not valid. He proposed the new name Anidolyta to include the species Anidolyta duebenii Lovén, 1846 and A. spongotheras (Bertsch, 1980). Nevertheless, Warén and Di Paco (1997) suggested three hypotheses regarding the taxonomic identity of Tylodinella, without favouring any of them. In one of these hypotheses, Tylodinella would be a senior synonym of Anidolyta. Platts (1985) pointed out that the species name of A. duebenii has to be spelt with a double ‘i’ at the end, even though in most references it appears with only one. (60) Many authors have considered this genus to be monotypic (Burn, 1959; Rehder, 1980; Boss, 1982; Willan, 1987a, 1998), although some others, such as Thompson (1970), considered it bitypic. Valdés and Lozouet (2000), although leaving this controversy open, consider it difficult to accept the current existence of a single circumtropical species based on palaeo-ontological data. Nevertheless, they use the name of Umbraculum umbraculum, which is that of the monotypic hypothesis. Willan and Burn (2003) also leave this issue open. In the present paper, we have followed the former of these hypotheses. (62) Berthella aurantiaca has been misidentified as a species of Berthellina Gardiner, 1936 due to its similar coloration (see Lacaze-Duthiers, 1859; Thompson, 1977; Templado, 1982c, 1984; Ballesteros et al., 1986). For this reason, many of its records having no internal anatomical data should be reviewed. Some conspicuous internal differences (size and placement of the shell, jaw elements, radular teeth, midgut gland development and penial gland) between Berthella aurantiaca and Berthellina species avoid a potential misidentification. (62) Six species of Berthellina are currently considered valid (Burn, 1962; Willan, 1987a). However, investigation started by Cervera (1988) on this genus revealed the need for an extensive review. Such a review is currently being conducted by Cervera, Gosliner and García-Gómez (in preparation). Our data lead us to confirm that the specimens of Berthellina recorded within the geographical context of the present paper do not belong to Berthellina cit-

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rina (Rüppell and Leuckart, 1828). Vayssière (1897) described only the shell of a single specimen of Berthellina edwardsii (earlier known as Berthella edwardsii) from the Azores. One year later, this author provided a more detailed description of the species (Vayssière, 1898) in his monograph on pleurobranchids, including one additional specimen from the Cape Verde Islands. The latter description, although detailed, overlooks some important elements useful for comparisons with other species. Nevertheless, our data on the internal anatomy of specimens from the Iberian coast, as well as the Canary, Madeira and Azores archipelagos, match those of B. edwardsii and those described in the Lacaze-Duthiers’ (1859) monograph (as Pleurobranchus aurantiacus). Thus, we consider all the above specimens to belong to B. edwardsii, provisionally. To elucidate whether B. edwardsii and Berthellina engeli Gardiner, 1936 are conspecific is still an unresolved issue. Some authors, such as Edmunds and Thompson (1972), Thompson (1976, 1988b) and Cattaneo-Vietti (1986), assume that B. citrina and B. engeli are synonyms; others (Willan, 1983, 1984) do not agree. Our data support the latter point of view. (63) Marcus and Gosliner (1984) described two new species of Pleurobranchaea from the Mediterranean, Pleurobranchaea notmec and Pleurobranchaea vayssierei, which are considered junior synonyms of Pleurobranchaea meckelii, according to the criteria of Cervera and García-Gómez (1988). Bergh (1892) describes Pleurobranchaea morosa, but Marcus and Gosliner (1984) do not include this species in their review of the subfamily, since it is ‘insufficiently described’. (64) The monophyly of Nudibranchia is controversial (Wägele, Vonnemann and Wägele, 2003). Although it is supported by recent morphological and molecular phylogenetic analyses (Wägele and Willan, 2000; Wollscheid and Wägele, 1999; Wollscheid-Lengeling et al., 2001; Vonnemann et al., 2005), it is rejected by others (Minichev, 1970; Schmekel, 1985; Thöllesson, 1999b; Grande et al., 2004a,b). Despite strong evidence of the paraphyly of Nudibranchia as presented by Grande et al. (2004a,b), we prefer to retain this taxon until a stable classification of Opisthobranchia is acepted. (65) Recent studies support the non-monophyly of Phanerobranchia (Thöllesson, 1999a; Wollscheid and Wägele, 1999; Wollscheid-Lengeling et al., 2001; Valdés, 2002; Wägele, Vonnemann and Wägele, 2003; Grande et al., 2004a,b; Fahey and Gosliner, 2004), although an in-depth phylogenetic analysis of this taxon is still lacking. (66) This record is considered doubtful. (67) According to ICZN article 32.5.2.1, the correct specific name of this species should be cervinoi instead of cerviñoi. (68) The record of Acanthodoris pilosa from the Straits of Gibraltar needs to be confirmed. Sánchez Santos (unpubl. data) has collected two specimens similar in external appearance to that collected by García Gómez (1987, 2002), but they do not fit the original description of this species. No data on the internal anatomy of the specimens from southern Iberian Peninsula are known. (69) Valdés and Ortea (1995) consider Okenia aspersa a junior synonym of Okenia quadricornis (Montagu, 1815). However, ICZN opinion 1.014 (1974) has invalidated this last name in favour of O. aspersa. (70) Figure captions of Trapania orteai and Trapania hispalensis are switched erroneously in García-Gómez (2002). (71) At present, there is not agreement on the genera that should be included in this family, since the internal phylogenetic relationships are still not clearly understood (Rudman, 1998). Many authors now restrict the Polyceridae to a few allied genera (Odhner, 1941), and thus consider Notodorididae, Triophidae, Nembrothidae, and Gymnodorididae to be distinct families. Burn (1967) suggested that the family should comprise the four subfamilies Kalinginae, Triophinae, Polycerinae, and Nembrothinae, and that notodorids and gymnodorids should be placed in separate subfamilies. This view is also adopted by Rudman (1998) and followed in the present paper. Recent phylogenetic analysis regarding this issue has been inconclusive (Thöllesson, 1999a; Wägele and Willan, 2000; Wollscheid and Wägele, 1999; Wägele, Vonnemann and Wägele, 2003). Recently, the phylogenetic analysis carried out by Fahey and Gosliner (2004) led to Notodoris Bergh, 1875 being considered a junior synonym of Aegires Lovén, 1844; consequently, Notodorididae is now considered a synonym of Aegiridae (see remark 74 for the correct spelling of the family name). Given such analysis, the only polycerid included (Polycera) does not fit within the Aegiridae, nor appear as a sister group. Because this situation has yet to be fully clarified, no splitting subfamilies have been considered in the present paper. (72) Rudman (2003b) point out the possibility that Polycera aurantiomarginata is a junior synonym of Polycera chilluna Marcus, 1961 from North Carolina, a species that was overlooked by García-Gómez and Bobo (1984), on the basis of a photo of a living specimen of Polycera attributed to the species by Marcus (1961). However, the description of this species is based on a single preserved specimen. Therefore, and until a detailed study can solve this question, we prefer to retain P. aurantiomarginata as a valid species from the eastern Atlantic. (73) The genus Kaloplocamus Bergh, 1880 is poorly known. All species were described between 1835 and 1955, except Kaloplocamus filosus (Cattaneo-Vietti and Sordi, 1988). Most of these species have only been reported when origi-

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nally described and not reported again since. Because several generic names have been attributed to this genus, a review is still needed (Vallés, 2002). Vallés, Valdés and Ortea (2000) considered Kaloplocamus atlanticus (Bergh, 1893) a separate species from Kaloplocamus ramosus. However, these authors stated that the two studied specimens of Kaloplocamus from the Azores fit exactly with the external description of K. ramosus by Cantraine (1835), and considered both species to be synonyms. However, we believe that Vallés, Valdés and Ortea (2000) do not give strong arguments to support this point of view, and therefore we prefer to retain both names separately as valid. (74) Willan (2000) discussed in detail the correct spelling of the family name, Aegiridae. (75) Fahey and Gosliner (2004) have discussed the possible co-specificity of Aegires punctilucens and Aegires leuckartii. Data on the internal anatomy of the original material is lacking, and these authors had no access to this material. Therefore, following the proposal of Schmekel and Portman (1982) to separate subspecies, they propose maintaining A. punctilucens from the Mediterranean Sea as a separate species from A. leuckartii and Aegires albopunctatus MacFarland, 1905. (76) Fahey and Gosliner (2004) point out the possibility that Aegires palensis might be a junior synonym of A. leuckartii. However, they retain this species until additional comparative material for both taxa can be collected and examined. (77) Valdés (2002a) carried out a phylogenetic analysis and a systematic review of the cryptobranch dorids, and introduced the taxon Labiostomata for the radula-bearing cryptobranch dorids. The genera included in this taxon have buccal armature, as well. (78) Rudman (2003a) considers Glossodoris edmundsi as a junior synonym of Glossodoris ghanensis Edmunds, 1968, although he does not exclude the possibility of a case of mimicry. (79) Ortea, Valdés and García-Gómez (1996) carried out a review of the Atlantic blue chromodorids. These authors gave the list of synonyms for each species, and introduced several new specific and subespecific taxa. (80) Until the first half of the 1980s, Hypselodoris villafranca was recorded in many papers as Hypselodoris gracilis. In some older papers, it was also attributed to the genera Chromodoris or Glossodoris. (81) In the past, Hypselodori picta has often been attributed to the genera Chromodoris and Glossodoris. On the other hand, before the paper by Ortea, Valdés and García-Gómez (1996), this species was usually attributed specific names such as valenciennesi, elegans or webbi, even villafranca, as in Fez (1974). Ortea, Valdés and García-Gómez (1996) established several subspecies within this species, some of them distributed in one or several of the areas considered in the present paper (H. picta picta, H. picta webbi, H. picta azorica). However, these subspecies are based on colour differences only, and to date no genetic or molecular studies have been conducted to confirm or reject them. Bertsch (1997) presents strong criticism, advising caution regarding these subspecies and some of the new species proposed by the above authors. (82) Before Ortea, Valdés and García-Gómez (1996), this species was usually recorded as Hypselodoris coelestis. (83) Hypselodoris fontandraui has been also called Hypselodoris messinensis, and has sometimes been attributed to the genus Glossodoris. (84) Hypselodoris midatlantica was attributed to the genus Glossodoris in the past. The specific name of the species (midatlantica vs. tricolor) remains controversial today. For more details, see Gosliner (1990), Ortea, Valdés and GarcíaGómez (1996), Bertsch (1997), and Gosliner and Johnson (1999). In the present paper, we use both names, pending a definitive decision. (85) In the past, this species has been frequently attributed to the genus Glossodoris. (86) Chromodoris luteopunctata was described from specimens collected at Temara (Moroccan coast) by Gantès (1962). We consider Chromodoris rodomaculata Ortea and Valdés, 1991 to be a junior synonym of C. luteopunctata, since the colour differences used to establish the former are very weak. In fact, Valdés currently agrees with our view (pers. comm.). (87) Gosliner (1990) considered Chromodoris britoi a junior synonym of Chromodoris clenchi (Russell, 1935). Later, Ortea, Valdés and Espinosa (1994) reviewed the species included in the C. clenchi colour group, and determined that C. clenchi, Chromodoris neona (Marcus, 1955), Chromodoris binza Marcus and Marcus, 1963 and Chromodoris britoi Ortea and Pérez, 1983 are different species. However, Valdés (2000) presented a different view, one considering C. binza and C. britoi to be probably conspecific. A molecular study of specimens from both sides of the Atlantic is needed to resolve this issue. (88) The genus Cadlina was considered a member of the family Cadlinidae. Rudman (1984), after his review of the Indo-Pacific Chromodorididae genera, stated that Cadlina is a basal genus within this family. However, recent phylogenetic analyses based on nuclear (Thöllesson, 2000) and mitochondrial (Grande et al., 2004a,b) genes provide evidence to exclude Cadlina from Chromodorididae. A recent paper presenting phylogenetic analysis based on

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the 16S rDNA gene (Wilson and Lee, in press) supports a very close relationship with Chromodoris. However, only Actinocyclus, Cadlinella, Cadlina and Chromodoris were considered in this study, which therefore does not provide strong evidence regarding the inclusion (or not) of Cadlina within Chromodorididae. (89) In the phylogenetic analysis of the cryptobranch dorids carried out by Valdés (2002a), the author established the synonymy at family level within this group. Thus, Archidorididae Bergh, 1891 and Aldisidae Odhner, 1939 are now considered junior synonyms of Dorididae Rafinesque, 1815. On the other hand, Kentrodorididae Bergh, 1891, Platydorididae Bergh, 1891, Baptodorididae Odhner, 1926, Rostangidae Pruvot-Fol, 1951, Geitodorididae Odhner, 1968 and Taringidae Odhner, 1968 (among others) would be junior synonyms of Discodorididae Bergh, 1891. (90) Valdés (2002a) concludes that the genus Archidoris Bergh, 1878 is a junior synonym of Doris. (91) Valdés (2002a) points out that Doris sticta is probably a synonym of Doris eubalia P. Fischer, 1872. Moreover, Valdés and Fahey (in press) recently concluded that the overlooked name Glossodoris dorbignyi J. E. Gray in M. E. Gray, 1850 is a senior synonym of D. sticta. However, these authors retain this name as valid in applying article 23.9.2. of the ICZN. (92) Ortea, Pérez Sánchez and Llera (1982) described two new species of Aldisa from the Canary Islands, Aldisa smaragdina and Aldisa expleta. The former has been subsequently recorded in different areas around the Iberian Peninsula (Atlantic and Mediterranean), as well as off Madeira and the Azores. However, Millen and Gosliner (1985) considered A. smaragdina to be a synonym of Aldisa binotata Pruvot-Fol, 1953, and A. expleta to be a synonym of Aldisa banyulensis Pruvot-Fol, 1951. García et al. (1986) presented a detailed comparison of all these species, confirming their validity. (93) According to Valdés (pers. comm.), Discodoris confusa could be a junior synonym of Discodoris maculosa, but this should be confirmed. For this reason, we prefer to retain both names as valid in the present paper. (94) Cervera, García-Gómez and García (1985) and Ortea (1990) redescribed Geitodoris planata based on specimens collected from southern mainland Spain and the Canary Islands. These authors considered this species to be different from Archidoris stellifera Vayssière, 1904 because of differences in their radular morphology. Cervera, GarcíaGómez and García (1985) indicated that the confusion existing in the literature up to 1985 should lead to a revision of the records for both species. Perrone (1987) redescribed A. stellifera from Italy (as Discodoris) and confirmed the absence of jaws, the presence of hooked radular teeth, and also of caryophyllidia. With this information in hand, Valdés (2002a) states that A. stellifera should be placed in a genus of caryophyllidia-bearing dorids, and that it is different from G. planata. A. stellifera has often been assigned to Discodoris over the past two decades. (95) After the phylogenetic and systematic revision of the cryptobranch dorids by Valdés (2002a), it is obvious that Discodoris rosi should be removed from the genus Discodoris. Dayrat and Gosliner (2005) transfer this species to the genus Rostanga, stating that the clade Rostanga + ‘D.’ rosi is supported by having elongate, slender lateral teeth (all radular teeth or only part). However, these authors overlooked the phylogenetic analysis of Rostanga carried out by Garovoy, Valdés and Gosliner (2001). These authors build a data matrix based on 15 characters, 9 of these involving the radular teeth. According to their analysis, this genus is supported by three synapomorphies, although two of them appear in other cryptobranch genera. However, only the Rostanga species have the cusp of innermost lateral teeth of the radula characteristically folded inwards relative to the base of the teeth. This last feature is not present in ‘D.’ rosi and is not considered in the phylogenetic analysis by Dayrat and Gosliner (in press). On the other hand, these authors consider ‘D’. rosi to have labial armature, and that the presence of this feature is an apomorphic condition. However, we consider that the presence of labial armature is a plesiomorphic condition (see also Garovoy, Valdés and Gosliner, 2001, and Valdés, 2002b), and specimens from different localities around the Iberian Peninsula (coasts from Granada, Straits of Gibraltar and southern Portugal) lack labial armature. For this reason, we prefer not to re-allocate this species into another known genus before reanalysing the case again. (96) Ortea and Martínez (1990) and Ortea and Cabrera (1999) considered Thordisa azmanii a junior synonym of Thordis diuda Marcus, 1955. This last species was described from a single specimen from Brazil, and has not been recorded again since. According to the above authors, it would be an amphiatlantic species. However, Chan and Gosliner (in press) and Chan (in press) review the species of this genus, as well as their phylogenetic relationships, and confirm the validity of T. azmanii. (97) Dorgan, Valdés and Gosliner (2002) comment that the reproductive system of Platydoris stomascuta is similar to other species of Baptodoris, and therefore it must be included in this genus. However, Fischer and Cervera (in press) point out that Bouchet (1977) does not describe radular teeth with denticles in this species, and they do not consider it as a true Baptodoris. As Fischer and Cervera (2005) state, a redescription of this species would be necessary before removing it from Platydoris, and we follow this criterion in the present paper.

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(98) Although García (1986b) retained Rostanga perspicillata Bergh, 1881 as a valid name, Schmekel and Portmann (1982), Thompson and Brown (1984), Rudman and Avern (1989), Valdés and Gosliner (2001), and Garovoy, Valdés and Gosliner (2001) agree in considering this name to be a junior synonym of Rostanga rubra (Risso, 1818). (99) Thompson (1975) synonymised Peltodoris with Discodoris, and few authors followed Thompson’s authority during some years, including some of the authors of the present paper. However, after the recent phylogenetic analyses of the cryptobranch dorids genera by Valdés (2002a), it is now clear that both genera are valid and belong to two different clades. (100) Dorgan, Valdés and Gosliner (2002) reviewed the genus Platydoris as well as its phylogenetic relationships, and concluded that Platydoris maculata Bouchet, 1977 is a junior synonym of Baptodoris cinnabarina Bergh, 1884. (101) Ballesteros and Valdés (1999) stated that the generic status of Baptodoris perezi is unclear. According to the description of this species, these authors indicated that it probably belongs to a different genus of the Discodorididae. (102) Valdés (2002a) has given a detailed discussion on the taxonomic status of Carryodoris Vayssière, 1919 and Verrillia Ortea and Ballesteros, 1981, concluding that both should be considered junior synonyms of Geitodoris. (103) Ortea, Luque and Templado (1988) transferred this species from the genus Discodoris to Geitodoris based on its radula and buccal armature. This was confirmed by Ortea (1990). (104) Valdés and Gosliner (2001), after providing an historical account of the genera Aporodoris Ihering, 1886 and Taringa Marcus, 1955, conclude that both are synonyms. Although the former is the older name, these authors prefer to displace the name Aporodoris (nomen oblitum) for its junior synonym Taringa (nomen protectum), under the provisions of article 23.9.2 of the new version of the Code (ICZN, 1999). (105) Valdés and Gosliner (2001) examined the type material of Doris millegrana Alder and Hancock, 1854 and compared it with the descriptions of Taringa fanabensis Ortea and Martínez, 1992 and Taringa tarifaensis GarcíaGómez, Cervera and García-Martín, 1993. They conclude that the three names are synonyms. These authors attribute this species to the genus Taringa. (106) Thompson (1975) and Gosliner and Behrens (1998) maintained that Carminodoris Bergh, 1889 should be considered a junior synonym of Hoplodoris Bergh, 1880. However, Valdés (2002a) stated that most of the Indo-Pacific species assigned to Carminodoris should probably be transferred to Hoplodoris, whereas the Atlantic species Carminodoris boucheti Ortea, 1979 and Carminodoris spinobranchialis Ortea and Martínez, 1992 fit the original description of the genus Carminodoris. This author also pointed out that the main problem involved in determining the phylogenetic relationships of Carminodoris is the true identity of its type species, i.e. Carminodoris mauritiana Bergh, 1889, not collected after the original description. Thus, all the diagnostic features of the genus, except the penial hooks and the denticulate outermost lateral teeth, are present in the type species of Discodoris. According to Valdés, these differences can be attributed to specific variations, but further detailed study, including anatomical investigations of C. mauritiana, is needed before a definitive synonymy can be proposed. Fahey and Gosliner (2003) then provided a detailed study on the identity of both genera and, after a phylogenetic analysis, concluded that Carminodoris and Hoplodoris are synonyms. They consider C. mauritiana and Hoplodoris desmoparypha Bergh, 1880 (type species of Hoplodoris), as well as Carminodoris grandiflora (Pease, 1860), to be conspecific. However, Dayrat and Gosliner (in press) subsequently disagreed with this view, based on anatomical data regarding the accessory vestibular spine, and therefore they retain both genera as separate. Nevertheless, Fahey and Gosliner (2003) and Dayrat and Gosliner (in press) do not include C. boucheti or C. spinobranchialis in their discussions on Carminodoris versus Hoplodoris, since these authors do not consider either species to be a member of either of these genera, regardless of whether they are synonyms (Gosliner, pers. comm.). Thus, other genus/genera should be found to accommodate both species. (107) Brunckhorst and Willan (1989) synonymised Phyllidia pulizeri Pruvot-Fol, 1951 and Phyllidia rolandiae Pruvot-Fol, 1951 with Phyllidia flava (Aradas, 1847). Some years later, Brunckhorst (1993) includes the two former names within the list of synonyms of P. flava. (108) Phyllidiopsis bayi was originally placed in the genus Fryeria (Bouchet, 1983; Brunckhorst, 1993). However, Valdés and Gosliner (1999) pointed out that the external and internal features of this species fit with that of the genus Phyllidiopsis. On the other hand, Yonow (1986) considered the genus Fryeria to be a junior synonym of Phyllidia, and proposed the new genus Reyfria for those species having the anus placed ventrally. However, Gosliner and Behrens (1988) did not agree with this proposal, since they found some intraspecies variability in this character. Valdés and Gosliner (1999) set forth the possibility that members of the genus Phyllidia with a ventral anus could form a monophyletic subclade, adding that only a phylogenetic study of this genus could shed additional light

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on this matter. Nevertheless, according to these authors, little taxonomic importance can be attributed to a feature that has changed so many times over the course of dorid evolution, and which can be variable within the same species, as shown by Gosliner and Behrens (1988). Thus, Valdés and Gosliner (1999) consider Fryeria and Reyfria to be junior synonyms of Phyllidia. (109) Valdés et al. (1996) considered Dendrodoris languida Pruvot-Fol, 1951 a junior synonym of Dendrodoris limbata, as well as Dendrodoris longula Pruvot-Fol, 1951 and Dendrodoris pseudorubra Pruvot-Fol, 1951, to be nomina dubia. According to Valdés (pers. comm.), Dendrodoris inornata could be either D. limbata or Dendrodoris grandiflora, although it resembles the latter more. (110) Valdés et al. (1996) pointed out that all records from northern Spain under the names D. limbata and D. grandiflora must be referred to as D. herytra. According to these authors, the record from the Cíes Islands (northwestern Spain) under the name D. grandiflora (Rolán, Otero and Rolán-Álvarez, 1989) also appears to belong to D. herytra. Following Valdés et al. (1996), we cannot confirm whether the D. limbata record by Bergh (1892) from the Azores belongs to D. herytra. (111) Valdés and Ortea (1997) considered Doriopsilla pusilla Pruvot-Fol, 1951 and Doriopsilla evanae Ballesteros and Ortea, 1980 to be junior synonyms of Doriopsilla areolata. These authors also proposed the existence of three subspecies within D. areolata. In the geographic area covered by the present paper, only the subspecies D. areolata areolata is found. (112) Valdés et al. (1996) pointed out that Dendrodoris racemosa Pruvot-Fol, 1951 and Dendrodoris minima Pruvot-Fol, 1951 should be considered junior synonyms of Doriopsilla pelseneeri De Oliveira, 1895. (113) Schrödl, Wägele and Willan (2001) proposed that the taxon Dexiarchia join the Dorioxidae and the Cladobranchia in a higher level grouping. The presence of aliform jaws is a confirmed autapomorphy, whereas some other potential autapomorphies have yet to be confirmed by future cladistic analysis. (114) The taxon Cladobranchia (containing Dendronotina plus Aeolidina and ‘Arminina’) was proposed by Willan and Morton (1984). Recent phylogenetic analyses based on morphological and molecular data (Wägele and Willan, 2000; Schrödl, Wägele and Willan, 2001; Wägele, Vonnemann and Wägele, 2003; Grande et al., 2004a,b; Vonneman et al., in press) where some autapomorphies are highlighted, strongly support this grouping. (115) Luque (1983, 1986) and Templado, Talavera and Murillo (1987) pointed out that under the name Tritonia manicata there are two clearly distinct forms, one Atlantic and the other Mediterranean. Both forms can be sympatric in some regions of southeastern Spain. A further detailed study on these populations could lead to the conclusion that they are separate species. If that were the case, the Mediterranean species should be named Tritonia moesta (Bergh, 1884). (116) The name Tritonia odhneri (Tardy, 1963) had already been used to designate Tritonia odhneri Marcus, 1959, a species from the Chilean coast. Marcus (1983) assigns the new denomination Tritonia nilsodhneri to the species described by Tardy. (117) Phylogenetic analysis by Wägele and Willan (2000) has shown that Arminoidea represents an amalgam of heterogeneous families. No synapomorphy is known to unite all the families attributed to ‘Arminoidea’. This idea is backed up by some molecular analyses (Thöllesson, 1999b; Wägele, Vonnemann and Wägele, 2003). (118) Miller and Willan (1986) have extensively reviewed the nomenclatural history of this family. Up to six different names have been attributed to it, and they concluded that the correct family name should be Zephyrinidae Iredale and O’Donoghue, 1923, and not Janolidae, a denomination more commonly used in recent European literature. However, according to the law of priority, the correct name for the family is Proctonotidae Gray, 1853. (119) Because of the difficulty in clearly defining the genera Janolus and Antiopella, Gosliner (1981) synonymised them, with the former name prevailing. (120) Gosliner and Griffiths (1981) pointed out the occurrence of species including characteristics of both Flabellina and Coryphella. Therefore, no such generic division is necessary, and the generic name Coryphella Gray, 1850 is considered a junior synonym of Flabellina Voigt, 1834. This proposal was confirmed by phylogenetic analyses by Gosliner and Kuzirian (1990) and Gosliner and Willan (1991). Nevertheless, some authors do not agree with this view, and prefer to retain Coryphella (e.g. Ortea, Caballer and Moro, 2004). (121) Flabellina pellucida is a coldwater Atlantic species, whose presence in the Mediterranean has yet to be confirmed. (122) Thompson and Brown (1984) argued that Facelina punctata is a junior synonym of Facelina annulicornis. (123) Eolis drummondi (Thompson, 1843) has been traditionally considered a junior synonym of Eolis curta Alder and Hancock, 1843 (Thompson and Brown, 1984). More recently, the latter name has been called a synonym of Facelina bostoniensis (but see Brown, 1981; Thompson and Brown, 1984). According to Thompson and Brown, (1984), the description of Eolis auricularia Müller, 1776 could correspond to Eolis coronata, E. curta, or both. The doubt will

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remain, since type material of these taxa is presumably lost, and both E. coronata and E. curta are found in the type locality of E. auricularia. These authors also point out that Forbes and Goodsir (1839) were the ones who first applied a valid specific name (coronata) to specimens attributed to this species, which is similar to, but different from, E. curta. (124) Burn and Narayanan (1970) and Gosliner (1979) considered Learchis to be a junior synonym of Caloria, since they saw no clear distinction between the two genera. However, we prefer to retain both names, pending a phylogenetic analysis including both genera. (125) Dondice banyulensis was transferred to the genus Godiva by Edmunds (1964), considering the generic diagnosis included in the original description by Macnae (1954). Later, Willan (1987b) confined the genus Godiva to those species having penial spines. Eight species are then excluded, Godiva banyulensis among them. The generic name Dondice is readopted in the present paper. (126) Ortea and Moro (1997) suggested that the generic name Rolandia Pruvot-Fol, 1951 should be replaced by Pruvotfolia Tardy, 1969, since the former is preceded by Rolandia Lacaze-Duthiers, 1890, an octocorallian genus. (127) According to Gosliner (1990), Rioselleolis anadoni Ortea, 1979 is likely to be a junior synonym of Babakina festiva (Roller, 1972), since the former was described from a single specimen and its known morphology is strikingly similar to the latter. However, later records from the northern and southern Iberian Peninsula, as well as the Canary Islands, have led us to retain this species pending a review of the genus. (128) According to Rudman (1982), the genus Berghia Trinchese, 1877 should be regarded as a junior synonym of Spurilla Bergh, 1864. This criterion was followed in the previous catalogue (Cervera et al., 1988) and in a subsequent publication (García-Gómez and Thompson, 1990), in which Berghia columbina was described (as Spurilla). Nevertheless, other authors continue to accept both genera as valid. A detailed phylogenetic study of the Aeolididae is thus needed in order to untangle this situation. Until then, we prefer to continue using both names. (129) Although some authors still consider Spurilla sargassicola Bergh, 1861 to be valid (e.g. Ortea et al., 2001; Moro et al., 2003), most now consider it a junior synonym of Spurilla neapolitana. On the other hand, García and Cervera (1985) established Spurilla vayssierei on the basis of its denticulate masticarory jaws. However, we consider that a review of the genus in the Atlantic Ocean is needed to confirm the validity of these names. (130) Miller (2001) established the genus Antaeolidiella to accommodate Aeolidiela indica, since its cerata arrangement and the shape of the oral glands are not consistent with Aeolidiella, nor with any other aeolid genera. A phylogenetic analysis of the genera of Aeolididae, including this species, is needed to confirm the validity of Miller’s proposal. In the meantime, we prefer to consider this species within Aeolidiella. (131) Gosliner (1979) considered the genus Limenandra Haelfinger and Stamm, 1958 to be a junior synonym of Baeolidia. This opinion has been accepted by most authors, although Schmekel and Portmann (1982) continued to use the former name. In a recent review of the family Aeolidiidae from New Zealand, Miller (2001) argues that the genus Limenandra should be retained. Therefore, we decided to maintain both names until a phylogenetic study of this family can resolve the matter. (132) The specimen recorded from the Straits of Gibraltar under the name Eubranchus tricolor by García-Gómez (1987) corresponds to one of the two specimens from a species later described as Eubranchus linensis (García-Gómez, Cervera and García, 1990). (133) Picton (in Platts, 1985) suggested that Eubranchus vittatus may not be a valid species, and may be synonymous with Eubranchus cingulatus. On the other hand, according to Wilson and Picton (1983), the illustrations presented by Edmunds and Kress (1969) and Schmekel and Portmann (1982) for E. cingulatus belong to another species, Eubranchus doriae. If this is the case, E. cingulatus would be a strictly Atlantic species, and specimens recorded by Templado, Talavera and Murillo (1983) from Cabo de Palos (southeastern Spain) would belong to E. doriae. Nevertheless, a large specimen (13 mm) was collected at Cape Gata (southeastern Spain) (Templado, unpubl. data), which matches the illustration by Lemche (in Just and Edmunds, 1985, pl. 46) of what these authors consider the true E. cingulatus. However, Picton and Morrow (1994) and Picton (2002) consider that the so-called E. cingulatus in the United Kingdom is a junior synonym of E. vittatus, according to the law of the priority. Moreover, Picton and Morrow (1994) included an undescribed species of this genus (Eubranchus sp. ‘A’), formerly identified as E. vittatus, which could match up with the so-called E. cingulatus of Just and Edmunds (1985). Further studies on internal anatomy, as well as molecular research, should be carried out on Iberian and other European specimens before a conclusive decision is made. (134) Until very recently, the genus Calma had only one representative, Calma glaucoides. In their review, Calado and Urgorri (2002) consider the sympatric existence of two sibling species, which have different ecological niches in the adult phase. Their analysis of previously published data leads to the attribution of some former records to the new species, Calma gobioophaga.

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(135) There is no agreement on which should be the valid name attributed to this family. Some authors use Cuthonidae Odhner, 1934 whilst others use Tergipedidae Bergh, 1889. For more details, see discussions by Edmunds and Just (1983) and Platts (1985). In the present paper, we use the second name, but in an uncritical way, as it is used, for example, by Thompson and Brown (1984) and Gosliner (1987), among others, or on the site of the Checklist of European Marine Molluscs (CLEMAM); http://www.somali.asso.fr/clemam/biotaxis.php (136) Some authors consider Catriona Winckworth, 1941 to be a junior synonym of Cuthona, whereas others keep them as separate genera. In the present paper, we follow the former option, according to the criteria of Brown (1980) and Thompson and Brown (1984). The latter generic name is also used on the Checklist of European Marine Molluscs (CLEMAM); http://www.somali.asso.fr/clemam/biotaxis.php. However, a detailed phylogenetic analysis is still need to resolve this controversy. (137) According to Miller and Willan (1991), the family Embletonidae should belong to Dendronotoidea, due to the presence of an oral veil, lack of oral tentacles, three-lobed oral gland, and the structure of the apical region of the cerata. In Embletonia gracilis Risbec, 1928, an Indo-Pacific species, there is also a divided apex. This statement has been not widely accepted, and a phylogenetic study of this family could help to resolve this matter.

CONCLUSIONS As a result of the bibliographical compilation carried out for the elaboration of this new checklist, we have found 523 species of opisthobranchs recorded for the study area, 23 belonging to Architectibranchia, 111 to Cephalaspidea ss., 14 to Anaspidea, 4 to Acochlidiomorpha, 37 to Thecosomata, 7 to Gymnosomata, 43 to Sacoglossa, 3 to Umbraculoidea, 16 to Pleurobranchoidea, and 265 to Nudibranchia (127 Doridina, 42 Dendronotina, 9 Arminina, and 87 Aeolidina). This means a large increase (134 species more) compared with the previous checklist by Cervera et al. (1988, included 389 species) (see table I), due, in part, to the extension of the study area to the Azores, Madeira and Selvagens archipelagos. It is also noteworthy that 644 bibliographic references are mentioned throughout the text, most of them containing data on the opisthobranch fauna of the areas covered by the present checklist. The others are papers focused on different taxonomic, systematic, or phylogenetic aspects, which have been used to elaborate the present list. About 275 of these references are subsequent to the previous checklist (published 1989 - 2005). The European Register of Marine Species (ERMS) (Costello, Emblow and White, 2001), which includes all the living marine organisms recorded in the Mediterranean and Black Seas and off the Atlantic and African coasts from the North Pole to the parallel 26o N, encompasses 664 opisthobranch species. Therefore, the 523 opisthobranchs recorded in our study area repre-

sent 78.9 % of the known European and North African species. This shows, on one hand, the high degree of biodiversity existing in this area and, on the other hand, the noteworthy level of knowledge regarding its opisthobranch fauna. The comparison of the number of species by higher taxa between the current checklist and that from Costello, Emblow and White (2001) (see table I) is indicative of the existing level of knowledge for each of them in study area: very high in almost all them, but still having some gaps, such as those concerning Gymnosomata and Acochlidiomorpha. This indicates, clearly, the scarcity of studies on the opisthobranch fauna of the planktonic and interstitial habitats, indicating that such research should be intensified in the near future. For Pleurobranchoidea, the explanation of why there are more species on our checklist that of the ERMS, which includes our study area, is that the latest version does not include two species recently described or recorded for the Canary, Selvagens and Madeira archipelagos: Pleurobranchus garciagomezi Cervera, Cattaneo-Vietti and Edmunds, 1996 and Berthella canariensis Cervera, Gosliner, García-Gómez and Ortea, 2000. Also remarkable is the high number of new species described since 1975 in our study area, 117 (nearly 20% of the whole), of which 53 are from the Canary Islands. Some of these species are currently considered junior synonyms of other taxa after several global taxonomic revisions of different groups (see the Remarks section). These specific taxa described as new and

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Table I. Numerical comparison between the species recorded on the present checklist (bold) and those recorded on the previous checklists by Ros (1976a) and Cervera et al. (1988), and on the European Register Marine Species (Costello et al., 2001) Higher taxa ARCHITECTIBRANCHIA CEPHALASPIDEA ANASPIDEA ACOCHLIDIOMORPHA THECOSOMATA GYMNOSOMATA RHODOPEMORPHA SACOGLOSSA UMBRACULACEA PLEUROBRANCHACEA NUDIBRANCHIA Doridina Dendronotina Arminina Aeolidina Total Ros (1976a) 13 70 10 28 5 16 3 9 104 52 16 3 33 258 Cervera et al. (1988) 19 76 9 28 4 33 3 8 209 33 6 63 389 Present checklist 23 111 14 4 37 7 43 3 16 265 127 42 9 87 523 EMRS (2001) 31 123 15 16 39 18 2 47 4 15 354 178 58 18 117 664

synonymised later include: Runcina aurata GarcíaGómez, López, Luque and Cervera, 1986 (synonym of R. coronata (Quatrefages, 1844)), Platydoris maculata Bouchet, 1977 (synonym of Baptodoris cinnabarina (Bergh, 1884)), Chromodoris rodomaculata Ortea and Valdés, 1991 (synonym of C. luteopunctata (Gantès, 1962)), Taringa fanabensis Ortea and Martínez, 1992 and T. tarifaensis García-Gómez, Cervera and García-Martín, 1993 (synonyms of T. millegrana (Alder and Hancock, 1854)), and Doriopsilla evanae Ballesteros and Ortea, 1980 (synonym of Doriopsilla areolata Bergh, 1880). Although it has been suggested that other species are also synonyms, these cases are not generally accepted, and the study of additional material is needed. Thus, Chromodoris britoi Ortea and Pérez, 1983 could be a junior synonym of Chromodoris binza Marcus and Marcus, 1963; Polycera aurantiomarginata García-Gómez and Bobo, 1984 could be a junior synonym of Polycera chilluna Marcus, 1961; Discodoris confusa Ballesteros, Llera and Ortea, 1985 could be a junior synonym of Discodoris maculosa Bergh, 1884; Glossodoris edmundsi Cervera, García-Gómez and Ortea, 1989 could be a junior synonym of Glossodoris ghanensis Edmunds, 1968; and Oxynoe benchijigua Ortea, Moro and Espinosa, 1999 could be a junior synonym of Oxynoe antillarum Mörch, 1863. Moreover, we consider the three new species described by Vilella (1994) (Palio espagno-

li, Cadlina boscai and Dendrodoris kessneri) to be probable synonyms of Polycera dubia (Sars, 1829), Cadlina laevis (Linnaeus, 1767), and Dendrodoris limbata (Cuvier, 1804), respectively. In all three of these cases, the species descriptions are based on a single specimen, the museum or institution where the specimens are housed are not specified, a comparison with close species of the same region is not given, and some important references are overlooked. Furthermore, several species of cephalaspids (about 20) are only known from old literature, and their true identity should be reviewed. From the 523 species recorded, 49 of them are planktonic and 474 are benthonic, of which 441 are littoral species and only 33 are bathyal species (most of them studied by Bouchet, 1975, 1997, more than thirty years ago). Therefore, whilst the littoral opisthobranchs have been intensively studied in the geographic area covered in the present paper, the deep-sea species remain poorly known. Study of the opisthobranchs from the bathyal bottoms throughout this geographic area should be also intensified in the near future. Concerning geographical distribution, the number of species recorded in each of the 12 areas or regions considered is presented in table II. These numbers may be considered as indicative of the diversity of species in each of the regions, but they are also influenced by the level of available

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knowledge, which is obviously not the same for all areas. For example, there is a remarkably high number of species registered in certain regions, such as the Canary Islands (252 species), Portuguese mainland (213 species), and the Straits of Gibraltar, eastern Andalusia, Spanish Levant and Catalonia (more than 170 species each of them). Table III includes the complete list of the species recorded, indicating the distribution of each one over the 12 different geographical areas, in order to give a general picture of their geographic distribution range. As explained above, the criteria used to define these areas have been more or less arbitrary. In order to explore the true biogeographical relationships between these areas, a cluster analysis was performed using each area as an OTU (Operational Taxonomic Unit) and all the species (n = 511, excluding the doubtful records) were included in the data matrix using simply presence/absence (1/0) in the 12 areas. Jaccard’s index (Sneath and Sokal, 1973) was used to build the triangular distance matrix. The data were subsequently amalgamated using Ward’s method (Ward, 1963). The hierarchical tree obtained is shown in figure 2. The same procedure was used for a smaller data matrix where species that occurred in only one area (poorly known, recently described, etc.) were removed (n = 349). The tree obtained (not shown) is very similar. The cluster analysis clearly distinguishes three separate groups (figure 2): Atlantic coast, Mediterranean coast, and the Atlantic islands. The

first two groups are more closely related to each other than to the third one, probably due to the presence in the latter of many amphiatlantic and Mauritanian species. Nevertheless, care should be exercised in this interpretation, due to the scarcity of data available from the African coast. Despite slightly different approaches, the same general pattern of division was obtained in analyses involving other marine invertebrate groups, such as sponges (Carballo, Naranjo and García-Gómez, 1997), tunicates (Naranjo, Carballo and García-Gómez, 1998), and cheilostomate bryozoans (López de la Cuadra and García-Gómez, 1994). In our case, the area corresponding to the Straits of Gibraltar (area 5) clearly appears grouped together with the Mediterranean cluster. The same pattern is observed in tunicates (Naranjo, Carballo and García-Gómez, 1998). Nevertheless, data from sponges (Carballo, Naranjo and García-Gómez, 1997) reveal more affinities of the Straits’ poriferan fauna with the Mauritanian region, which in our case is represented by the Canary and Selvagens Islands (area 10) and the Madeira archipelago (area 11), whereas a balanced affinity between Atlantic and Mediterranean fauna is obtained for this area in bryozoans (López de la Cuadra and García-Gómez, 1994). On the other hand, the record of Bursatella leachi in the Balearic Islands constitutes the first known lessepsian mollusc that has reached the westernmost area of the Mediterranean. To date, this species was only known from the eastern and central Mediterranean (Zenetos et al., 2003).

Table II. Detail of the number of recorded species of each one of the different opisthobranch orders from each geographical area Higher taxa 1 ARCHITECTIBRANCHIA CEPHALASPIDEA ANASPIDEA ACOCHLIDIOMORPHA THECOSOMATA GYMNOSOMATA SACOGLOSSA UMBRACULOIDEA PLEUROBRANCHOIDEA NUDIBRANCHIA Doridina Dendronotina Arminina Aeolidina Total 8 31 5 5 8 7 90 49 18 3 20 154 2 7 28 5 4 10 2 8 2 93 42 17 2 32 159 3 9 38 6 1 13 1 11 3 5 126 56 18 6 46 213 4 5 13 3 1 10 1 6 72 37 6 2 27 112 Geographical areas 5 6 7 8 3 24 4 8 14 2 6 112 63 11 3 36 174 5 28 6 1 21 13 3 8 98 58 12 3 25 183 4 29 6 3 10 1 22 2 6 100 42 15 3 39 183 9 27 7 10 3 11 2 5 112 55 12 4 41 186 9 5 20 7 8 2 12 2 8 57 34 7 2 14 121 10 9 50 13 30 1 27 2 10 110 58 12 3 37 252 11 6 28 8 1 1 12 2 10 44 31 3 2 8 112 12 15 37 6 3 2 8 2 8 52 29 8 1 14 133

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Table III. Known distribution of the recorded species throughout the different geographical areas 1 Order ARCHITECTIBRANCHIA Family Ringiculoidae Ringicula auriculata Ringicula buccinea Ringicula nitida Ringicula conformis Ringicula someri Ringicula minutula Ringicula blanchardi Ringicula semistriata Family Acteonidae Acteon tornatilis Acteon monterosatoi Acteon incisus Crenilabrum exilis Pseudacteon luteofasciatus Japonacteon pusillus Liocarenus globulinus Callostracon amabile Callostracon meeki Acteonina chariis Tomlinula turrita Inopinodon azoricus Family Amplustridae Hydatina physis Hydatina velum Micromelo undatus Order CEPHALASPIDEA s. s. Family Diaphanidae Diaphana minuta Diaphana globosa Diaphana expansa Diaphana seguenzae Diaphana flava Colobocephalus striatulus Colpodaspis pusilla Rhinodiaphana ventricosa Family Retusidae Retusa truncatula Retusa obtusa Retusa leptoeneilema Retusa pellucida Retusa piriformis Retusa mammillata Retusa obesa Retusa tornata Retusa mariae Retusa leuca Retusa multiquadrata Cylichnina umbilicata Cylichnina nitidula Cylichnina robagliana Cylichnina crebrisculpta + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12

+

+

+

+ +

+ +

+ + + +

+

+

+ +

+

+

+ + +

+

+ +

+

+

+ +

+ + +

+ + + + + + + +

+ + + + + + + + + + +

+ +?

+ + +

+

+ +

+ +

+

+ +

+

+

+

+ +

+ +

+ + + + +

+ +

+ +

+

+ + + + + + +

+ + + + + + + + + + + +

+ + + +

+ +

+ +

+

+

+ +

+

+ +

+ +

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Table III (continued) 1 Cylichnina canariensis Cylichnina tenerifensis Volvulella acuminata Pyrunculus ovatus Pyrunculus hoernesii Pyrunculus spretus Relichna simplex Family Cylichnidae Acteocina protracta Acteocina pusillina Cylichna cylindracea Cylichna alba Cylichna crossei Cylichna richardi Cylichna propecylindracea Cylichna piettei Cylichna chevreuxi Scanphander lignarius Scaphander punctostriatus Scaphander gracilis Scaphander nobilis Meloscaphander imperceptus Roxania utriculus Roxania pinguicola Roxania monterosatoi Family Philinidae Philine aperta Philine scabra Philine punctata Philine catena Philine lima Philine quadrata Philine angulata Philine intricata Philine monterosatoi Philine approximans Philine azorica Philine monilifera Philine rugulosa Philine calva Philine condensa Philine complanata Philine desmotis Philine trachyostraca Philine iris Laona pruinosa Family Philinoglossidae Philinoglossa helgolandica Family Gastropteridae Gastropteron meckeli Family Aglajidae Aglaja tricolorata Chelidonura africana Chelidonura leopoldi 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + 11 12

+ + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + +

+ +

+

+ +

+

+

+

+

+

+ + + +

+ + + + + +

+ + + + + + +

+

+ + + +

+ + + +

+

+

+ + + +

+

+ + +

+ + + + +

+

+ + +

+ + +

+ + + + + + + + + +

+

+ +

+ +

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

+ + +

+ +

+ +

+ + +

+

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Table III (continued) 1 Odontoaglaja sabadiega Melanochlamys maderense Melanochlamys wildpretti Philinopsis depicta Doridium laurentianum Family Runcinidae Runcina coronata Runcina ornata Runcina capreensis Runcina africana Runcina ferruginea Runcina adriatica Runcina falciforme Runcina paupera Runcina macrodenticulata Runcina bahiensis Runcina genciana Runcina hidalgoensis Runcina medanensis Runcina palominoi Family Bullidae Bulla striata Bulla amygdala Bulla semilaevis Bulla mabillei Bulla millepunctata Family Haminoeidae Haminoea hydatis Haminoea navicula Haminoea orbignyana Haminoea elegans Haminoea orteai Haminoea callidegenita Haminoea templadoi Haminoea exigua Atys blainvilliana Atys jeffreysi Atys macandrewi Weinkauffia turgidula Cylichnium africanum Cylichnium oliviformae Weinkauffia (?) semistriata Order ANASPlDEA Family Akeridae Akera bullata Family Aplysiidae Aplysia depilans Aplysia fasciata Aplysia punctata Aplysia dactylomela Aplysia juliana Aplysia morio + + + + + + + + + + 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 + + + + + 11 + + 12

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

+ + + +

+ +

+ + + + + + + + +

+

+

+

+

+

+ + + + + + +

+

+ + + +

+

+

+

+

+

+

+ + +

+

+ +

+

+

+

+ + +

+ + +

+ +

+

+ + +

+ + + +

+ + +

+ +

+ + + +

+

+

+

+

+

+ +

+ + + + + + + +

+ +

+ +

+ + + +

+ + +

+ + +

+

+ + + +

+ + +

+ + +

+ + +

+ +

+ + +

+ + +

+ + +

+ + +

+ + +

+ + + + + +

+ + + +

+ + +

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Table III (continued) 1 Aplysia parvula Bursatella leachi Family Dolabriferidae Petalifera petalifera Petalifera ramosa Dolabrifera dolabrifera Family Notarchidae Notarchus punctatus Stylocheilus striatus Order ACOCHLIDIOMORPHA Family Hedylopsidae Hedylopsis spiculifera Family Asperinidae Asperina loricata Family Microhedylidae Unela glandulifera Pontohedyle milaschewitchii Order THECOSOMATA Suborder EUTHECOSOMATA Family Cavoliniidae Cavolinia tridentata Cavolinia inflexa Cavolinia uncinata Cavolinia flava Cavolinia globulosa Diacria quadridentata Diacria trispinosa Diacria atlantica Diacria rubecula Clio pyramidata Clio cuspidata Clio recurva Clio polita Creseis acicula Creseis conica Hyalocylis striata Styliola subula Cuvierina columnella Cuvierina spoeli Dicavolinia limbata Dicavolinia constricta Dicavolinia deshayesi Dicavolinia atlantica Family Limacinidae Limacina helicina Limacina retroversa Limacina bulimoides Limacina inflata Limacina lesueuri Limacina trochiformis + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + 2 + 3 + 4 + 5 + 6 + 7 + 8 + 9 + + 10 + 11 + 12 +

+

+

+

+

+

+ + +

+ +

+

+ +

+

+

+

+ +

+

+ +

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

+ +

+ + + +

+ +

+ +

+ +

+ +

+

+

+ + +

+ + + + + +

+

+

+ + +

+

+ +

+

+

+

+ + + +

+ + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + +

+

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Table III (continued) 1 Suborder PSEUDOTHECOSOMATA Family Cymbuliidae Cymbulia peroni Cymbulia parvidentata Corolla ovata Family Desmopteridae Desmopterus cirroptera Desmopterus papilio Family Peraclidae Peracle reticulata Peracle bispinosa Peracle triacantha Order GYMNOSOMATA Family Pneumodermatidae Pneumoderma mediterraneum Pneumoderma violaceum Family Clionidae Clione limacina Paraclione longicaudata Family Notobranchaeidae Notobranchaea hjorti Notobranchaea bleekerae Schleschia tetrabarnchiata Order SACOGLOSSA Suborder OXYNOACEA Family Volvatellidae Ascobulla fragilis Family Oxynoidae Oxynoe olivacea Oxynoe benchijigua Lobiger serradifalci Suborder PLAKOBRANCHACEA Family Plakobranchiidae Elysia viridis Elysia timida Elysia ornata Elysia flava Elysia papillosa Elysia subornata Elysia translucens Elysia fezi Elysia margaritae Elysia gordanae Thurdilla hopei Thuridilla picta Family Bosellidae Bosellia mimetica Bosellia leve + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12

+

+ +

+ +

+ +

+ + +

+

+

+

+

+

+

+ +

+ + +

+

+ +

+ + +

+ +

+ + +

+

+

+

+

+

+ +

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Table III (continued) 1 Familiy Polybranchiidae Polybranchia viridis Polybranchia borgnini Calyphylla mediterranea Cyerce antillensis Family Hermaeidae Aplysiopsis elegans Aplysiopsis formosa Hermaea bifida Hermaea cruciata Hermaea paucicirra Hermaeopsis variopicta Family Limapontiidae Stiliger llerai Limapontia capitata Limapontia senestra Calliopaea bellula Ercolania viridis Ercolania funerea Ercolania siotti Ercolania coerulea Ercolania lozanoi Placida dendritica Placida tardyi Placida brevecornis Placida cremoniana Placida verticilata Costasiella virescens Order UMBRACULACEA Family Tylodinidae Tylodina perversa Anidolyta duebenii Family Umbraculidae Umbraculum umbraculum Superorder NUDIPLEURA Order PLEUROBRANCHACEA Family Pleurobranchidae Pleurobranchus membranaceus Pleurobranchus testudinarius Pleurobranchus aerolatus Pleurobranchus lowei Pleurobranchus garciagomezi Berthella plumula Berthella aurantiaca Berthella stellata Berthella ocellata Berthella sideralis Berthella dautzenbergi Berthella africana Berthella canariensis Berthellina edwarsii Pleurobranchea meckelii Pleurobranchaea morosa + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + 11 12

+

+

+

+

+

+ +

+ + +

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

+ + + + + +

+

+ + + +

+ +

+ +

+ + + + + +

+ + + +

+ + +

+ +

+ + + +

+ + + +

+ + + + +

+ +

+ +

+ +

+ +

+ +

+ +

+

+ +

+ +

+ + +

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Table III (continued) 1 Order NUDIBRANCHIA Suborder ANTHOBRANCHIA Infraorder DORlDINA “PHANEROBRANCHIA” Family Corambidae Corambe testudinaria Family Onchidorididae Adalaria proxima Onchidoris neapolitana Onchidoris depressa Onchidoris pusilla Onchidoris sparsa Onchidoris inconspicua Onchidoris albonigra Onchidoris reticulata Onchidoris cerviñoi Onchidoris tridactila Acanthodoris pilosa Diaphorodoris luteocincta Diaphorodoris papillata Family Goniodorididae Goniodoris nodosa Gonidoris castanea Okenia aspersa Okenia mediterranea Okenia zoobotryon Okenia cupella Okenia elegans Okenia hispanica Ancula gibbosa Trapania tartanella Trapania lineata Trapania maculata Trapania pallida Trapania orteai Trapania hispalensis Trapania luquei Trapania sanctipectrensis Bermudella polycerelloides Family Polyceridae Limacea clavigera Polycera quadrilineata Polycera dubia Polycera elegans Polycera faroensis Polycera hedgpethi Polycera aurantiomarginata Thecacera pennigera Plocamopherus maderae Crimora papillata Roboastra europea Polycerella emertoni Kaloplocamus ramosus Kaloplocamus atlanticus + + 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12

+? + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + +

+

+ +

+ +

+ +

+ +

+

+

+

+ +

+ + +

+ + + +

+ +

+ + + + +

+

+

+

+

+ +

+ + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + +

+ +

+ + + + + + +

+ + + +

+ + + + + +

+ +

+ + + +

+ +

+ +

+ + + +

+ + +

+ + +

+

+ + +

+ + + + + + + + + + + + + +

+ + + + + + + +

+

+ + +

+ + +

+

+ + +

+

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Table III (continued) 1 Tambja ceutae Tambja marbellensis Family Aegiridae Aegires punctilucens Aegires leuckarti Aegires sublaevis Aegires palensis “CRYPTOBRANCHIA” LABIOSTOMATA Family Chromodorididae Glossodoris edmundsi Hypselodoris villafranca Hypselodoris picta Hypselodoris orsinii Hypselodoris fontandraui Hypselodoris bilineata Hypselodoris cantabrica Hypselodoris malacitana Hypselodoris tricolor/midatlantica Chromodoris luteorosea Chromodoris purpurea Chromodoris krohni Chromodoris luteopunctata Chromodoris britoi Chromodoris goslineri Cadlina laevis Cadlina pellucida Family Dorididae Doris verrucosa Doris pseudoargus Doris bertheloti Doris ocelligera Doris sticta Doris (?) alboranica Aldisa zetlandica Aldisa berghi Aldisa banyulensis Aldisa smaragdina Aldisa expleta Family Discodorididae Jorunna tomentosa Jorunna onubensis Discodoris maculosa Discodoris stellifera Discodoris tristis Discodoris edwardsi Discodoris rubens Discodoris (?) rosi Discodoris confusa Thordisa filix Thordisa azmanii Platydoris stomascuta Platydoris argo Rostanga rubra + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + 2 3 + 4 5 + + 6 + + 7 8 9 10 + 11 + 12 +

+

+

+

+ +

+ + +

+ + +

+ +

+ + + +

+ + + + +

+ + + + + + +

+ + + +

+ + + + +

+ + +

+ + + + + +

+ +

+ + + + +

+

+

+

+

+ +

+

+ +

+

+ + + +

+ + +

+ + + + +

+

+ + + +

+ + + +

+

+ + + +

+ + +

+ + + + + +

+

+ + + + + + + + + + + + + + + +

+ + +

+

+ + + +

+ +

+ + +

+ + +

+ +

+ + +

+ +

+ +

+ + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + +

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

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Table III (continued) 1 Peltodoris punctifera Peltodoris atromaculata Paradoris indecora Paradoris ceneris Paradoris inversa Paradoris mollis Baptodoris cinnabarina Baptodoris perezi Geitodoris planata Geitodoris pusae Geitodoris portmanni Geitodoris bonosi Geitodoris bacalladoi Geitodoris perfossa Taringa millegrana Taringa oleica Taringa ascitica Taringa tritorquis Taringa bacalladoi Taringa faba Thorybopus lophatus LABIOSTOMATA incerta sedis Carminodoris ? boucheti Carminodoris ? spinobranchialis POROSTOMATA Family Phyllidiidae Phyllidia flava Phyllidiopsis berghi Phyllidiopsis bayi Phyllidiopsis boucheti Reticulidia gofasi Family Dendrodorididae Dendrodoris limbata Dendrodoris gradiflora Dendrodoris herytra Doriopsilla areolata Doriopsilla pelseneeri DEXIARCHIA CLADOBRANCHIA DENDRONOTINA Family Tritoniidae Tritonia hombergi Tritonia plebeia Tritonia manicata Tritonia (Tritonidoxa) griegi Tritonia striata Tritonia nilsodhneri Marionia blainvillea Tritonopsis cincta Family Scyllaeidae Scyllaea pelagica + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + 2 3 + + 4 5 + + 6 + + 7 + + 8 + + 9 + + 10 + + + + + + + + + + 11 + + 12 +

+

+ + + + +

+ + + + +

+ + + + +

+ +

+ + +

+

+

+

+

+ + + + + + + +

+ +

+

+ + + +

+ +

+ + +

+

+

+ + +

+ + +

+ + + + +

+ + + + +

+ + + + +

+ + + + +

+ + +

+ + + +

+ + +

+ + +

+ +

+

+ + + +

+ + + + + + +

+

+ +

+

+ + +

+

+

+

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Table III (continued) 1 Family Hancockiidae Hancockia uncinata Family Lomanotidae Lomanotus marmoratus Lomanotus barlettai Family Tethyidae Tethys fimbria Family Phylliroidae Phylliroe atlantica Phylliroe bucephala Cephalopige trematoides Family Dendronotidae Dendronotus frondosus Family Dotoidae Doto coronata Doto pinnatifida Doto fragilis Doto pygmacea Doto rosea Doto paulinae Doto cinerea Doto floridicola Doto pita Doto doerga Doto dunnei Doto millbayana Doto koenneckery Doto eireana Doto tuberculata Doto acuta Doto arteoi Doto lemchei Doto oblicua Doto verdicioi Doto fluctifraga Doto furva Doto unguis Doto escatllari Doto sotilloi “ARMININA” Family Arminidae Armina maculata Armina tigrina Armina neapolitana Armina loveni Heterodoris robusta Family Madrellidae Madrella aurantiaca Family Proctonotidae Janolus cristatus + 2 + 3 + 4 5 + 6 + 7 + 8 + 9 + 10 + 11 12

+ + +

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

+ + +

+

+

+

+ +

+ + +

+ +

+ +

+

+

+ + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + +

+

+

+ + + + +

+

+

+ +

+

+ + +

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

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Table III (continued) 1 Janolus hyalinus Janolus faustoi “AEOLIDINA” Family Flabellinidae Flabellina affinis Flabellina pedata Flabellina pellucida Flabellina gracilis Flabellina lineata Flabellina dushia Flabellina babai Flabellina baetica Flabellina insolita Flabellina ischitana Calmella cavolini Family Piseinotecidae Piseinotecus sphaeriferus Piseinotecus gabineri Piseinotecus gaditanus Family Facelinidae Favorinus branchialis Favorinus ghanensis Favorinus blianus Favorinus vitreus Facelina annulicornis Facelina bostoniensis Facelina coronata Facelina rubrovittata Facelina quatrefagesi Facelina variegata Facelina schwobi Facelina dubia Facelina fusca Phydiana lynceus Cratena peregrina Caloria elegans Learchis poica Facelinopsis marioni Dondice accidentalis Dondice banyulensis Antonietta luteorufa Dicata odhneri Pruvotfolia pselliotes Babakina anadoni Algarvia alba Family Aeolidiidae Aeolidia papillosa Spurilla neapolitana Aeolidiella alderi Aeolidiella glauca Aeolidiella sanguinea Aeolidiella indica Cerberilla bernadettae Berghia caerulescens + 2 + 3 + 4 5 + 6 7 + + + 8 9 10 11 12

+ +

+

+ +

+ +

+ +

+ +

+ +

+ + + + +

+ +

+ +

+ + + + + + +

+ + + + + +

+ +

+ +

+ +

+ +

+ +

+

+ + + + +

+

+ +

+ + + + +

+

+

+

+

+

+ + + + +

+

+

+ + +

+ + + +

+ + + + +

+ + +

+ + + + +

+ + + +

+

+

+

+

+ + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + +

+ +

+ +

+

+

+ +

+ +

+ +

+ + +

+ + + + +

+ + + + +

+ +

+ + + + + +

+ +

+ + +

+ +

+ +

+ +

+

+

+ + + +

+

+ + + + +

+

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Table III (continued) 1 Berghia verrucicornis Berghia columbina Limenandra nodosa Family Eubranchidae Eubranchus tricolor Eubranchus pallidus Eubranchus vittatus Eubranchus farrani Eubranchus cingulatus Eubranchus exiguus Eubranchus doriae Eubranchus arci Eubranchus prietoi Eubranchus linensis Eubranchus leopoldoi Eubranchus telesforoi Eubranchus vascoi Family Pseudovermidae Pseudovermis artabrensis Family Calmidae Calma glaucoides Calma gobioophaga Family Glaucidae Glacus atlanticus Family Tergipedae Tergipes tergipes Cuthona caerulea Cuthona foliata Cuthona amoena Cuthona pallida Cuthona genovae Cuthona ocellata Cuthona granosa Cuthona ilonae Cuthona miniostriata Cuthona albopunctata Cuthona thompsoni Cuthona willani Cuthona fidenciae Cuthona correai Catriona gymnota Catriona maua Tenellia adspsersa Family Fionidae Fiona pinnata Family Embletoniidae Embletonia pulchra + 2 3 + + 4 + + 5 + 6 + + 7 + + 8 + + 9 10 + + + 11 12

+ +

+ + + + + +

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Figure 2. Horizontal tree obtained from the cluster analysis performed. Geographical study areas are numbered 1 to 12 (see text for details)

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS We are indebted to many colleagues and friends who have helped us a great deal in the preparation of the present paper, supplying and sharing information, and/or authorising the publication of their photographs. Others have assisted in collecting, collating, and processing the bibliographical data: Miguel Barbosa, María Dornelas, Shireen Fahey, José Fernández López, Manuel González Duarte, Terry Gosliner, Celia Laguna Mora, Fátima Martins, Diego Moreno Lampreave, Leopoldo Moro Abad, Ricardo Neves, Jesús Ortea Rato, Silvia Sánchez Ángel, Luis Sánchez Tocino, Alma Sánchez Santos, José Augusto Silva, Victoriano Urgorri Carrasco, Ángel Valdés, and Peter Wirtz. Antonio Monteiro read an early version of the manuscript and suggested some textual corrections. Our special thanks to Concha Mosquera de Arancibia; it was her enthusiastic support of this project right from the beginning which led to the Instituto Español de Oceanografía agreeing to assume its publication costs. Moreover, her conscientious editorial work has made notable improvements to the final draft. We would also like to acknowledge several projects and grants that have supported the collection of data or bibliographic information: REN20000890/GLO (Spanish Ministry of Science and Technology), REN2001-1956-C17-02/GLO (Spanish Ministry of Science and Technology), HP1997-0052 (Spanish-Portuguese Joint Action, Spanish Ministry of Education and Culture), HP1999-0093 (SpanishPortuguese Joint Action, Spanish Ministry of Education and Culture), CRUP Acçao Integrada

E45/98, CRUP Acçao Integrada E91/00 and (GRG 970607)1086/97/JARC-501 (NATO Research Council). One of the authors, M. A. E. Malaquias, has been benefited from two grants from the FCT (Portuguese Ministry of Science and Technology), SFRH/BM/2289/2000 and SFRH/BD/8607/2002.

REFERENCES
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“Santa Maria e Formigas 1990”. Scientific Expedition. Açoreana 8 (3): 323-330. Ávila, S. P., J. M. N. Azevedo, J. M. Gonçalves, J. Fontes and F. Cardigos. 1998. Checklist of the shallow-water marine molluscs of the Azores: 1 – Pico, Faial, Flores and Corvo. Açoreana 8 (4): 487-523. Ávila, S. P., A. C. Santos, A. M. Penteado, A. M. Rodrigues, I. Quintino and M. I. Machado. (In press). The molluscs of the intertidal algal turf in the Azores. Iberus 23 (1). Azevedo, J. M. N. and S. Gofas. 1990. Moluscos marinhos litorais da ilha das Flores. Expediçao Científica Flores’89 (relatório preliminar). Relatórios e Comunicações Científicas do Departamento de Biología 18: 83-87. Ballesteros, E. 1998. Additions a la fauna d’invertebrats bentònics marins de l’Archipèlag de Cabrera (Illes Balears, Mediterrània Occidental). Bolletí de la Societat d’Historia Natural de Balears 41: 41-48. Ballesteros, M. 1977. Sobre Spurilla neapolitana y Berghia verrucicornis, dos Aeolidacea (Gastropoda: Opisthobranchia) recolectados en Cubellas. Publicaciones del Departamento de Zoología (Barcelona) 2: 7-12. Ballesteros, M. 1978. Contribución al conocimiento de la fauna bentónica de Cubellas. Publicaciones del Departamento de Zoología (Barcelona) 3: 11-23. Ballesteros, M. 1979. Bosellia mimetica Trinchese, 1891 y Elysia timida Risso, 1818, dos ascoglosos nuevos para la fauna ibérica. Publicaciones del Departamento de Zoología (Barcelona) 4: 13-17. Ballesteros, M. 1980a. Contribución al conocimiento de los Sacoglosos y Nudibrannquios (Mollusca: Opisthobranchia). Estudio anatómico, sistemático y faunístico de las especies del Mediterráneo español. Tesis doctoral. Universidad de Barcelona. Barcelona, Spain: 367 pp. (Unpublished.) Ballesteros, M. 1980b. La presencia en las costas catalanas de Hermaea paucicirra y Hermaea cremoniana (Opisthobranchia: Sacoglossa). Publicaciones del Departamento de Zoología (Barcelona) 5: 19-23. Ballesteros, M. 1981a. Nota preliminar sobre la fauna de nudibranquios de la isla de Ibiza. Actas II Simposio Ibérico de Estudios del Bentos Marino 3: 229-234. Ballesteros, M. 1981b. Sobre un raro armináceo (Mollusca: Opisthobranchia) de la costa mediterránea española: Armina maculata Rafinesque, 1814. Publicaciones del Departamento de Zoología (Barcelona) 6: 27-31. Ballesteros, M. 1983. Primera cita de Armina tigrina (Mollusca: Opisthobranchia) para las costas españolas. Publicaciones del Departamento de Zoología (Barcelona) 9: 53-62. Ballesteros, M. 1984a. Adiciones a la fauna de opistobranquios de Cubellas (Tarragona). Miscelánea Zoológica 8: 4149. Ballesteros, M. 1984b. Onchidoris sparsa (Alder y Hancock, 1846) en el Mediterráneo. Iberus 4: 137-138. Ballesteros, M. 1985. Contribución al conocimiento de los Sacoglosos y Nudibranquios (Mollusca: Opisthobranchia). Estudio anatómico, sistemático y faunístico de las especies del Mediterráneo español. Resumen tesis doctoral. Centro de Publicaciones de la Universidad de Barcelona. Barcelona, Spain: 46 pp.

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Bouchet, P. 1975. Opisthobranches de profondeur de l’ océan Atlantique: I – Cephalaspidea. Cahiers de Biologie Marine 16: 317-365. Bouchet, P. 1977. Opisthobranches de profondeur de l’ océan Atlantique: I – Notaspidea et Nudibranchia. Journal of Molluscan Studies 43: 28-66. Bouchet, P. 1983. Découverte du genre Indo-Pacifique Fryeria (Mollusca, Gastropoda: Nudibranchia) en Méditerranée. Annales de l’Institut Océanographique (Paris) 59 (1): 65-68. Bouchet, P. 1984. Les Elysiidae de Méditterranée (Gastropoda, Opisthobranchiata). Annales de l’Institut Oceanographic (Paris) 60 (1): 19-28. Brunckhorst, D. J. 1993. The systematics and phylogeny of phyllidid nudibranchs (Doridoidea). Records of the Australian Museum supplement 16: 1-107. Brunckhorst, D. J. and R. C. Willan. 1989 (1988). Critical review of the taxonomic status of Mediterranean Phyllidia (Opisthobranchia: Nudibranchia: Doridoidea). Bollettino Malacologico 24 (9-12): 205-214. Bucquoy, E., P. Dautzenberg and G. Dollfus. 1886. Les mollusques marins du Roussillon. Tome I. Gastropodes. Fascicule 13. J. B. Baillière & fils. Paris: 487-570 pp.; pls. 61-66. Burn, R. 1959. Comments on the Australian umbraculacean mollusca. Journal of the Malacological Society of Australia 1 (3): 28-30. Burn, R. 1962. On the new pleurobranch subfamily Berthellinae (Mollusca: Gastropoda), a revision and new classification of the species of New South Wales and Victoria. Memoirs of the National Museum (Melbourne) 25: 129-148. Burn, R. 1967. Notes on an overlooked nudibranch genus Roboastra Bergh, 1877, and two allied genera (Mollusca: Gastropoda). Australian Zoology 14: 212-222. Burn, R. and K. R. Narayanan. 1970. Taxonomic notes on Eolis militaris Alder and Hancock, 1864 (Opisthobranchia, Eolidacea). Journal of the Malacological Society of Australia 2: 83-86. Burnay, L. P. 1986. Moluscos testáceos marinhos da Berlenga. MPAT. Secretaría de Estado do Ambiente e dos Recursos Naturais. Serviço Nacional de Parques, Reservas e conservaçao da Natureza. Lisbon: 64 pp. Caballer, M., L. Moro and J. Ortea. 2001. Nota sobre Tambja ceutae García Gómez y Ortea, 1988 (Mollusca, Opisthobranchia, Gymnodorididae) en las Islas Canarias y Madeira. Vieraea 29: 131-134. Caballer, M. and J. Ortea. 2002. Primera cita de Polycera hedgpethi Marcus, 1964 (Mollusca: Opisthobranchia) para la Península Ibérica. Noticiario de la Sociedad Española de Malacología 37: 55-56. Cadée, G. C. 1968. Molluscan biocoenoses and thanatocoenoses in the Ria Arosa, Galicia, Spain. Zoologische Verhandelingen (Leiden) 95: 1-121. Calado, G. 2001. Historia natural de los Nudibranquios del género Calma Alder & Hancock, 1855 (Gastropoda: Opisthobranchia). Tesis doctoral. Universidad de Santiago de Compostela. Santiago de Compostela, Spain: 157 pp. (Unpublished.) Calado, G. 2002. New records for the Azorean opisthobranch fauna (Mollusca: Gastropoda). Arquipélago (Life and Marine Sciences) 19 A: 105-108.

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Cervera, J. L. and J. C. García-Gómez. 1989a [1988]. Dos nuevas especies de Trapania Pruvot-Fol, 1931 (Gastropoda: Nudibranquia) del sur de España. Bollettino Malacologico 24: 189-204. Cervera, J. L. and J. C. García-Gómez. 1989b. A new species of the genus Thordisa (Molusca: Nudibranchia) from the southwestern Iberian Peninsula. The Veliger 32 (4): 382389. Cervera, J. L. and García-Gómez, J. C. 1989c [1988]. Redescripción de Trapania maculata Haelfinger, 1960 (Gastropoda: Nudibranchia). Bollettino Malacologico 24: 161-172. Cervera, J. L., J. C. García-Gómez and F. J. García. 1985. Redescription of Geitodoris planata (Alder and Hancock, 1846) (Gastropoda: Nudibranchia). Journal of Molluscan Studies 51: 198-204. Cervera, J. L., J. C. García-Gómez and F. J. García. 1986. II genere Jorunna Bergh, 1876 (Mollusca: Gastropoda: Nudibranchia) nel litorale iberico. Lavori della Societá Italiana di Malacologia 22: 111-131. Cervera, J. L., J. C. García-Gómez and F. J. García. 1987 [1986]. Una nueva especie de Piseinotecus Marcus, 1955 (Gastropoda: Nudibranchia) del litoral ibérico. Bollettino Malacologico 22 (9-12): 215-222. Cervera, J. L., J. C. García-Gómez and F. J. García. 1991. The Genus Runcina Forbes and Hanley, 1851 (Opisthobranchia: Cephalaspidea) in the Strait of Gibraltar with the description of a new species from the bay of Algeciras. Journal of Molluscan Studies 57: 199-208. Cervera, J. L., J. C. García-Gómez and P. J. López-González. 1992. A New Aeolid (Gastropoda: Nudibranchia) from the Atlantic Coasts of the Southern Iberian Peninsula. The Veliger 35 (4): 330-337. Cervera, J. L., J. C. García-Gómez, A. A. Luque and J. Ortea. 1986. Baptodoris perezi Llera y Ortea, 1982, una nueva especie de doridáceo (Gastropoda: Opisthobranchia) para la fauna mediterránea e ibérica. Iberus 6 (2): 185188. Cervera, J. L., J. C. García-Gómez and C. Megina. 2000. A new species of Trapania Pruvot-Fol, 1931 from the bay of Cadiz with remarks on other Trapania species (Nudibranchia: Goniodorididae). Ophelia 52 (1): 1724. Cervera, J. L., J. C. García-Gómez and J. Ortea. 1989. On two rare chromodorid nudibranchs (Opisthobranchia: Chromodorididae) from the Eastern Atlantic, with the description of a new species of Glossodoris. Journal of Molluscan Studies 55: 445-453. Cervera, J. L., J. C. García-Gómez and J. Ortea. 1991 [1988]. Una nueva especie del género Hermaea (Gastropoda: Opisthobranchia: Sacoglossa) y redescripción de dos raros Sacoglossos de la malacofauna europea. Iberus 8 (2): 215-224. Cervera, J. L, T. M. Gosliner, J. C. García-Gómez and J. Ortea. 2000. A new species of Berthella Blainville, 1824 (Opisthobranchia: Notaspidea) from the Canary Islands (Easthern Atlantic ocean) with a re-examination of the phylogenetic relationship of the Notaspidea. Journal of Molluscan Studies 66: 301-311.

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Fahey, S. J. and T. M. Gosliner. 2004. A phylogenetic analysis of the Aegiridae Fischer, 1883 (Mollusca, Nudibranchia, Phanerobranchia) with descriptions of eight new species and a reassessment of phanerobranch relationships. Proceedings of the California Academy of Sciences 55 (34): 613-689. Fechter, R. 1979. Gastropoden aus der Iberischen Tiefsee. Meteor Forchungs-Ergebnisse (D) 30: 23-40. Fernández-Ovies, C. L. 1979. Puestas, desarrollo y larvas de algunos opistobranquios. Tesis de licenciatura. Universidad de Oviedo. Oviedo, Spain: 133 pp. (Unpublished.) Fernández-Ovies, C. L. 1981. Contribución a la clasificación morfológica de las puestas de los opistobranquios (Mollusca: Gastropoda). Boletín de Ciencias de la Naturaleza del Instituto de Estudios Asturianos 28: 3-12. Fernández-Ovies, C. L. 1983. Notas sobre la anatomía e histología de un ejemplar de Runcina ferruginea Kress, 1977 (Opisthobranchia: Runcinacea) recolectado en Asturias. Boletín de Ciencias de la Naturaleza del Instituto de Estudios Asturianos 31: 153-168. Fernández-Ovies, C. L. and J. Ortea. 1981. Contribución al conocimiento de las masas de huevos de los opistobranquios (Molusca: Gastropoda). 1. El género Doto Oken, 1815 en el Norte y Noroeste de España. Revista de la Facultad de Ciencias de la Universidad de Oviedo (Serie Biología) 22: 41-51. Fernández-Ovies, C. L. and J. Ortea. 1986. Descripción de una nueva especie de Bosellia Trinchese, 1890 (Mollusca: Opisthobranchia: Ascoglosa) de las Islas Canarias. Iberus 6 (1): 101-106. Fernández-Ovies C. L., J. Ortea and J. M. Pérez. 1984. Nuevos datos anatómicos y biológicos de Ercolania lozanoi Ortea, 1981 (Opisthobranchia: Ascoglossa). Cuadernos del Crinas 6: 39-44. Ferreira, P. J. S. 1966. Moluscos da “Ria de Faro-Olhão”. Relatório final de estágio de investigação. Instituto de Biologia Marítima: 151 pp. (Unpublished.) Fez, S. de. 1974. Ascoglosos y Nudibranquios de España y Portugal. CSIC. Valencia, Spain: 325 pp. Fischer, M. A. and J. L. Cervera. (In press). Baptodoris peruviana (D’Orbigny, 1837) com. nov., an alternative taxonomic placement for Doris peruviana (Gastropoda: Nudibranchia: Doridoidea). Journal of Conchology 38 (5). Flor, G., E. M. Llera, J. Martínez and J. Ortea. 1981. Contribución al estudio de la playa de San Lorenzo (Gijón). Cuadernos del Crinas 1: 1-47. Flor, G., E. M. Llera and J. Ortea. 1982. Los carbonatos biogénicos de los sedimentos de las playas arenosas de Asturias y Cantabria: su origen y significado dinámico. Cuadernos del Crinas 2: 1-77. Fonseca, L. C., J. Guerreiro and J. Gil. 1995. Note on the macrozoobenthos of the upper level sediments of Porto Santo Island (Madeira, Portugal). Boletim do Museu Municipal do Funchal, suplemento 4: 233-252. Fontana, A., C. Ávila, E. Martínez, J. Ortea, E. Trivellone and G. Cimino. 1993. Defensive allomones in three species of Hypselodoris (Gastropoda: Nudibranchia) from the Cantabrian sea. Journal of Chemical Ecology 19 (2): 339356.

Fontes, J., F. Tempera and P. Wirtz. 2001. On some interesting opisthobranchs (Mollusca, Gastropoda) from the Azores. Arquipélago (Life and Marine Sciences) 18 A: 8587. Forbes, E. and J. Goodsir. 1839. Notice of reserches in Orkney and Shetland during the month of June 1839. Atenaeum 618 (August): 647. (Quoted by Thompson and Brown, 1984.) Gamito, S. 1994. The benthic ecology of some Ria Formosa lagoons, with reference for the potencial for production of the gilthead seabream (Sparus aurata L.). Dissertação apresentada á Universidade do Algarve para obtenção do grau de Doutor em Ciências Biológicas, especialidade de Ecologia: 211 pp. (Unpublished.) García, F. J. 1987. Estudio anatómico de tres especies de moluscos nudibranquios. Tesis doctoral. Universidad de Sevilla. Sevilla, Spain: 269 pp. (Unpublished.) García, F. J. and J. C. García-Gómez. 1985. Anatomía funcional de la musculatura del aparato bucal de Godiva banyulensis (Gastropoda: Opisthobranchia: Aeolidacea). Journal of Molluscan Studies 51: 157-168. García, F. J. and J. C. García-Gómez. 1988. Estudio anatómico del sistema nervioso de Armina maculata Rafinesque, 1814 (Gastropoda: Opisthobranchia: Arminacea). Iberus 8 (1): 75-87. García, F. J. and J. C. García-Gómez. 1989 [1988]. El complejo penial de Platydoris argo (Gastropoda: Nudibranchia): reseñas anatómicas. Bollettino Malacologico 24 (9-12): 223-230. García, F. J. and J. C. García-Gómez. 1990a. The anatomy of the circulatory system in the arminid nudibranch Armina maculata Rafinesque, 1814 (Gastropoda: Opistobranchia). Acta Zoológica 71 (1): 33-35. García, F. J. and J. C. García-Gómez. 1990b. Anatomy of the circulatory system of the nudibranch Platydoris argo (Linné, 1767) with comparisons among Doridacea (Gastropoda: Opisthobranchia). The Veliger 33 (2): 166-173. García, F. J. and J. C. García-Gómez. 1990c. The functional anatomy of the feeding apparatus of the Nudibranch Gastropod Armina maculata Rafinesque, 1814, with a comparission with some other Opisthobranchs. Journal of Molluscan Studies 56: 83-95. García, F. J., J. C. García-Gómez and J. L. Cervera. 1986a. Estudio morfológico de las espículas de Doriopsilla areolata (Gastropoda: Nudibranchia). Malacologia 27 (1): 8396. García, F. J., J. C. García-Gómez and J. L. Cervera. 1986b. Ridescrizione di Aldisa banyulensis Pruvot-Fol, 1951 (Mollusca: Gastropoda: Nudibranchia). Lavori della Societá Italiana di Malacología 22: 97-110. García, F. J., J. C. García-Gómez and J. L. Cervera. 1988. Estudio anatómico del sistema nervioso de Platydoris argo (Linneo, 1767) (Gastropoda, Opisthobranchia, Doridacea). Malacologia 29: 383-404. García, F. J., J. C. García-Gómez and C. M. López de la Cuadra. 1990. Runcina macrodenticulata n. sp., a new Gastropoda Opisthobranchia of the Strait of Gibraltar. Bulletin du Museum National d’Histoire Naturelle (Paris) 4e sèr, 12, section A, 1: 3-7.

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García, F. J., J. C. García-Gómez and M. D. Médel-Soteras. 1988. Anatomía del aparato bucal del molusco nudibranquio Platydoris argo (Linneo, 1767). Iberus 8 (1): 5973. García, F. J., P. J. López González and J. C. García-Gómez. 1991. A new species of Tergipedidae (Nudibranchia: Aeolidoidea) from the Atlantic coast of southern Spain. Journal of Molluscan Studies 57: 217-222. García, F. J., A. Pérez Hurtado and J. C. García-Gómez. 1991. Haminoea templadoi, a new species of cephalaspidean opisthobranchs from the Atlantic Iberian coast. Journal of Molluscan Studies 57: 395-399. García, F. J., V. Urgorri and P. J. López González. 1990. Redescripción de Corambe testudinaria Fischer, 1889 (Gastropoda: Nudibranchia). Bollettino Malacologico 26 (5-9): 113-124. García, J. C. 1982. Contribución al conocimiento de los opistobranquios del litoral andaluz. Actas II Simposio Ibérico de Estudios del Bentos Marino III: 235-241. García, J. C. 1983. Moluscos Opistobranquios del Estrecho de Gibraltar y Bahía de Algeciras. Iberus 3: 41-46. García, J. C. 1984a. Bulomorfos, ascoglosos y nudibranquios (Mollusca: Opisthobranchia) del Estrecho de Gibraltar con algunas referencias al litoral onubense. Estudio morfoanatómico, faunístico y zoogeográfico. Tesis doctoral. Universidad de Sevilla. Sevilla, Spain: 343 pp.; 133 pls. (Unpublished.) García, J. C. 1984b. A new species of Flabellina (Gastropoda: Nudibranchia) from the Gibraltar Strait. Vie et Milieu 34 (1): 61-64. García, J. C. 1985. A new species of Roboastra (Gastropoda: Nudibranchia) from the Gibraltar Strait (Southern Spain). Journal of Molluscan Studies 51: 169-176. García, J. C. 1986a. El género Flabellina Voigt, 1879 (Gastropoda: Nudibranchia) en el litoral ibérico. Bollettino Malacologico 22 (1-4): 37-48. García, J. C. 1986b. El género Rostanga en el litoral ibérico. Boletín del Instituto Español de Oceanagrafía 3 (3): 77-80. García, J. C. and A. Bobo. 1984. Una nueva especie de Polycera Cuvier (Mollusca: Nudibranchia) del litoral ibérico. Cahiers de Biologie Marine 25: 361-373. García, J. C. and A. Bobo. 1986. Un nuevo doridáceo para el litoral ibérico: Polycerella emertoni Verrill (1880) 1881 (Gastropoda: Nudibranchia). Bollettino Malacologico 22 (1-4): 49-56. García, J. C. and J. L. Cervera. 1985. Revisión de Spurilla neapolitana (delle Chiaje, 1823) (Mollusca: Nudibranchiata). Journal of Molluscan Studies 51: 138-156. García, J. C., C. M. López, A. A. Luque and J. L. Cervera. 1986. Descripción comparativa de Runcina aurata n. sp. y R. coronata (Quatrefages, 1844) (Gastropoda: Opisthobranchia). Cahiers de Biologie Marine 27: 457-468. García-Gómez, J. C. 1987. Adiciones a la fauna de Opistobranquios del Estrecho de Gibraltar (sur de España), I. Iberus 7 (2): 197-209. García-Gómez, J. C. 2002. Paradigmas de una fauna insólita. Los moluscos opistobranquios del estrecho de Gibraltar (Serie Ciencias) 20: 397 pp. Instituto de Estudios Gibraltareños. Algeciras, Cádiz, Spain.

García-Gómez, J. C. and J. L. Cervera. 1989a. A new aeolid of the genus Flabellina (Nudibranchia) from the Strait of Gibraltar. Journal of Molluscan Studies 55: 411-417. García-Gómez, J. C. and J. L. Cervera. 1989b. A new species and genus of aeolid nudibranch (Mollusca, Gastropoda) from the Iberian coasts. Bulletin du Museum National d´Histoire Naturelle (Paris) 4e série, 11, section A, 4: 733741. García-Gómez, J. C., J. L. Cervera and F. J. García. 1990. Description of Eubranchus linensis new species (Nudibranchia), with remarks on diauly in nudibranchs. Journal of Molluscan Studies 56: 585-593. García-Gómez, J. C., J. L. Cervera., F. J. García, S. F. GarcíaMartín, A. Medina and L. P. Burnay. 1991. Resultados de la campaña internacional de biología marina “Algarve 88”: moluscos opistobranquios. Bollettino Malacologico 27 (5-9): 125-138. García-Gómez, J. C., J. L. Cervera, F. J. García and C. M. López de la Cuadra. 1989. Resultados de la Campaña Internacional de Biología Marina “Ceuta-86”: Moluscos Opistobranquios. Bollettino Malacologico 25: 223-232. García-Gómez, J. C., J. L. Cervera and S. F. García-Martín. 1993. A new species of dorid nudibranch of the genus Taringa Marcus, 1955 (Mollusca: Opisthobranchia) from the southern Iberian Peninsula, with remarks on world species of the genus. Journal of Natural History 27: 565574. García-Gómez, J. C., G. Cimino and A. Medina. 1990. Studies on the defensive behaviour of Hypselodoris species (Gastropoda: Nudibranchia) ultraestructure and chemical analysis of mantle dermal formations (MDFs). Marine Biology 196: 245-550. García-Gómez, J. C. and F. J. García. 1984a. Estudio anatómico y algunas reseñas ecológicas de Godiva banyulensis (Portmann y Sandmeier) (Gastropoda: Nudibranchiata). Cahiers de Biologie Marine 25: 49-65. García-Gómez, J. C. and F. J. García. 1984b. Sobre la presencia de Chelidonura africana Pruvot-Fol (Mollusca: Opisthobranchia) en el litoral ibérico. Bollettino Malacologico 20 (1-4): 77-82. García-Gómez, J. C., C. M. López de la Cuadra and M. B. Balbuena Marcilla. 1989 [1988]. Adiciones al conocimiento de Doto furva García-Gómez y Ortea, 1983 (Gastropoda: Nudibranchia: Dendronotacea). Bollettino Malacologico 24 (9-12): 173-178. García-Gómez, J. C., P. J. López-González and F. J. García. 1990. Lomanotus barlettai, a new species of nudibranch mollusk from the Iberan littoral, with remarks on world species of the genus. Canadian Journal of Zoology 68: 22992305. García-Gómez, J. C., A. Medina and R. Coveñas. 1991. Study of anatomy and histology of the mantle dermal formations (MDFs) of Chromodoris and Hypselodoris (Opisthobranchia: Chromodorididae). Malacologia 32 (2): 233-240. García-Gómez, J. C. and J. Ortea. 1983. Una nueva especie de Doto Oken, 1815 (Mollusca: Nudibranchiata) del Estrecho de Gibraltar. Bollettino Malacologico 19 (9-12): 207-212.

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García-Gómez, J. C. and J. Ortea. 1988. Una nueva especie de Tambja Burn, 1962 (Mollusca: Nudibranchia). Bulletin du Museum National d’Histoire Naturelle (Paris) 4e série, 10, section A, 2: 301-307. García-Gómez, J. C. and T. E. Thompson. 1990. North atlantic spurillid nudibranchs, with a description of a new species, Spurilla columbina from the Andalusian coast of Spain. Journal of Molluscan Studies 56: 323-331. García Raso, J. E., A. A. Luque, J. Templado, C. Salas, E. Hergueta, D. Moreno and M. Calvo. 1992. Fauna y flora marinas del Parque Natural de Cabo de Gata-Níjar. Madrid: 288 pp. García-Talavera, F. 1983. Los moluscos gasterópodos anfiatlánticos. Estudio paleo y biogeográfico de las especies bentónicas litorales. (Colección Monografías) 10: 352 pp. Universidad de La Laguna. Santa Cruz de Tenerife, Spain. Garovoy, J. B., A. Valdés and T. M. Gosliner. 2001. Phylogeny of the genus Rostanga (Nudibranchia), with description of three new species from South Africa. Journal of Molluscan Studies 67: 131-144. Gascoigne, T. 1985. A provisional classification of families of order Ascoglossa (Gastropoda: Nudibranchiata). Journal of Molluscan Studies 51: 8-22. Gascoigne, T. and M. Sordi. 1980. A redescription of Placida viridis (Trinchese, 1873) (Gastropoda: Ascoglossa). Journal of Conchology 30: 167-179. Gasull, L. and J. Cuerda. 1974. Malacología del contenido gástrico de las grandes estrellas de mar. Boletín de la Sociedad de Historia Natural de Baleares 19: 153-175. Gavagnin, M., N. Ungur, E. Mollo, J. Templado and G. Cimino. 2002. Structure and Synthesis of a progesterone homologue from the skin of the dorid nudibranch Aldisa smaragdina. European Journal of Organic Chemistry 2002: 1500-1504. Gavaia, C., M. A. E. Malaquias, G. Calado and V. Urgorri. 2003. New records of Portuguese opisthobranch molluscs. Journal of Conchology 38 (2): 101-118. Giménez Casalduero, M. F. 1997. Relaciones y estrategias tróficas de los Opistobranquios: aposematismo, defensa química y retención de cloroplastos. Tesis doctoral. Universidad de Murcia. Murcia, Spain: 233 pp. (Unpublished.) Giménez Casalduero, M. F. 1999. Estudio comparativo en diferentes poblaciones de Elysia timida Risso, 1818 (Gasteropoda, Opisthobranchia, Sacoglossa) en mar abierto y ambiente lagunar. Iberus 17 (1): 137-146. Giribet, G. and A. Peñas. 1997. Fauna malacológica del litoral del Garraf (NE de la Península Ibérica). Iberus 15 (1): 41-93. Gosliner, T. M. 1979. The systematics of the Aeolidacea (Nudibranchia: Mollusca) of the Hawaii Islands, with descriptions of two species. Pacific Science 33 (1): 3777. Gosliner, T. M. 1980. Systematics and phylogeny of Aglajidae (Opisthobranchia: Mollusca). Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society 68 (4): 325-360. Gosliner, T. M. 1981. The south African Janolidae (Mollusca, Nudibranchia) with the description of a new genus and two new species. Annals of South African Museum 86 (1): 1-42.

Gosliner, T. M. 1987. Nudibranchs of Southern Africa. A guide to Opisthobranchs Molluscs of Southern Africa. Sea Challengers and Jeff Hamann. Monterey, California, EE UU: 136 pp. Gosliner, T. M. 1990. Opisthobranch mollusks from the Azores Islands. I. Runcinidae and Chromodorididae. Açoreana, supplement: 135-166. Gosliner, T. M. 1994a. New records of Flabellinidae (Opisthobranchia: Aeolidacea) from the Tropical Americas, with description of two new species. Proceedings of the California Academy of Sciences 48 (9): 171-183. Gosliner, T. M. 1994b. Opisthobranchia. In: Microscopic Anatomy of Invertebrates. Mollusca. F. Harrison and A. Kohn (eds.) 5 (I): 253-355. Wiley-Lyss. New York. Gosliner, T. M. 1995. The genus Thuridilla (Opisthobranchia: Elysiidae) from tropical Indo-West Pacific, with a revision of the phylogeny and systematics of the Elysiidae. Proceedings of the California Academy of Sciences 49 (1): 1-54. Gosliner, T. M. and D. W. Behrens. 1988. A review of the generic divisions within the Phyllidiidae with the decription of a new species of Phyllidiopsis (Nudibranchia: Phyllidiidae) from the Pacific coast of North America. The Veliger 30 (3): 305-314. Gosliner, T. M. and D. W. Behrens. 1998. Two new discodoridid nudibranchs from western Pacific with a redescription of Doris luteola Kelaart, 1858. Proceedings of the California Academy of Sciences 50 (11): 279-273. Gosliner, T. M. and R. J. Griffiths. 1981. Description and revision of some South African aeolidacean Nudibranchia (Mollusca: Gastropoda). Annals of South African Museum 84 (2): 105-150. Gosliner, T. M. and R. F. Johnson. 1999. Phylogeny of Hypselodoris (Nudibranchia: Chromodorididae) with a review of the monophyletic clade of Indo-Pacific species, including descriptions of twelve new species. Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society 125: 1-144. Gosliner, T. M. and A. M. Kuzirian. 1990 Two new species of Flabellinidae (Opisthobranchia: Aeolidacea) from Baja California. Proceedings of the California Academy of Sciences 47 (1): 1-15. Grande, C. 2004. Sistematica molecular de los Euthyneura (Mollusca: Gastropoda). Tesis doctoral. Universidad Autónoma de Madrid. Madrid: 169 pp. (Unpublished.) Grande, C., J. Templado, J. L. Cervera and R. Zardoya. 2002. The complete mitochondrial genome of the nudibranch Roboastra europaea (Mollusca: Gastropoda) supports the monophyly of opisthobranchs. Molecular Biology and Evolution 19 (10): 1672-1685. Grande, C., J. Templado, J. L. Cervera and R. Zardoya. 2004a. Molecular phylogeny of Euthyneura (Mollusca: Gastropoda). Molecular Biology and Evolution 21 (2): 303-313. Grande, C., J. Templado, J. L. Cervera and R. Zardoya. 2004b. Phylogenetic relationships among Opisthobranchia (Mollusca: Gastropoda) based on mitochondrial cox 1 and rrnL genes. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 33: 378-388. Habe, T. 1961. Coloured illustrations of the shells of Japan. Vol. 2. Hoikusha, Osaka, Japan.

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Haszprunar, G. 1985. The Heterobranchia: a new concep of the phylogeny of the higher Gastropoda. Zeitschrift für Zoologische Systematich und Evolutionsforschung 23: 15-37. Hergueta, E. 1996. Malacofauna asociada a Mesophyllum lichenoides (Ellis) Lemoine (Corallinaceae, Rodophyta) y a una pradera de Posidonia oceanica (Linnaeus) Delile del litoral almeriense. Tesis doctoral. Universidad de Málaga. Málaga, Spain: 860 pp. (Unpublished.) Hergueta, E. and C. Salas. 1987 Estudio de los moluscos asociados a concreciones de Mesophyllum lichenoides (Ellis) Lemoine del Mar de Alborán. Iberus 7 (1): 85-97. Hernández, F. and S. Jiménez. 1992. Nota sobre los moluscos pelágicos de la isla de El Hierro (Canarias). Boletín. Instituto Español de Oceanografía 8 (2): 355-359. Hernández, F. and S. Jiménez. 1996a. Nota sobre molucos pelágicos de la Gomera (Campaña TFMCBM/92). Revista de la Academia Canaria de Ciencias 8 (2, 3 and 4): 161-171. Hernández, F. and S. Jiménez. 1996b. Nota sobre la presencia de Phylliroe bucephala (Mollusca, Opisthobranchia, Nudibranchia, Phylliroidae) en aguas de la isla del Hierro (Canarias). Revista de la Academia Canaria de Ciencias 8 (2, 3 and 4): 173-181. Hernández, F., S. Jiménez and J. C. Silva. 1997a. Zooplancton de Fuerteventura (Canarias). Revista de la Academia Canaria de Ciencias 9 (2, 3 and 4): 29-40. Hernández, F., S. Jiménez and J. C. Silva. 1997b. Zooplancton de la isla de Hierro (Canarias). Revista de la Academia Canaria de Ciencias 10 (4): 125-140. Hernández, F., S. Jiménez, C. Stop-Bowitz and P. Ortega. 1991. Preliminary of collected zooplancton at Los Cristianos (SW of Tenerife, Canary Islands, Spain). Plankton Newsletter 14: 15-20. Hernández, J. and J. Jiménez. 1972. Distribución de los moluscos: Gasterópodos y Pelecípodos marinos de las costas de Galicia. Cuaderno de Biología 1: 79-93. Hernández, M.ª P., E. Ferrandis and F. Lozano Soldevilla. 1993. Pteropoda Thecosomata y Heteropoda (Mollusca, Gastropoda) en aguas del archipiélago canario. Boletín. Instituto Español de Oceanografía 9 (2): 263-283. Hidalgo, J. C. 1916. Datos para la fauna española (Moluscos y Braquiópodos). Boletín de la Real Sociedad Española de Historia Natural 16: 235-246. Hidalgo, J. C. 1917. Fauna malacológica de España, Portugal y las Baleares. Trabajos del Museo Nacional de Ciencias Naturales. Serie Zoología (Madrid) 30: 752 pp. Huelin, M. F. and J. Ros. 1984. Els mollucs marins de les illes Medes. In: Els sistemes naturals de les Illes Medes (Arxius de la Secció de Ciénces). J. Ros et al. (eds.) 73: 457-500. IEC. Barcelona, Spain. ICZN. 1974. Opinion 1014, Okenia Menke, 1830 (Mollusca, Opisthobranchia): placed on the official list of generic names. Bulletin of Zoological Nomenclature 31: 13-15. ICZN. 1977. Opinion 1079, Aglaja Renier (1807), A. depicta Renier (1807) and A. tricolorata Renier (1807) (Mollusca: Gastropoda) rendered available under the plenary powers. Bulletin of Zoological Nomenclature 34: 6-9. ICZN. 1999. International Code of Zoological Nomenclature. 4th ed. International Trust for Zoological Nomenclature. London: 156 pp.

Jensen, K. R. 1992a. Anatomy of some Indo-Pacific Elysiidae (Opisthobranchia: Sacoglossa (= Ascoglossa), with a discussion of the generic division and phylogeny. Journal of Molluscan Studies 58: 257-296. Jensen, K. R. 1992b. Review of the usage of synonyms of Sacoglossa Ihering, 1876 and Ascoglossa Bergh, 1876. Proceedings of the Tenth International Malacological Congress. Tübingen 1989 (2): 541-544. Jensen, K. R. 1995. Anatomy and biology of Aplysiopsis formosa Pruvot-Fol (Mollusca, Opisthobranchia, Sacoglossa) from the Azores. Açoreana (supplement): 217-230. Jensen, K. R. 1996. Phylogenetic systematics and classification of the Sacoglossa (Mollusca, Gastropoda, Opisthobranchia). Philosophal Transactions of the Royal Society of London 351 (B): 91-122. Jensen, K. R. 1997. Systematics, phylogeny and evolution of the Sacoglossa (Mollusca, Opisthobranchia). Vestjydsk Forlag. Copenhagen, Denmark: 94 pp. Just, H. and M. Edmuns. 1985. North atlantic nudibranchs (Mollusca) seen by Henning Lemche. Ophelia supplement 2: 1-150. Kolb, A. 1998. Morphology, anatomy, and histology of four species of Armina Rafinesque 1814 (Nudibranchia, Arminoidea, Arminidae) from the Mediterranean Sea and the Atlantic Ocean. Journal of Molluscan Studies 64: 355-386. Laborda, A. J. and R. A. Mazé. 1987. Estudio autoecológico comparado de los moluscos de enclaves arenosos de las rías de Vivero y El Barquero (Lugo, NO de España). Iberus 7 (1): 67-83. Lacaze-Duthiers, H. 1859. Histoire anatomique et physiologique du pleurobranche orangé. Annales des Sciences Naturelles (Zoologie) 11: 201-202; pls. 6-12. Lastra, M., J. Mora, A. Sánchez and J. S. Troncoso. 1988. Cartografía de los moluscos infralitorales de la Bahía de Santander (Sustratos Blandos). Iberus 8 (2): 233-241. Leach, W. E. 1852. A synopsis of the Mollusca of Great Britain. John van Voorst. London: 376 pp. Ledoyer, M. 1967. Aperçu sur la fauna vagile de quelques biotopes de l’archipel de madère. Comparison avec les biotopes méditerranéens homologues. Arquivos do Museu Bocage, 2.a serie, 1 (19): 415-425. Lemche, H. 1948. Northern and Artic tectibranch gastropods. I. The larval shells. II Revision of the cephalaspid species. Det Kongelipe Danske Videnskabernes Selskab, Biologische Skrifter 5 (3): 1-136. Linden, J. van der. 1994. Philine intricata Monterosato, 1884, an overlooked species from the North-East Atlantic and the Mediterranean Sea (Gastropoda, Opisthobranchia: Philinidae). Basteria 58: 41-48. Linden, J. van der. 1995. Philinidae dredged by the CANCAP expeditions (Gastropoda, Opisthobranchia). Basteria 59: 65-83. Llera, E. M. and J. Ortea. 1981. Una nueva especie de Eubranchus (Mollusca: Nudibranchiata) del Norte de España. Bollettino Malacologico 17 (11-12): 265-270. Locard, A. 1897. Mollusques testacés. Vol. 1. In: Expéditons scientifiques du Travailleur ed tu Talismán pendant les années 1880, 1881, 1882, 1883. Masson et Cie Editeurs. Paris: 516 pp.

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Miller, M. C. 2001. Aeolid nudibranchs (Gastropoda: Opisthobranchia) of the family Aeolidiidae from New Zealand waters. Journal of Natural History 35: 629-662. Miller, M. C. and R. C. Willan. 1986. A review of the New Zeland arminacean nudibranchs (Opisthobranchia: Arminacea). New Zealand Journal of Zoology 13 (3): 377-408. Miller, M. C. and R. C. Willan. 1992. Redescription of Embletonia gracile Risbec, 1928 (Nudibranchia: Embletonidae): relocation to suborder Dendronotacea with taxonomic and phylogenetic implications. Journal of Molluscan Studies 58: 1-11. Minichev, Y. S. 1970. On the origin and system of nudibranchiate mollusca (Gastropoda, Opisthobranchia). Monitore Zoologico Italiano 4: 169-182. Monterosato, T. M. 1923. Molluschi delle coste cirenaiche raccolti dell’Ing. Crema Regio Comitato Talssografico Italiano (Memorie) (Roma) 106: 1-14. Moreno, D. and J. Templado. 1998. Nuevas aportaciones al conocimiento de los opistobranquios del sureste español. II. Iberus 16 (2): 39-58. Moro, L., J. Ortea and J. J. Bacallado. 1997. Primera cita de Trapania luquei Ortea, 1989 (Mollusca, Nudibranchia) para las Islas Canarias. Revista de la Academia Canaria de Ciencias 9 (2, 3 and 4): 119-123. Moro, L., J. Ortea, J. J. Bacallado, M. Caballer and I. Acevedo. 2003. Anaspidea, Cephalaspidea, Gymnosomata, Notaspidea, Nudibranchia, Sacoglossa y Thecosomata. In: Lista de especies marinas de Canarias (algas, hongos, plantas y animales). L. Moro, J. L. Martín, M. J. Garrido and I. Izquierdo (eds.): 93-98. Consejería de Política Territorial y Medio Ambiente del Gobierno de Canarias. Santa Cruz de Tenerife, Spain. Moro, L., J. Ortea, J. J. Bacallado, A. Valdés and J. M. Pérez Sánchez. 1995. Nuevos Aeolidáceos (Gastropoda, Nudibranchia) para la fauna de Canarias. Revista de la Academia Canaria de Ciencias 7 (2, 3 and 4): 63-75. Morton, B., J. C. Britton and A. M. F. Martins. 1998. Ecologia Costeira dos Açores. Sociedade Afonso Chaves, Associação de Estudos Açoreanos: 249 pp. Morton, J. E. 1972. The form and functioning of the pallial organs in Akera bullata with a discussion on the nature of the gill in Notaspidea and other tectibranchs. The Veliger 14: 337-349. Morton, J. E. and N. A. Holme. 1955. The occurence at Plymouth of the opisthobranch Akera bullata, with notes on its habits and relationship. Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom 34: 101-112. Murillo, L. and P. Talavera. 1983. Aportación a la malacología de una laguna litoral: el Mar Menor (Murcia). Iberus 3: 15-28. Murillo, L. and J. Templado. 1998. Spawn and development of Bulla striata (Opisthobranchia, Cephalaspidea) in the Western Mediterranean. Iberus 16 (2): 11-19. Murillo, L., J. Templado and P. Talavera. 1985. The ascoglossans opisthobranchs of a caulerpan fauna of the Mediterranean Sea. Shells & Sea life 17 (11): 240-243. Muzavor, S. and P. M. Morenito. 1999. Roteiro ecológico da Ria Formosa. IV. Moluscos Gastrópodos. Universidade do Algarve. Faro, Portugal: 85 pp.

Naranjo, S., J. L. Carballo and J. C. García-Gómez. 1998. Towards a knowledge of marine boundaries using ascidians as indicators. Characterising transition zones for species distribution along Atlantic-Mediterranean shores. Biological Journal of the Linnean Society 64: 151-177. Nicklés, M. 1947. La collection de mollusques testacés marins de l’IFAN. Institut Français d’Afrique Noire (Catalogues) I: 23 pp. Nicklés, M. 1950. Mollusques testacés marins de la côte occidentale d’Afrique (Manuels Ouest-africains) II. Paul Lechevalier. Paris: 269 pp. Niell, F. X. 1977. L’alimentation d’Aplysia punctata Cuvier (Gastropoda, Opisthobranchia) dans la Ria de Vigo (Galice). I. Analyse du contenu digestif d’individus de la zone intertidale. Malacologia 16 (1): 207-209. Nobre, A. 1889. Contribuições para a fauna malacológica da Madeira. Imprensa da Universidade de Coimbra. Coimbra, Portugal: 16 pp. Nobre, A. 1894. Sur la faune malacologique des îles de S. Thomé et de Madère (suite). Annais de Sciencias Naturais 1: 140-144. Nobre, A. 1895. Sur la faune malacologique des îles de S. Thomé et de Madère (suite et fin). Annais de Sciencias Naturais 2: 97-98. Nobre, A. 1936. Moluscos marinhos de Portugal 2. Porto, Portugal: 1-378. Nobre, A. 1937. Moluscos Testáceos Marinhos do Arquipélago da Madeira. Memórias e Estudos do Museu Zoológico da Universidade de Coimbra (serie I) 98: 1-101. Nobre, A. 1938-1940. Fauna malacológica de Portugal I. Moluscos marinhos e das águas salobras. Companhia Editora do Minho. Porto, Portugal: 806 pp. Nordsieck, F. 1972. Die europeischen Meeresschnecken. Opisthobranchia mit Pyramidellidae. Rissoacea. Gustav Fischer Verlag. Stuttgart, Germany: 327 pp. Nordsieck, F. and F. García-Talavera. 1979. Moluscos marinos de Canarias y Madeira (Gastropoda). Aula de Cultura de Tenerife. Tenerife, Spain: 208 pp.; pls. I-XLVI. Ocaña, A., L. Sánchez-Tocino and F. J. García. 2004. Ontogenetic radular variation in species of Tambja Burn, 1962 (Gastropoda, Opisthobranchia, Polyceratidae) from the Eastern Atlantic Ocean and the Mediterranean Sea. Scientia Marina 68 (2): 205-210. Ocaña, A., L. Sánchez-Tocino, S. López-González and J. F. Viciana. 2000. Guía submarina de Invertebrados no Artrópodos. Comares. Granada, Spain: 471 pp. Odhner, N. H. 1931. Beiträge zür Malakozoologie der Kanarischen Inseln. Lamellibranchien, Cephalopoden, Gastropoden, Arkiv för Zoologi 23 A (14): 1-116; 2 pls. Odhner, N. H. 1941. New polycerid nudibranchiate mollusca and remarks on this family. Meddelanden från Göteborgs Musei Zoologiska Ardelning 91: 1-20. Oliveira, M. P. de. 1985. Opistobranches du Portugal de la collection de M. Paulino D’Oliveira. Instituto de Coimbra 42: 574-592. Oliver, J. A. and J. Terrasa. 2004. Primera cita de Bursatella leachi (de Blainville, 1817) (Mollusca, Opisthobranchia) a Mallorca. Bolletí de la Societat d’Historia Natural de Balears 47: 37-42.

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Oliverio, M. and L. P. Tringali. 2001. The types of marine molluscan species described by Monterosato, in the Museo Civico di Zoologia, Roma. General scope of the work, and part 1: the opisthobranch gastropods. Bolletino Malacologico 37 (5-8): 121-142. Olmo, R and J. Ros. 1984. Las malacocenosis del Mar Menor. Estudio y comparación con comunidades de medios lagunares semejantes. Actas del IV Simposio Ibérico de Estudos do Bentos Marinhos III: 253-260. Orbigny, A. d’. 1839. Mollusques, echinodermes, foraminiferes et polypiers, recueillis aux illes Canaries par Mm. Webb et Berthelot et décrits par Alcide D’Orbbigny (2éme partie: Mollusques). Paris: 117 pp.; 8 pls. Ortea, J. 1975-1976. Catálogo brevemente comentado de la fauna de moluscos marinos gasterópodos y bivalvos existentes en el estuario de Villaviciosa. Asturnatura 3: 111-120. Ortea, J. 1976. Eubranchus exiguus (Alder y Hancock, 1848) un opistobranquio nuevo para la fauna ibérica. Asturnatura 3: 159-162. Ortea, J. 1977a. Contribución a la actualización de la fauna de Opistobranquios ibéricos. Sacoglosos. Boletín de la estación Central de Ecología 6 (11): 75-91. Ortea, J. 1977b. Un molusco poco conocido: Duvaucelia manicata. Vida silvestre 24: 237-241. Ortea, J. 1977c. Moluscos marinos gasterópodos y bivalvos del litoral asturiano entre Ribadesella y Ribadeo, con especial atención a la subclase de los opistobranquios. Tesis doctoral. Universidad de Oviedo. Oviedo, Spain: 581 pp. (Unpublished.) Ortea, J. 1978a. Cinco opistobranquios nuevos para la fauna ibérica (Gastropoda: Opistobranchia) colectados en Asturias. Suplemento de Ciencias del Boletín del Instituto de Estudios Asturianos 23: 107-120. Ortea, J. 1978b. Una nueva especie de Doto del Norte de España. Revista de la Facultad de Ciencias de la Universidad de Oviedo 17-18-19: 389-392. Ortea, J. 1979a. Deux nouveaux doridiens (Mollusca: Nudibranchia) de la côte d’Espagne. Bulletin du Museum d’Histoire Naturelle (Paris) 4e sèr., sect. A, 3: 573-578. Ortea, J. 1979b. Dos nuevas especies de Onchidoris (Mollusca: Opistobranchia: Doridacea) colectadas en Asturias. Suplemento de Ciencias del Boletín del Instituto de Estudios Asturianos 24: 167-175. Ortea, J. 1979c. Nota preliminar sobre Rioselleolis anadoni n. gen. n. sp., un nuevo eolidáceo (Mollusca: Opisthobranchia) capturado en Ribadesella, Asturias, España. Suplemento de Ciencias del Boletín del Instituto de Estudios Asturianos 24: 131-141. Ortea, J. 1979d. Onchidoris sparsa (Alder and Hancock, 1846) in Asturias, Northern Spain. The Veliger 22 (1): 45-48. Ortea, J. 1979-1980. Una nueva especie de Eubranchus (Mollusca: Opisthobranchia) de Tenerife, Islas Canarias. Revista de la Facultad de Ciencias de la Universidad de Oviedo (Serie Biología) 20-21: 169-176. Ortea, J. 1980a. Contribución al conocimiento de Carminodoris boucheti Ortea, 1979 (Mollusca: Opisthobranchia: Doridacea) de la costa asturiana. Boletín de Ciencias de la Naturaleza del Instituto de Estudios Asturianos 26: 53-56.

Ortea, J. 1980b. Sobre la biología de Aeolidia papillosa (Linné) (Mollusca: Nudibranchia) en Asturias. Boletín de Ciencias de la Naturaleza del Instituto de Estudios Asturianos 25: 73-76. Ortea, J. 1981. Moluscos opistobranquios de las Islas Canarias. Parte I: Ascoglosos. Boletín del Instituto Español de Oceanografía 6: 180-199. Ortea, J. 1982. A new Favorinus (Nudibanchia: Aeolidoidea) from Canary Islands. The Nautilus 96 (2): 45-48. Ortea, J. 1990. El género Geitodoris Bergh, 1891 (Mollusca: Nudibranchia) en las Islas Canarias. Revista de la Academia Canaria de Ciencias 2: 99-120. Ortea, J. 1995. Estudio de las especies atlánticas de Paradoris Bergh, 1889 (Molusca: Nudibranchia: Discodorididae) recolectadas en las Islas Canarias. Avicennia 3: 5-27. Ortea, J. and J. J. Bacallado. 1981. Les Dorididae (Gastropoda) décris des Canaries par Alcide d’Orbigny. Bulletin du Museum d’Histoire Naturelle (Paris) 4e sèr., sect. A, 3: 767-776. Ortea, J., J. J. Bacallado and L. Moro. 2003. Una nueva especie de Melanochlamys Cheesman, 1881 (Mollusca: Opisthobranchia: Cephalaspidea) de las Islas Canarias, descrita en honor al D. Wilfredo Wildpret de la Torre. Vieraea 31: 1-6. Ortea, J., J. J. Bacallado and J. M. Pérez Sánchez. 1990. Aplysiopsis formosa Pruvot-Fol, 1953 (Mollusca, Opisthobranchia, Ascoglossa) in the Canary Islands. Lavori della Società Italiana di Malacologia 23: 281-285. Ortea, J. and M. Ballesteros. 1981. A new Doridacea from the Iberian and Balearic littoral: Geitodoris bonosi n. sp. Journal of Molluscan Studies 47: 337-342. Ortea, J. and M. Ballesteros. 1982. Sobre algunos Onchidoris Blainville, 1816 (Mollusca, Opisthobranchia, Doridacea) del litoral ibérico. Investigación Pesquera 46 (2): 239-254. Ortea, J. and P. Bouchet. 1983. Un nuevo Goniodorididae (Mollusca: Nudibranchiata) de las Islas Canarias. Vieraea 12 (1-2): 49-54. Ortea, J. and P. Bouchet. 1989. Description de deux nouveaux Doto de Mediterranée occidentale (Mollusca: Nudibranchia). Bollettino Malacologico 24 (1-4): 261-268. Ortea, J., M. Caballer and L. Moro. 2002a [2001]. Eubranchus leopoldoi Caballer, Ortea y Espinosa, 2001 (Mollusca: Nudibranchia), un nuevo opistobranquio anfiatlántico. Revista de la Academia Canaria de Ciencias 13 (4): 113-116. Ortea, J., M. Caballer and L. Moro. 2002b [2001]. El género Catriona Winckworth, 1941 (Mollusca: Nudibranchiata) en las islas de Cabo Verde. Revista de la Academia Canaria de Ciencias 13 (4): 133-140. Ortea, J., M. Caballer and L. Moro. 2002c [2001]. Primeros datos sobre un complejo de especies alrededor de Cuthona willani Cervera, García and López, 1992 (Mollusca: Nudibranchia) en la Macaronesia y Marruecos. Revista de la Academia Canaria de Ciencias 13 (4): 101-111. Ortea, J., M. Caballer and L. Moro. 2003 [2002]. Cita de Doto floridicola Simrot, 1888 (mollusca: Nudibranchia) en las islas Canarias con datos sobre la especie en distintos puntos del área de distribución. Revista de la Academia Canaria de Ciencias 14 (3-4): 181-187.

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Ortea, J., M. Caballer and L. Moro. 2004. Dos aeolidáceos con ceratas rojos de la región macaronésica y el mar Caribe (Mollusca: Nudibranchia). Vieraea 32: 83-96. Ortea, J., M. Caballer, L. Moro and J. J. Bacallado. 2002. Descripción de dos nuevas especies del género Eubranchus Forbes, 1858 (Mollusca: Nudibranchia) en la Macaronesia. Avicennia 15: 91-100. Ortea, J. and A. Cabrera. 1999. Primer registro de Thordisa diuda Marcus, 1955 (Mollusca: Nudibranchia: Discodorididae) en las Islas de Cabo Verde. Revista de la Academia Canaria de Ciencias 11 (3-4): 87-92. Ortea, J. and J. Espinosa. 1998. Estudio de nueve especies del género Flabellina Voight, 1834 (Mollusca: Nudibranchia) colectadas en Angola, Cabo Verde, Costa Rica, Cuba y Portugal, con la descripción de tres especies nuevas. Avicennia 8/9: 135-148. Ortea, J., E. M. Llera and A. Vizcaíno. 1982. Segunda captura de Onchidoris reticulata Ortea, 1979 (Mollusca: Opisthobranchia: Doridacea). Iberus 2: 85-89. Ortea, J., A. A. Luque and J. Templado. 1988. Elysia picta Verrill, 1901 and Geitodoris pusae (Marcus, 1955), two amphiatlantic opisthobranchs. Journal of Molluscan Studies 54 (2): 243-247. Ortea, J. and E. Martínez. 1990. Captura en la Concha de Artedo de Thordisa diuda Marcus, 1955 (Nudibranchia: Doridacea), un nuevo molusco anfiatlántico. Boletín de Ciencias de la Naturaleza del Instituto de Estudios Asturianos 40: 3-11. Ortea, J. and E. Martínez. 1991. El orden Anaspidea (Mollusca: Opisthobranchia) en las Islas Canarias. Revista de la Academia Canaria de Ciencias 3 (4): 87-107. Ortea, J. and E. Martínez. 1992a. Descripción de una nueva especie del género Carminodoris Bergh, 1889 (Mollusca: Opisthobranchia: Nudibranchia) del piso batial del norte de España. Graellsia 48: 185-188. Ortea, J. and E. Martínez. 1992b. Descripción de una nueva especie del género Taringa en las Islas Canarias. Revista de la Academia Canaria de Ciencias 4 (3-4): 95-101. Ortea, J. and L. Moro. 1997. Redescripción y nueva posición sistemática de Phidiana longicirrha Eliot, 1906 (Mollusca: Nudibranchia: Aeolidacea). Revista de la Academia Canaria de Ciencias 9 (2, 3 and 4): 107-118. Ortea, J. and L. Moro. 1998a. Nota sobre Ercolania siotti Trinchese, 1872 (Mollusca: Opisthobranchia: Sacoglossa). Revista de la Academia Canaria de Ciencias 10 (4): 97-100. Ortea, J. and L. Moro. 1998b. Nuevos datos sobre la Familia Aglajidae Pilsbry, 1895 (Mollusca: Opisthobranchia: Cephalaspidea) en las Islas Canarias. Revista de la Academia Canaria de Ciencias 10 (4): 101-107. Ortea, J. and L. Moro. 1999. Estudio de las especies del género Runcina Forbes y Hanley, 1853 (Opisthobranchia: Cephalaspidea) de coloración rojiza (grupo “ferruginea”) en la Macaronesia, con la descripción de tres especies nuevas. Revista de la Academia Canaria de Ciencias 11 (3-4): 63-74. Ortea, J., L. Moro, J. J. Bacallado and J. Espinosa. 1998. Catálogo abreviado de las especies del orden Sacoglossa (= Ascoglossa, Mollusca: Opisthobranchia) de las Islas Canarias y de Cabo Verde. Revista de la Academia Canaria de Ciencias 10 (4): 85-96.

Ortea, J., L. Moro, J. J. Bacallado and R. Herrera. 2001 [2000]. Catálogo actualizado de los Moluscos Opistobranquios de las Islas Canarias. Revista de la Academia Canaria de Ciencias 12 (3-4): 105-136. Ortea, J., L. Moro, J. J. Bacallado, J. M. Pérez Sánchez and Y. Vallés. 1996. Nuevos datos sobre la fauna de doridos farenobranquios (Gastropoda, Nudibranchia) de las Islas Canarias. Revista de la Academia Canaria de Ciencias 8 (2, 3 and 4): 125-138. Ortea, J., L. Moro and M. Caballer. 2001. Descripción de los juveniles de Kaloplocamus ramosus Cantraine, 1835 (Mollusca, Nudibranchia, Polyceratidae). Vieraea 29: 119124. Ortea, J., L. Moro and M. Caballer. 2002 [2001]. Descripción de Cuthona pallida (Eliot, 1906) (mollusca: nudibranchia) un pequeño eolidáceo de las islas de Cabo Verde y Canarias. Revista de la Academia Canaria de Ciencias 13 (4): 123-132. Ortea, J., L. Moro, M. Caballer and J. J. Bacallado. 2003 [2002]. Resultados Científicos del proyecto “Macaronesia 2000” Chinijo-2002: Moluscos Opistobranquios. Revista de la Academia Canaria de Ciencias 14 (3-4): 165-180. Ortea, J., L. Moro and J. Espinosa. 1996. Descripción de dos nuevas especies del género Chelidonura A. Adams, 1850 (Opisthobranchia: Cephalaspidea: Aglajidae) colectadas en la Isla de El Hierro. Estudio comparado con C. africana Pruvot-Fol 1953. Revista de la Academia Canaria de Ciencias 7 (2, 3 and 4): 215-229. Ortea, J., L. Moro and J. Espinosa. 1997a. El género Doto Oken, 1815 (Mollusca: Nudibranchia) en las Islas Canarias y de Cabo Verde. Avicennia 6-7: 125-136. Ortea, J., L. Moro and J. Espinosa. 1997b. Nuevos datos sobre el género Elysia Risso, 1818 (Opisthobranchia: Sacoglossa) en el atlántico. Revista de la Academia Canaria de Ciencias 9 (2, 3 and 4): 141-155. Ortea, J., L. Moro and J. Espinosa. 1999. Dos moluscos opistobranquios nuevos de las Islas Canarias. Avicennia (1011): 151-156. Ortea, J., L. Moro and J. Espinosa. 2003 [2002]. Chelidonura sabadiega Ortea, Moro y Espinosa, 1996 (Opisthobranchia: Cephalspidea) una segunda especie del género Odontoaglaja Rudman, 1978. Revista de la Academia Canaria de Ciencias 14 (3-4): 189-192. Ortea, J. and C. G. Nicieza. 1999. Descripción de una nueva especie del género Runcina Forbes y Hanley, 1853 (Opisthobranchia: Cephalaspidea) de color azul-violáceo, recolectada en la isla de La Gomera. Revista de la Academia Canaria de Ciencias 11 (3-4): 83-86. Ortea, J. and J. M. Pérez Sánchez. 1982. Una nueva especie de Doto Oken (Mollusca: Opisthobranchia: Dendronotacea) de las Islas Canarias. Iberus 2: 79-83. Ortea, J. and J. M. Pérez Sánchez. 1983. Dos Chromodorididae “violeta” del Atlántico Nordeste. Vieraea 12 (1-2): 61-74. Ortea, J. and J. M. Pérez Sánchez. 1992. Captura de Plocamopherus maderae (Lowe, 1842) (Mollusca: Nudibranchiata) en los Archipiélagos de Canarias y Cabo Verde. Actas del V Simposio Ibérico de Estudios del Bentos Marino 2: 229-235.

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Ortea, J., J. M. Pérez Sánchez and J. J. Bacallado. 1981. Sobre la presencia de Discodoris fragilis Alder y Hancock, 1846 (Mollusca: Opisthobranchia: Doridacea) en las islas Canarias. Investigación Pesquera 45 (1): 231-236. Ortea, J., J. M. Pérez Sánchez and E. M. Llera. 1982. Moluscos Opistobranquios recolectados durante el Plan de Bentos Circuncanarios. Doridacea. I. Cuadernos del Crinas 3: 1-48. Ortea, J., A. Quero, G. Rodríguez and A. Valdés. 1989. Estudio de Limacia clavigera Muller, 1776 (Mollusca: Nudibranchia) con nota sobre su distribución geográfica y la válidez de género Laila MacFarland, 1905. Revista de la Facultad de Ciencias de la Universidad de Oviedo 7: 99107. Ortea, J. and G. Rodríguez. 1989. Descripción de una nueva especie de Doto Oken, 1815 (Mollusca: Nudibranchia) de las costas de Málaga, Sur de España. Graellsia 45: 113-116. Ortea, J. and J. Templado. 1984. Descripción de los individuos jóvenes de Hypselodoris webbi (d’Orbigny, 1839) (Mollusca: Opisthobranchia). Iberus 4: 75-78. Ortea, J. and V. Urgorri. 1978. El género Doto Oken, 1815 en el Norte y Noroeste de España. Boletín de la Estación Central de Ecología 7 (14): 73-92. Ortea, J. and V. Urgorri. 1979a. Una nueva especie de Onchidoris (Moluscos, Opistobranquios, Doridáceos) del Norte y Noroeste de España, Onchidoris cerviñoi n. sp. Cahiers de Biologie Marine 20: 507-513. Ortea, J. and V. Urgorri. 1979b. Primera cita de Hancokia uncinata (Hesse, 1872) (Gastropoda: Nudibranchia) para el litoral ibérico. Trabajos Compostelanos de Biología 8: 79-86. Ortea, J. and V. Urgorri. 1979c. Sobre la presencia de Dendrodoris racemosa Pruvot-Fol, 1951 y Discodoris rosi Ortea, 1977 (Gastropoda: Nudibranchia) en Galicia. Trabajos Compostelanos de Biología 8: 71-78. Ortea, J. and V. Urgorri. 1981a. Opistobranquios nuevos para el litoral ibérico colectados en Galicia. I. Boletín del Instituto Español de Oceanografía 6: 49-60. Ortea, J. and V. Urgorri. 1981b. Runcina ferruginea Crees, 1977 et Pruvotfolia pseillotes (Labbé, 1923) dans les eaux iberiques. Vie et Milieu 31 (2): 149-151. Ortea, J. and A. Valdés. 1991. Descripción de una nueva especie de Chromodoris Alder and Hancock, 1855 (Mollusca: Opisthobranchia) de las Islas Canarias. Estudio comparado con otras especies atlánticas del grupo cromático “luteorosea”. Revista de la Academia Canaria de Ciencias 3 (4): 69-85. Ortea, J., A. Valdés and J. Espinosa. 1994. North Atlantic nudibranchs of the Chromodoris clenchi colour group (Opisthobranchia: Chromodorididae). Journal of Molluscan Studies 60: 237-248. Ortea, J., A. Valdés and J. C. García-Gómez. 1996. Revisión de las especies atlánticas de la familia Chromodorididae (Mollusca: Nudibranchia) del grupo cromático azul. Avicennia, supplement 1: 1-165. Otero, J. J. and J. E. Trigo. 1987. Adiciones a la fauna malacológica de la ría de Arousa (NO de España). Iberus 7 (1): 129-135.

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Schrödl, M., H. Wägele and R. C. Willan. 2001. Taxonomic redescription of the Doridoxidae (Gastropoda: Opisthobranchia), an enigmatic family of deep water nudibranchs, with discussion of basal nudibranch phylogeny. Zoologischer Anzeiger 240 (1): 83-97. Schulze, A. and H. Wägele. 1998. Morphology, anatomy and histology of Flabellina affinis (Gmelin, 1971) (Nudibranchia, Aeolidoidea, Flabellinidae) and its relation to other Mediterranean Flabellina species. Journal of Molluscan Studies 64: 195-214. Sierra, A., L. García and D. Lloris. 1978. Trofismo y competencia alimentaria en asteroideos de la Bahía de Almería. Investigación Pesquera 42 (2): 489-499. Silvestre, F. C. S. G. and F. A. Baptista. 1980. Contribuição para o estudo do sistema lagunar da Ria de Faro. Relatório de estágio de licenciatura. Faculdade de Ciências de Lisboa. Lisbon: 57 pp. Silvestre, F. C. S. G., F. A. Baptista and M. T. Jorge. 1979. Sistema lagunar da “Ria Formosa”: 1 - inventário de moluscos gastrópodes e bivalves; 2 - Inventário sumário de crustáceos decápodes; 3 - Inventário sumário dos peixes. SNPRCN. Lisbon: 94 pp. Sneath, P. H. A. and R. Sokal. 1973. Numerical taxonomy: the principles and practice of numerical classification. W. H. Freeman. San Francisco, California, EE UU: 573 pp. Sordi, M. 1980. Una nuova specie di Aglajidae (Gastropoda: Opisthobranchia) vivente en el mar Tirreno: Chelidonura italica Sordi. Atti della Società Toscana di Scienze Naturali (serie B) 87: 285-297. Spoel, S. van der, J. Bleeker and H. Kobayasi. 1993. From Cavolinia longirostris to twenty-four Diacavolinia taxa, with a phylogenetic discusión. Bijdraje tot der Dierkunde 62 (3): 127-166. Spoel, S. van der and T. Pafort-van Iersel. 1985. Note on the taxonomy of the family Notobranchaeidae and description of Notobranchaea bleekerae n. sp., a species new to science (Gastropoda, Pteropoda). Basteria 49: 29-36. Sprung, M. 1993. Estimating macrobenthic secondary production from body weight and biomass: a field test in a non-boreal intertidal habitat. Marine Ecology Progress Series 100: 103-109. Sprung, M. 1994. Macrobenthic secondary production in the intertidal zone of the Ria Formosa - a lagoon in southern Portugal. Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science 38: 539-558. Storch, V. and U. Welsch. 1972. The ultraestructure of epidernal mucous cells in marine invertebrates (Nemertini, Polychaeta, Prosobranchia, Opisthobranchia). Marine Biology 13: 167-175. Sykes, J. 1905. Mollusca of the Porcupine expedition. Proceeding of the Malacological Society of London 6: 28-40 and 322-332. Talavera, F. G. 1978. Moluscos marinos de las Islas Salvajes. In: Contribución al estudio de la Historia Natural de las Islas Salvages. Resultados de la Expedicion Cientifica «Agamenon 76». Aula de Cultura de Tenerife. Tenerife, Spain: 119128. Talavera, P., L. Murillo and J. Templado. 1987. The genus Haminoea Turton and Kingston, 1830 (Opisthobranchia,

Bullomorpha) in the Southeast of Spain with the description of a new species. Bollettino Malacologico 23 (1-4): 5368. Templado, J. 1982a. Contribución al conocimiento de los gasterópodos marinos de Mallorca. Iberus 2: 71-77. Templado, J. 1982b. Datos sobre los opistobranquios del Cabo de Palos (Murcia). Bollettino Malacologico 18 (9-12): 247-254. Templado, J. 1982c. Nuevo opistobranquio para la malacofauna ibérica. Actas II Simposio Ibérico sobre Estudios del Bentos Marino 3: 225-254. Templado, J. 1983 [1982]. Moluscos de las formaciones de fanerógamas marinas en las costas de Cabo de Palos (Murcia). Universidad Complutense de Madrid. Madrid: 351 pp. Templado, J. 1984. Moluscos de las praderas de Posidonia oceanica en las costas del Cabo de Palos (Murcia). Investigación Pesquera 48 (3): 509-526. Templado, J., L. Baratech, M. Calvo, M. Villena and M. T. Aparicio. 1993a. Los “ejemplares tipo” de las colecciones malacológicas del Museo Nacional de Ciencias Natuirales. Museo Nacional de Ciencias Naturales (CSIC). Madrid: 328 pp. Templado, J., M. Calvo, A. M. García-Carrascosa, F. Boisset and J. Jiménez. 2002. Flora y fauna de la Reserva Marina de las islas Columbretes. Secretaría General de Pesca Marítima; Ministerio de Agricultura, Pesca y Alimentación. Madrid: 263 pp. Templado, J., A. M. García-Carrascosa, L. Baratech, R. Capaccioni, A. Juan, A. López-Ibor, R. Silvestre and C. Massó. 1986. Estudio preliminar a la fauna asociada a los fondos coralíferos del Mar de Alborán (SE de España). Boletín del Instituto Español de Oceanografía 3 (4): 93-104. Templado, J., A. Guerra, J. Bedoya, D. Moreno, J. M. Remon, M. Maldonado and M. A. Ramos. 1993b. Fauna marina circalitoral del sur de la Península Ibérica. Resultados de la campaña oceanográfica “Fauna I”. Museo Nacional de Ciencias Naturales (CSIC). Madrid: 135 pp. Templado, J., A. A. Luque and D. Moreno. 1988. Nuevas aportaciones al conocimiento de los opistobranquios del sureste español. Iberus 8 (1): 15-23. Templado, J., A. A. Luque and J. Ortea. 1987. A new species of Aegires Lovén, 1844 (Opisthobranchia: Doridacea: Aegiretidae) from the Caribbean Sea: Aegires ortizi spec. nov., with comparative descriptions of the North Atlantic species of this genus. The Veliger 29 (3): 303-307. Templado, J. and L. Murillo. 1998. Puesta y desarrollo de Bulla striata (Opisthobranchia, Cephalaspidea) en el Mediterráneo occidental. Iberus 16 (2): 39-58. Templado, J., P. Talavera and L. Murillo. 1983. Adiciones a la fauna de opistobranquios del Cabo de Palos (Murcia) I. Iberus 3: 47-50. Templado, J., P. Talavera and L. Murillo. 1987. Adiciones a la fauna de opistobranquios del Cabo de Palos (Murcia) II. Anales de Biología 11 (Biología Animal 3): 91-98. Templado, J., M. Villena and J. Fernández. 1995. Noticia de nuevos taxones para la ciencia en el ámbito Ibero-Balear y macaronésico. Graellsia 51: 171-189. Theodor, J. 1964. Mediterraneé vivant. Payot, Lausanne. (Quoted by Ros, 1976a.)

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Thiele, J. 1931. Handbush der Systematischen Weichtierkunde. Theil 2. G. Fischer. Stuttgart, Germany: 377-788. Thöllesson, M. 1999a. Phylogenetic analysis of dorid nudibranchs (Gastropoda: Doridacea) using the mitochondrial 16S rRNA gene. Journal of Molluscan Studies 65: 335353. Thöllesson, M. 1999b. Phylogenetic analysis of Euthyneura (Gastropoda) by means of the 16S rRNA gene: use of a ‘fast’ gene for ‘higher-level’ phylogenies. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London B 266: 75-83. Thöllesson, M. 2000. Increasing fidelity in parsimony analysis of dorid nudibranch by differential weighting, or a tale of two genes. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 16: 161-172. Thompson, T. E. 1970. Eastern Australian Pleurobranchomorpha (Gastropoda, Opisthobranchia). Journal of Zoology 160 (2): 173-198. Thompson, T. E. 1975. Dorid nudibranchs from eastern Australia (Gastropoda, Opisthobranchia). Journal of Zoology 176: 477-517; plate 1. Thompson, T. E. 1976. Biology of Opistobranch Molluscs 1. Ray Society. London: 206 pp. Thompson, T. E. 1977. Jamaican Opisthobranch Molluscs. I. Journal of Molluscan Studies 43: 93-140. Thompson, T. E. 1981. Taxonomy of three misunderstood opistobranchs from the North Adriatic Sea. Journal of Molluscan Studies 47: 73-79. Thompson, T. E. 1988a. Eastern Mediterranean Opistobranchia: Oxynoidae, Polybranchiidae, Stiligeridae (Sacoglossa). Journal of Molluscan Studies 54: 157-172. Thompson, T. E. 1988b. Molluscs: Benthic Opisthobranchs (Mollusca: Gastropoda) (Synopses of the British Fauna. New Series) 8 (2nd edition). E. J. Brill/Dr. W. Backhuys. Avon, Great Britain: 356 pp. Thompson, T. E. and G. H. Brown. 1984. Biology of Opisthobranch Molluscs. Vol. 2. Ray Society. London: 229 pp. Thompson, T. E. and A. Jaklin. 1988. Eastern Mediterranean opistobranchia: Elysiidae (Sacoglossa = Ascoglossa). Journal of Molluscan Studies 54: 59-69. Thorson, G. 1965. The distribution of benthic marine Mollusca along the NE Atlantic shelf from Gibraltar to Murmask. Malacologia 6: 5-23. Tomas, L. 1909. Moluscos marinos de Catalunya. Boletín del Instituto Catalán de Historia Natural 2.a época (9): 14-44. Trigo, J. C. and J. J. Otero. 1987. Contribución al conocimiento de los moluscos marinos de la ría de Pontevedra y la isla de Ons. Iberus 7 (1): 121-128. Trinchese, S. 1873. Descrizione di alcuni nuovi eolididei del Porto di Genova. Memorie della Accademia delle Scienze dell´Istituto di Bologna (serie 3) 4: 197-201. Trinchese, S. 1876. Rendiconto delle Sessioni della Reale Accademia delle Scienze dell’Istituto di Bologna. Bologna, Italy: 84-87. Trinchese, S. 1877-1879. Aeolididae e familie affini del Porto di Genova, Parte Prima. Tipi Gamberini e Parmeggiani. Bologna, Italy: 94 pp. Trinchese, S. 1893. Nuove osservazione sulla Placida viridis. Memorie della Accademia delle Scienze dell´Istituto di Bologna 5: 539-547.

Troncoso, J. S., V. Urgorri, J. Parapar and M. Lastra. 1988. Moluscos infralitorales de sustratos duros de la Ría de Ares y Betanzos (Galicia, España). Iberus 8 (2): 53-58. Urgorri, V. 1981. Opistobranquios de Galicia. Tesis doctoral. Universidad de Santiago de Compostela. Santiago de Compostela, Spain: 569 pp. (Unpublished.) Urgorri, V. 1983. Algunos aspectos inéditos y complementarios de Doto verdicioi Ortea y Urgorri, 1978 (Moluscos, Opistobranquios). Trabajos Compostelanos de Biología 47 (1): 3-28. Urgorri, V. and C. Besteiro. 1983. Inventario de los moluscos Opistobranquios de Galicia. Investigación Pesquera 47 (1): 3-28. Urgorri, V. and C. Besteiro. 1984. La alimentación de los Moluscos Nudibranquios de Galicia. Iberus 4: 51-58. Urgorri, V. and C. Besteiro. 1986. Opistobranquios nuevos para el litoral ibérico colectados en Galicia. II. Iberus 6 (1): 95-99. Urgorri, V., F. Cobo and C. Besteiro. 1991. Pseudovermis artabrensis (Nudibranchia: Aeolidoidea), a new species from Galicia, Spain. Journal of Molluscan Studuies 57: 189197. Valdés, A. 1992. Nuevas aportaciones al conocimiento de los Opistobranquios del litoral Asturiano. Boletín de Ciencias de la Naturaleza del Instituto de Estudios Asturianos 42: 2138. Valdés, A. 1996. Revisión de la superfamilia Porodoridoidea Odhner en Franc, 1968 (Mollusca: Nudibranchia) en el océano Atlántico. Tesis doctoral. Universidad de Oviedo. Oviedo, Spain: 179 pp. (Unpublished.) Valdés, A. 2000 (October 11). Colombian Chromodoris clenchi is C. binza. In: http://www.seaslugforum.net/display.cfm?id=3157. Valdés, A. 2001. On the publication date, authorship, and type species of Umbraculum and Tylodina (Gastropoda: Opisthobranchia: Tylodinoidea). The Nautilus 115 (1): 29-34. Valdés, A. 2002a. A phylogenetic analysis and systematic revision of the cryptobranch dorids (Mollusca, Nudibranchia, Anthobranchia). Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society 136: 535-636. Valdés, A. 2002b. Preliminary molecular phylogeny of the radula-less dorids (Gastropoda,Opisthobranchia) based on 16S mtDNA sequence data. Journal of Molluscan Studies 69: 75-80. Valdés, A. and S. Fahey. (In press). Dorid nudibranchs described by J. E. Gray in M. E. Gray, 1842-1857 (Mollusca, Opisthobranchia). Proccedings of the Western Australian Museum. Valdés, A. and T. M. Gosliner. 1999. Phylogeny of the radula-less dorids (Mollusca, Nudibranchia), with the description of a new genus and a new family. Zoologica Scripta 28 (3-4): 315-360. Valdés, A. and T. M. Gosliner. 2001. Systematics and phylogeny of the caryophyllidia-bearing dorids (Mollusca, Nudibranchia), with descriptions of a new genus and four new species from Indo-Pacific deep waters. Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society 133: 103198.

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Valdés, A. and P. Lozouet. 2000. Opisthobranch molluscs from the Tertiary of the Aquitaine Basin (South-Western France), with descriptions of seven new species and a new genus. Paleontology 43 (3): 457-479. Valdés, A., E. Martínez, M. J. Rodríguez Palacio and G. Rodríguez Casero. 1990. Contribución al conocimiento de los opistobranquios del Norte y Noroeste de España. Boletín de Ciencias de la Naturaleza del Instituto de Estudios Asturianos 40: 89-101. Valdés, A. and J. Ortea. 1995. Revised taxonomy of some species of the genus Okenia Menke, 1830 (Mollusca: Nudibranchia) from the Atlantic ocean with the description of a new species. The Veliger 38 (3): 223-234. Valdés, A. and J. Ortea. 1996. Review of the family Phyllidiidae in the Atlantic Ocean (Nudibranchia, Doridoidea). American Malacological Bulletin 13 (1-2): 1-9. Valdés, A. and J. Ortea. 1997. Review of the genus Doriopsilla Bergh, 1880 (Gastropoda: Nudibranchia) in the Atlantic Ocean. The Veliger 40 (3): 240-254. Valdés, A., J. Ortea, C. Ávila and M. Ballesteros. 1996. Review of the genus Dendrodoris (Ehrenberg, 1831) (Gastropoda: Nudibranchia) in the Atlantic Ocean. Journal of Molluscan Studies 62: 1-31. Valdés, A., J. Ortea, A. Quero and G. Rodríguez. 1989. Redescripción de Trapania tartanella (Ihering, 1986) (Mollusca: Nudibranchia). Bollettino Malacologico 25 (58): 241-246. Vallés, Y. 2002. Taxonomy and phylogeny of Kaloplocamus and Plocamopherus and their relationships with other phanerobranchs. Master Thesis. San Francisco State University. San Francisco, EE UU: 266 pp. (Unpublished.) Vallés, Y., A. Valdés and J. Ortea. 2000. On the phanerobranch dorids of Angola (Mollusca, Nudibranchia): A crossroads of temperate and tropical species. Zoosystema 22 (1): 15-31. Vayssère, A. 1897 [1896]. Description des coquilles de quelques espèces nouvelles ou peu connues de Pleurobranchidés. Journal de Conchiliologie 44: 113-137. Vayssière, A. 1898. Monographie de la famille des pleurobranchidés. I. Annales des Sciences Naturelles (Zoologie) 8 (8): 209-402. Vayssière, A. 1901. Monographie de la familie des Pleurobranchidés (Deuxiéme et dernière partie). Annales des Sciences Naturelles (Zoologie) 12: 1-85; pls. 1-6. Vayssière, A. 1902. Opisthobranches. In: Expéditions scientifiques du «Travalleur» et du «Talisman» pendant les années 1880-1883. Masson. Paris. Vayssière, A. 1913. Mollusques de la France et des regions voisines. I. Encyclopedie Scientifique. G. Doin et Cie. Paris: 420 pp. Vicente, N. 1964. Gasteropodes Opisthobranches recoltés en plongée au Cap de Creus (Costa Brava). Recueils des Travaux de la Station Marine d´Endoume 34 (50): 219-223. Vilella, M. 1968. Una nueva Elysia del Mediterráneo español: Elysia fezi (nov. sp.). Miscelanea Zoologica 2 (3): 29-32. Vilella, M. 1994. Tres nuevas especies de doridáceos (Gastropoda: Nudibranchia) en la costa del Mediterráneo catalán. Butlletí del Centre d’Estudis de la Natura del Barcelonès-Nord 3 (1): 63-72.

Villani, G. 1991. Mediatori Chimici nelle comunicazioni inter ed intra-speciche di molluschi opistobranchi del Mediterráneo. Iberus 10 (1): 59-81. Villena, M., L. Baratech, M. T. Aparicio and J. Templado. 1997. Los “ejemplares tipo” de las colecciones malacológicas del Museo Nacional de Ciencias Natuirales. Volumen II. Museo Nacional de Ciencias Naturales (CSIC). Madrid: 170 pp.; 3 pls. Vives, F. 1966. Zooplancton nerítico de las aguas de Castellón. Investigación Pesquera 30: 49-166. Vives, F., G. Santamaría and J. Trepat. 1975. El zooplancton de los alrededores del Estrecho de Gibraltar en juniojulio de 1972. Resultados Expediciones Científicas del Buque Oceanográfico “Cornide de Saavedra” 4: 7-100. Vonnemann, V., M. Schrödl, A. Klussmann-Kolb and H. Wägele. (In press). Reconstruction of the phylogeny of the Opisthobranchia (Mollusca, Gastropoda) by means of 18S and 28S rRNA gene sequences. Journal of Molluscan Studies 71. Wägele, H. and J. L. Cervera. 2001. Histological study of Goniodoris castanea Alder and Hancock, 1845 (Nudibranchia, Doridoidea, Goniodorididae). Journal of Morphology 250: 61-69. Wägele, H., V. Vonnemann and W. Wägele. 2003. Towards a phylogeny of the Opisthobranchia. In: Molecular systematics and phylogeography of Mollusks. C. Lydeard and D. R. Lindberg (eds.): 185-228. Smithsonian Books. Washington, EE UU. Wägele, H. and R. C. Willan. 2000. Phylogeny of the Nudibranchia. Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society 130: 83-181. Ward, J. H. 1963. Hierachical grouping to optimize an objective function. Journal of the American Statistical Association 58: 236-244. Warén, A. and G. di Paco. 1997 (1996). Redescription of Andolyta duebeni (Lovén), a little known notaspidean gastropod. Bollettino Malacologico 32 (1-4): 19-26. Watson, R. B. 1883. Mollusca of H. M. S. Challenger, Pt. XIX. Journal of the Linnean Society of London (Zoology) 17 (101): 319-340; 17 (20): 341-346. Watson, R. B. 1886. Report on the Scientific Results of the Voyage of H. M. S. Challenger during the years 1873-76. Zoology 15 (2): 1-756. Watson, R. B. 1891. The marine Mollusca of Madeira. Journal of Conchology 6: 365-377. Watson, R. B. 1897. On the marine Mollusca of Madeira; with descriptions of thirty-five new species, and an Indexlist of all known Sea-dewelling species of that island. Journal of the Linnean Society (London) 26: 233-329. Willan, R. C. 1983. New Zealand side-gilled sea slugs (Opisthobranchia: Notaspidea: Pleurobranchidae). Malacologia 23 (2): 221-270. Willan, R. C. 1984. A review of diets in the Notaspidea (Mollusca: Opisthobranchia). Journal of the Malacological Society of Australia 6 (3-4): 125-142. Willan, R. C. 1987a. Phylogenetic systematics of the Notaspidea (Opistobranchia) with reppraisal of families and genera. American Malacologica Bulletin 5 (2): 215241.

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Willan, R. C. 1987b. Phylogenetic systematics and zoogeography of Australian nudibranchs. 1. Presence of the aeolid Godiva quadricolor (Barnard) in Western Australia. Journal of the Malacological Society of Australia 8: 71-85. Willan, R. C. 1998. Order Notaspidea (Families Tylodinidae, Umbraculidae, Pleurobranchidae) (Subclass Opisthobranchia). In: Mollusca: The Southern Synthesis. Fauna of Australia. P. L. Beesley, G. J. B. Ross and A. E. Wells (eds.) 5: 677-980. CSIRO Publishing. Melbourne, Australia. Willan, R. C. 2000. Family names, particularly Polyceridae and Aegiridae. Nudibranch News 3 (3): 1-3. Willan, R. C. and R. Burn. 2003. On the publication date, authorship, and type species of Umbraculum and Tylodina (Gastropoda: Opisthobranchia: Tylodinoidea): a rejoinder. The Nautilus 117 (1): 23-29. Willan, R. C. and J. Morton. 1984. Marine Molluscs. Part. 2. Opisthobranchia. University of Auckland, Leigh Marine Laboratory. Auckland, New Zealand: 106 pp. Wilson, N. and M. Lee. (In press). Molecular phylogeny of Chromodoris (Mollusca: Nudibranchia) and the identification of a planar spawning clade. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 36. Wilson, K. and B. E. Picton. 1983. A list of the Opisthobranchia: Mollusca of Lough Hyne Nature Reserve, Co Cork, with notes on distribution and nomenclature. Irish Naturalist Journal 21: 69-72. Wirtz, P. 1994. Three shrimps, five nudibranchs, and two tunicates new for the marine fauna of Madeira. Boletim do Museu Municipal de Funchal 46: 167-172. Wirtz, P. 1995a. One vascular plant and ten invertebrate species new to the marine flora and fauna of Madeira. Arquipélago (Life and Marine Sciences) 13 A: 119-123.

Wirtz, P. 1995b. Unterwasserführer Madeira, Kanarean, Azoren. Delius Klasing, Edition Naglschmid. Stuttgart, Germany: 247 pp. Wirtz, P. 1998. Opisthobranch Molluscs from the Azores. Vita Marina 45 (1): 1-16. Wirtz, P. 1999. Opisthobranch Molluscs from the archipelago of Madeira. Vita Marina 46 (1-2): 1-18. Wirtz, P. and H. Debelius. 2003. Mediterranean and Atlantic Invertebrate Guide. Conchbooks, Inc. Hackenheim, Germany: 305 pp. Wirtz, P. and H. Martins. 1993. Notes on some rare and little known marine invertebrates from the Azores, with a discussion of the zoogeography of the region. Arquipélago (Life and Marine Sciences) 11 A: 55-63. Wirz-Mangold, K. and U. Wyss. 1958. Faune marine des Pyrénées Orientales: Opisthabranches. Vie et Milieu 9 (supplement 2): 1-71. Wollscheid, E. and H. Wägele. 1999. Initial results on the molecular phylogeny of the Nudibranchia (Gastropoda, Opisthobranchia) based on 18S rDNA data. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 13 (2): 215-226. Wollscheid-Lengeling, E., J. Boore, W. Brown and H. Wägele. 2001. The phylogeny of Nudibranchia (Opisthobranchia, Gastropoda, Mollusca) reconstructed by three molecular markers. Organisms, Diversity and Evolution 1: 241-256. Yonow, N. 1986. Red Sea Phillydiidae (Mollusca: Nudibranchia), with descriptions of new species. Journal of Natural History 20: 1401-1428. Zenetos, A., S. Gofas, G. Russo and J. Templado. 2003. CIESM Atlas of exotic species in the Mediterranean. 3. Molluscs. F. Briand (ed.): 376 pp. CIESM Publishers. Monaco.

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Plate 1. From left to right, from top to bottom: Runcina adriatica Thompson, 1980; Runcina bahiensis Cervera, GarcíaGómez and García, 1991; Lobiger serradifalci (Calcara, 1840); Aplysiopsis formosa Pruvot-Fol, 1953; Ercolania lozanoi Ortea, 1981; Pleurobranchus garciagomezi Cervera, Cattaneo-Vietti and Edmunds, 1996; Okenia mediterranea (Ihering, 1886); Trapania tartanella (Ihering, 1885)

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Plate 2. From left to right, from top to bottom: Plocamopherus maderae (Lowe, 1842); Tambja marbellensis Schick and Cervera, 1998; Hypselodoris malacitana Luque, 1986; Chromodoris luteopunctata (Gantès. 1962); Thordisa azmanii Cervera and GarcíaGómez, 1989; Geitodoris pusae (Marcus, 1955); Taringa millegrana (Alder and Hancock, 1854); Doriopsilla pelseneeri Oliveira, 1895

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Plate 3. From left to right, from top to bottom: Doto furva García-Gómez and Ortea, 1983; Calmella cavolini (Vérany, 1846); Piseinotecus gabinierei (Vicente, 1975); Favorinus vitreus Ortea, 1982; Learchis poica Marcus and Marcus, 1960; Dicata odhneri Schmekel, 1968; Babakina anadoni (Ortea, 1979); Cerberilla bernadettae Tardy, 1965

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Plate 4. From left to right, from top to bottom: Berghia columbina (García-Gómez and Thompson, 1990); Eubranchus prietoi Llera and Ortea, 1981; Eubranchus linensis García-Gómez, Cervera and García, 1990; Calma gobioophaga Calado and Urgorri, 2002; Cuthona ocellata (Schmekel, 1966); Cuthona thompsoni García, López-González and García-Gómez, 1991; Cuthona fidenciae (Ortea, Moro and Espinosa, 1999); Catriona maua Marcus and Marcus, 1960

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BOLETÍN. INSTITUTO ESPAÑOL DE OCEANOGRAFÍA
ISSN: 0074-0195 © Instituto Español de Oceanografía, 2004

REFEREES
The Instituto Español de Oceanografía thans the referees listed below, as well as others who prefer to remain anonymous, for their critical revision of this publication. Dr. Terrence Gosliner. California Academy of Sciences, 875 Howard Street, San Francisco, CA 94103, USA, e-mail: tgosliner@calacademy.org Dr. Ángel Antonio Luque del Villar. Laboratorio de Biología Marina, Departamento de Biología, Edificio de Biología, Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, c/ Darwin, 2, Madrid, Spain, e-mail: angel.luque@uam.es Dr. Ángel Valdés Gallego. Associate Curator of Malacology, Natural History Museum of Los Angeles County, 900 Exposition Boulevard, Los Angeles, CA 90007, USA, e-mail: avaldes@nhm.org Dr. José Manuel Viéitez Martín. Departamento de Zoología y Antropología Física, Universidad de Alcalá, 28871 Alcalá de Henares, Madrid, Spain, e-mail: josem.vieitez@uah.es

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BOLETÍN. INSTITUTO ESPAÑOL DE OCEANOGRAFÍA
ISSN: 0074-0195 © Instituto Español de Oceanografía, 2004

INDEX
PREFACE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ABSTRACT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . RESUMEN . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . INTRODUCTION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . RESULTS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Order ARCHITECTIBRANCHIA Haszprunar, 1985 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Family Ringiculidae Meeck, 1862 Genus Ringicula Deshayes, 1838 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Family Acteonidae D’Orbigny, 1835 Genus Acteon Montfort, 1810 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Genus Crenilabium Cossmann, 1889 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Genus Pseudacteon Thiele, 1925 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Genus Japonacteon Taki, 1956 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Genus Liocarenus Harris and Burrows, 1891 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Genus Callostracon Hamlin, 1884. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Genus Acteonina D’Orbigny, 1850 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Genus Tomlinula Strand, 1932 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Genus Inopinodon Bouchet, 1975 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Family Amplustridae Gray, 1847 Genus Hydatina Schumacher, 1817 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Genus Micromelo Pilsbry, 1895 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Order CEPHALASPIDEA s. s. Mikkelsen, 1996 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Family Diaphanidae Odhner, 1914 Genus Diaphana Brown, 1827 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Genus Colobocephalus M. Sars, 1870 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Genus Colpodaspis M. Sars, 1870 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Genus Rhinodiaphana Lemche, 1967 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Family Retusidae Thiele, 1926 Genus Retusa Brown, 1827 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Genus Cylichnina Monterosato, 1884 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Genus Volvulella Newton, 1891 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Genus Pyrunculus Pilsbry, 1895 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Genus Relichna Bouchet, 1975 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

3 5 6 6
9

9 9 9 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 11 11 11 11 11 11 11 11 11 13 13 13 13
115

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Family Cylichnidae Rudman, 1978 Genus Acteocina Gray, 1847 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Genus Cylichna Lovén, 1846 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Genus Scaphander Montfort, 1810 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Genus Meloscaphander Schepman, 1913 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Genus Roxania Leach in Gray, 1847 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Family Philinidae Gray, 1850 Genus Philine Ascanius, 1772 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Genus Laona A. Adams, 1865 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Family Philinoglossidae Hoffmann, 1833 Genus Philinoglossa Hertling, 1932 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Family Gastropteridae Swainson, 1840 Genus Gastropteron Koose, 1813 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Family Aglajidae Renier, 1807 Genus Aglaja Renier, 1807 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Genus Chelidonura A. Adams, 1850 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Genus Odontoaglaja Rudman, 1978 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Genus Melanochlamys Cheeseman, 1881 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Genus Philinopsis Pease, 1860 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Aglajidae incerta sedis Doridium ? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Family Runcinidae H. and A. Adams, 1854 Genus Runcina Forbes and Hanley, 1853 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Family Bullidae Lamarck, 1801 Genus Bulla Linnaeus, 1758 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Family Haminoeidae Pilsbry, 1895 Genus Haminoea Turton and Kingston, 1830 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Genus Atys Montfort, 1810 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Genus Weinkauffia Monterosato, 1884 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Genus Cylichnium Dall, 1908 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Haminoeidae incerta sedis Weinkauffia ? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Order ANASPlDEA Fischer, 1883 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Family Akeridae Odhner, 1922 Genus Akera Müller, 1776 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Family Aplysiidae Lamarck, 1809 Genus Aplysia Linnaeus, 1767 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Genus Bursatella De Blainville, 1817 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

14 14 14 15 15

15 17

17

17

17 17 17 17 18

18

18

19

19 20 21 21

21 21 21

21 23

116

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Family Dolabriferidae Pilsbry, 1895 Genus Petalifera Gray 1847 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Genus Dolabrifera Gray, 1847 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Family Notarchidae Eales and Engel, 1935 Genus Notarchus Cuvier, 1817 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Genus Stylocheilus Gould, 1852 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Order ACOCHLIDIOMORPHA Salvini-Plawen, 1983 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Family Hedylopsidae Odhner, 1952 Genus Hedylopsis Thiele, 1931 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Family Asperinidae Rankin, 1979 Genus Asperina Rankin, 1979 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Family Microhedylidae Hertling, 1930 Genus Unela Marcus, 1953 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Genus Pontohedyle Golikov and Starobogatov, 1972 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Order THECOSOMATA Blainville, 1824 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Suborder EUTHECOSOMATA Meisenheimer, 1905 Family Cavoliniidae D’Orbigny, 1842 Genus Cavolinia Abildgaard, 1791 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Genus Diacria Gray, 1847 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Genus Clio Linnaeus, 1767 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Genus Creseis Rang, 1828 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Genus Hyalocylis Folin, 1875 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Genus Styliola Blainville, 1827 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Genus Cuvierina Boas, 1886 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Genus Diacavolinia Van der Spoel, 1987 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Family Limacinidae Gray, 1840 Genus Limacina Bosc, 1817 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Suborder PSEUDOTHECOSOMATA Meisenheimer, 1905 Family Cymbuliidae Cantraine, 1841 Genus Cymbulia Péron and Lesueur, 1810 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Genus Corolla Dall, 1871 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Family Desmopteridae Chun, 1889 Genus Desmopterus Chun, 1889 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Family Peraclidae Tesch, 1913 Genus Peracle Forbes, 1844 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Order GYMNOSOMATA Blainville, 1894 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Family Pneumodermatidae Latreille, 1825 Genus Pneumoderma Perón and Lesueur, 1910 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

23 23

23 23 23 23

23

23 24 24

24 24 24 25 25 25 25 25

26

26 26

26

27 27 27
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Family Clionidae Oken, 1815 Genus Clione Pallas, 1774 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Genus Paraclione Tesch, 1903 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Family Notobranchaeidae Pelseneer, 1886 Genus Notobranchaea Pelseneer, 1886 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Genus Schleschia Strand, 1932 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Order SACOGLOSSA Von Ihering, 1876 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Suborder OXYNOACEA H. Adams and A. Adams, 1854 Family Volvatellidae Pilsbry, 1895 Genus Ascobulla Marcus, 1972 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Family Oxynoidae H. Adams and A. Adams, 1854 Genus Oxynoe Rafinesque, 1819 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Genus Lobiger Krohn, 1847 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Suborder PLAKOBRANCHACEA Rang, 1829 Superfamily PLAKOBRANCHOIDEA Rang, 1829 Family Plakobranchidae Rang, 1829 (= Elysiidae Forbes and Hanley, 1851) Genus Elysia s. l. Risso, 1818 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Genus Thuridilla Bergh, 1872 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Family Boselliidae Marcus, 1982 Genus Bosellia Trinchese, 1891 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Superfamily LIMAPONTIOIDEA Gray, 1847 Family Polybranchiidae O’Donoghue, 1929 (= Caliphyllidae Thiele, 1931) Genus Polybranchia Pease, 1860 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Genus Caliphylla A. Costa, 1867 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Genus Cyerce Bergh, 1871 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Family Hermaeidae H. Adams and A. Adams, 1854 Genus Aplysiopsis Deshayes, 1853 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Genus Hermaea Lovén, 1844 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Genus Hermaeopsis A. Costa, 1869 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Family Limapontiidae Gray, 1847 (= Stiligeridae Iredale and O’Donoghue, 1923) Genus Stiliger Ehrenberg, 1831 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Genus Limapontia Johnston, 1836 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Genus Calliopaea D’Orbigny, 1837 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Genus Ercolania s. l. Trinchese, 1872 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Genus Placida Trinchese, 1876 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Genus Costasiella Pruvot-Fol, 1951 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Order UMBRACULACEA Dall, 1889 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Family Tylodinidae Gray, 1847 Genus Tylodina Rafinesque, 1814 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Genus Anidolyta Willan, 1987 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

27 27

27 27 27

27

27 28

28 29

29

29 29 29

29 29 30

30 30 30 30 30 31 31 31 31

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Family Umbraculidae Dall, 1889 Genus Umbraculum Schumacher, 1817 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Superorder NUDIPLEURA Wägele and Willan, 2000 Order PLEUROBRANCHACEA Férussac, 1822 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Family Pleurobranchidae Férussac, 1822 Subfamily Pleurobranchinae Férussac, 1822 Tribe Pleurobranchini Férussac, 1822 Genus Pleurobranchus Cuvier, 1805 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Tribe Berthellini Burn, 1962 Genus Berthella Blainville, 1824 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Genus Berthellina Gardiner, 1936 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Subfamily Pleurobranchaeinae Pilsbry, 1896 Genus PIeurobranchaea Meckel in Leue, 1813 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Order NUDIBRANCHIA Blainville, 1814 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Suborder ANTHOBRANCHIA Minichev, 1970 Infraorder DORlDINA Pelseneer, 1894 “PHANEROBRANCHIA” Fischer, 1883 Family Corambidae Bergh, 1871 Genus Corambe Bergh, 1869 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Family Onchidorididae Alder and Hancock, 1845 Genus Adalaria Bergh, 1878 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Genus Onchidoris Blainville, 1816 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Genus Acanthodoris Gray, 1850 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Genus Diaphorodoris Iredale and O’Donoghue, 1923 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Family Goniodorididae H. and A. Adams, 1854 Genus Goniodoris Forbes and Goodsir, 1839 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Genus Okenia Menke, 1830 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Genus Ancula Lovén, 1846 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Genus Trapania Pruvot-Fol, 1931 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Genus Bermudella Odhner, 1941 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Family Polyceridae Alder and Hancock, 1845 Genus Limacia O. F. Müller, 1781 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Genus Polycera Cuvier, 1817 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Genus Thecacera Fleming, 1828 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Genus Plocamopherus Leuckart, 1828 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Genus Crimora Alder and Hancock, 1862 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Genus Roboastra Bergh, 1877 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Genus Polycerella Verrill, 1880 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Genus Kaloplocamus Bergh, 1880 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Genus Tambja Burn, 1962 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Family Aegiridae Fischer, 1883 Genus Aegires Lovén, 1844 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

31

32

32 32 33 33 34

34

34 34 34 34

35 35 35 35 36

36 36 37 37 37 38 38 38
38

38
119

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“CRYPTOBRANCHIA” Fischer, 1883 LABIOSTOMATA Valdés, 2002 Family Chromodorididae Bergh, 1891 Genus Glossodoris Ehrenbergh, 1831 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Genus Hypselodoris Stimpson, 1855 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Genus Chromodoris Alder and Hancock, 1855 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Genus Cadlina Bergh, 1878 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Family Dorididae Rafinesque, 1815 Genus Doris Linnaeus, 1758 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Genus Aldisa Bergh, 1878 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Family Discodorididae Bergh, 1891 Genus Jorunna Bergh, 1876 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Genus Discodoris Bergh, 1877 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Genus Thordisa Bergh, 1877 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Genus Platydoris Bergh, 1877 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Genus Rostanga Bergh, 1879 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Genus Peltodoris Bergh, 1880 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Genus Paradoris Bergh, 1884 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Genus Baptodoris Bergh, 1884 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Genus Geitodoris Bergh, 1891 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Genus Taringa Marcus, 1955 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Genus Thorybopus Bouchet, 1977 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . LABIOSTOMATA incerta sedis Genus Carminodoris Bergh, 1889 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . POROSTOMATA Bergh, 1878 Familia Phyllidiidae Rafinesque, 1814 Genus Phyllidia Cuvier, 1797 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Genus Phyllidiopsis Bergh, 1875 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Genus Reticulidia Brunckhorst, 1990 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Familia Dendrodorididae O’Donoghue, 1924 Genus Dendrodoris Ehrenberg, 1831 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Genus Doriopsilla Bergh, 1880 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . DEXIARCHIA Schrödl, Wägele and Willan, 2001 Suborder CLADOBRANCHIA Willan and Morton, 1984 “DENDRONOTINA” Sars, 1878 Family Tritoniidae Lamarck, 1809 Genus Tritonia Cuvier, 1803 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Genus Marionia Vayssière, 1877 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Genus Tritoniopsis Eliot, 1905 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Family Scyllaeidae Fischer, 1883 Genus Scyllaea Linnaeus, 1758 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

39 39 41 42

42 43

43 44 44 44 45 45 45 46 46 46 47

47

47 47 47

47 48

48 49 49

49

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Index

Family Hancockiidae MacFarland, 1923 Genus Hancockia Gosse, 1877 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Family Lomanotidae Bergh, 1892 Genus Lomanotus Vérany, 1844 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Family Tethyidae Alder and Hancock, 1855 Genus Tethys Linnaeus, 1767 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Family Phylliroidae Férussac, 1821 Genus Phylliroe Péron and Lesueur, 1810 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Genus Cephalopyge Hanel, 1905 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Family Dendronotidae Sars, 1878 Genus Dendronotus Alder and Hancock, 1845 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Family Dotoidae Gray, 1853 Genus Doto Oken, 1815 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . “ARMlNINA” Odhner, 1934 Family Arminidae Iredale and O’Donoghue, 1923 Genus Armina Rafinesque, 1814 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Genus Heterodoris Verrill and Emerton in Verrill, 1882 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Family Madrellidae Preston, 1911 Genus Madrella Alder and Hancock, 1864 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Family Proctonotidae Gray, 1853 Genus Janolus Bergh, 1884 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . “AEOLlDINA” Odhner, 1934 Family Flabellinidae Bergh, 1889 Genus Flabellina Voigt, 1834 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Genus Calmella Eliot, 1906 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Family Piseinotecidae Edmunds, 1970 Genus Piseinotecus Marcus, 1955 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Family Facelinidae Bergh, 1889 Genus Favorinus Gray, 1850 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Genus Facelina Alder and Hancock, 1855 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Genus Phidiana Gray, 1850 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Genus Cratena Bergh, 1864 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Genus Caloria Trinchese, 1888 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Genus Learchis Bergh, 1896 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Genus Facelinopsis Pruvot-Fol, 1954 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Genus Dondice Marcus, 1958 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Genus Antonietta Schmekel, 1966 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Genus Dicata Schmekel, 1967 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Genus Pruvotfolia Tardy, 1969 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

50 50 50 50 50 50 50

52 52 52 52

53 54 54 54 55 55 55 56 56 56 56 56 56 56
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Index

Genus Babakina Roller, 1972 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Genus Algarvia García-Gómez and Cervera, 1989 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Family Aeolidiidae D’Orbigny, 1834 Genus Aeolidia Cuvier, 1798 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Genus Spurilla Bergh, 1864 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Genus Aeolidiella Bergh, 1867 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Genus Cerberilla Bergh, 1873 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Genus Berghia Trinchese, 1877 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Genus Limenandra Haefelfinger and Stamm, 1958 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Family Eubranchidae Odhner, 1934 Genus Eubranchus Forbes, 1838 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Family Pseudovermidae Thiele, 1931 Genus Pseudovermis Périaslavzeff, 1891 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Family Calmidae Iredale and O’Donoghue, 1923 Genus Calma Alder and Hancock, 1855 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Family Glaucidae Menke, 1828 Genus Glaucus Forster, 1777 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Family Tergipedidae Thiele, 1931 Genus Tergipes Cuvier, 1805 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Genus Cuthona Alder and Hancock, 1855 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Genus Catriona Winckworth, 1941 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Genus Tenellia A. Costa, 1866 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Family Fionidae Alder and Hancock, 1855 Genus Fiona Alder and Hancock, 1851 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Family Embletoniidae Schmekel, 1970 Genus Embletonia Alder and Hancock, 1851 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . REMARKS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . CONCLUSIONS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . REFERENCES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . REFEREES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . INDEX . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

57 57

57 57 57 58 58 58

58

59

59

59

59 59 61 61

61

61 61 72 74 87 113 115

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BOLETÍN. INSTITUTO ESPAÑOL DE OCEANOGRAFÍA
Publicación científica dedicada a las Ciencias Marinas y a la Oceanografía en sus distintas ramas: Biología, Ecología, Geología, Física, Química, Pesquerías, Acuicultura y Contaminación. Podrán publicarse en BOLETÍN artículos de investigación, revisiones temáticas, notas, monografías, simposios y congresos. GUÍA PARA LOS AUTORES Idiomas Se aceptarán originales en español o inglés, indistintamente. Preparación de originales Los originales se mecanografiarán a doble espacio, en tamaño DIN A-4. En general, para los artículos enviados a BOLETÍN, se procurará limitar la extensión a un máximo de 15 páginas impresas (dos páginas mecanografiadas de 39 líneas y 62 matrices por línea representan una página impresa). El texto debe presentarse en la siguiente forma: Título del trabajo, nombres de los autores e institución, dirección postal (calle, ciudad, país), y la dirección de correo electrónico y los números de teléfono y fax del primer autor. Se incluirá un título abreviado. A continuación figurarán un resumen en español y otro en inglés (abstract), con el título del trabajo en inglés. El trabajo, cuando su naturaleza lo permita, se articulará en introducción, material y métodos, resultados, discusión, agradecimientos y bibliografía. Los símbolos y signos químicos, físicos o matemáticos se escribirán siempre ateniéndose a las normas internacionales vigentes: SI (Sistema Internacional de Unidades), ISO (International Standard Organization) y UNE (Una Norma Española). Dichos símbolos, por tanto, se escribirán siempre sin punto y permanecerán invariables en plural. Las normas ISO y UNE servirán siempre de referencia en la elaboración de originales. En español las mayúsculas también se acentuarán siguiendo las normas correctas de ortografía. Para facilitar la lectura de números de muchas cifras, éstas pueden separarse en grupos apropiados, preferentemente de tres cifras, a contar desde el signo decimal en uno y otro sentidos; los grupos deben ir separados por un pequeño espacio, pero nunca por un punto u otro signo. El signo decimal es una coma en la parte baja de la línea. En los textos escritos en inglés puede utilizarse también un punto, siempre en la parte baja de la línea. Los números que indiquen años tampoco llevarán punto pero, al contrario que en el caso anterior, en su lugar no se dejará ningún espacio. Por ejemplo, la forma correcta de escribir año mil novecientos noventa y nueve es 1999. El nombre vulgar de las especies, cuando se citen por primera vez (en los títulos en español y en inglés, en el resumen, en el abstract y en el resto del texto), debe ir seguido de su nombre científico y éste, a ser posible, del nombre del autor que la describió y del año. En las veces posteriores en que aparezca el nombre de la especie no se volverán a citar ni autor ni año. Irán en cursiva los nombres de géneros y especies, así como los nombres de revistas y simposios y los títulos de los libros. No se aceptarán llamadas a pie de página. Resumen y abstract Ambos apartados no excederán de 125 palabras cada uno y darán a conocer los objetivos del trabajo así como los procedimientos seguidos y los resultados y datos más significativos obtenidos. Al principio del abstract se incluirá el título del trabajo en inglés y al final de cada apartado figurarán hasta un máximo de ocho palabras clave, no incluidas en el título y por orden de importancia, representativas del trabajo. Introducción La introducción no excederá de 500 palabras, indicará brevemente los objetivos del estudio y proporcionará suficiente cantidad de información como para aclarar el planteamiento del trabajo y la hipótesis que se pretende comprobar.

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Material y métodos Este apartado será lo más conciso posible pero deberá proporcionar toda la información necesaria para permitir a cualquier investigador especializado evaluar la metodología empleada. Resultados El apartado de resultados será lo más claro posible y se ceñirá a los resultados de la investigación esenciales para establecer los principales puntos del trabajo. Discusión Se incluirá una breve discusión sobre la validez de los resultados observados relacionándolos con los de otros trabajos publicados sobre el mismo asunto así como un informe sobre el significado del trabajo. Se desaconseja discusiones extensas sobre la literatura existente. Bibliografía La bibliografía se limitará a los trabajos citados en el texto y sólo figurarán en ella los trabajos publicados o “en prensa”. Esta última información deberá indicarse, en lugar del año, entre paréntesis. Las referencias en el texto a los autores se harán citando el apellido del autor (en minúsculas) y a continuación, entre paréntesis, el año de la publicación, o bien poniendo entre paréntesis el(los) autor(es) y el año, separados por una coma. Las observaciones no publicadas, las comunicaciones personales o los trabajos en preparación o en evaluación se citarán exclusivamente en el texto, sustituyendo el año de publicación por “observación no publicada”, “manuscrito” (“MS”) o “inédito”; “comunicación personal” (“com. pers.”); “en preparación” o por “en evaluación”, respectivamente. Cuando la publicación sea de más de tres autores sólo se citará el primero de ellos y a continuación la abreviatura et al. En la bibliografía, sin embargo, aparecerán los nombres de todos los autores, separados por comas. Las referencias bibliográficas figurarán por orden alfabético y, para un mismo autor, por orden cronológico. Los nombres de las revistas se escribirán preferentemente sin abreviar. Si se prefiere utilizar las abreviaturas, éstas se ajustarán siempre a lo indicado en el Periodical Title Abbreviations. 8.ª edición. Gale Research Inc. Detroit; Londres. 1992. Si esto no es posible se escribirán sin abreviar.

Ejemplos de citas bibliográficas: – De una revista: Guirg, M. D. 1974. A preliminary consideration of the taxonomic position of Palmaria palmata (Linnaeus) Stackhouse = Rhodymenia palmata (Linnaeus) Greville. J. Mar. Biol. Ass. (UK) 54: 509-529. – De un libro: Sinderman, C. J. 1970. Principal diseases of marine fish and shellfish. Academic Press. Londres; Nueva York: 870 pp. – De un artículo de un libro que forma parte de una serie: Fraga, F. y R. Prego. 1989. Condiciones hidrográficas previas a la purga de mar. En: Las purgas de mar como fenómeno natural. Las mareas rojas (Cuadernos da Área de Ciencias Mariñas). F. Fraga y F. G. Figueiras (eds.) 4: 21-44. Ediciós do Castro. Seminario de Estudios Galegos. Sada (A Coruña), España. – De un artículo de un simposio: Figueiras, F. G. y F. Fraga. 1990. Vertical nutrient transport during proliferation of Gymnodinium catenatum Graham in Ría de Vigo, Northwest Spain. En: Toxic Marine Phytoplankton. Proceedings of the Fourth International Conference on Toxic Marine Phytoplankton (26-30 de junio, 1989. Lund, Suecia). E. Graneli et al. (eds.): 144-148. Elsevier. Nueva York. Los autores serán responsables de que todas las citas bibliográficas estén completas y de la exactitud de las mismas. Tablas, figuras, láminas, mapas y fotografías o diapositivas Todas las ilustraciones (figuras, láminas, mapas y fotografías o diapositivas) deben ser originales y se prepararán en papel de alta calidad de reproducción fotográfica, o en archivos de disquete independientes del texto (junto con copias de impresora láser). Sólo se incluirán aquéllas que muestren datos esenciales; nunca deberá producirse duplicidad de datos por la presentación de los mismos en texto, tablas e ilustraciones. El grosor de las líneas y el tamaño de las letras y otros símbolos serán los adecuados para que sean visibles y claros cuando se efectúe la reducción (en su caso) y ajuste, a una o dos columnas, al formato de la página. La reducción no podrá ser en ningún caso superior al 60 % y los símbolos menores, una vez reducidos, no serán inferiores a 1,5 mm. En la elaboración de tablas y en los rótulos de figuras se utilizará el tipo de letra Times. Si no se dispone de este tipo se utilizará cualquier otro de letra romana (como Prestige o Dutch).

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Los rótulos irán siempre en minúscula y sin negrita. No se presentarán rótulos elaborados con transferibles. Se procurará que las ilustraciones no sean ni apaisadas ni en color. Las figuras se delinearán cerradas, es decir, con los correspondientes ejes de abscisas y ordenadas unidos entre sí por sus paralelas. El nombre de cada variable se escribirá siempre a lo largo de su eje, coincidiendo el final con el extremo del mismo. Las tablas, en cambio, no llevarán nunca líneas verticales. La posición definitiva de tablas e ilustraciones en la publicación se indicará en los márgenes del original. Las tablas se numerarán con números romanos: tabla I., etc.; las ilustraciones (figuras, láminas, mapas y fotografías o diapositivas) se numerarán con números arábigos y todas se denominarán figuras: figura 1., etc. Todas las leyendas irán en hoja aparte. Envío de originales Los originales enviados a BOLETÍN no habrán sido publicados, ni aceptados, ni presentados para su publicación, ni tampoco serán enviados simultáneamente a ningún otro medio de edición. El original, en formato electrónico y en papel, se remitirá al coordinador editorial a través del Sr. Subdirector General de Investigación del IEO. Avda. de Brasil, 31. 28020 Madrid, España. Para seguridad se aconseja el correo certificado. Se podrá utilizar también el correo electrónico: publicaciones@md.ieo.es. Cuando se trate de la publicación de un simposio o un congreso, los manuscritos definitivos de las comunicaciones se enviarán al coordinador del mismo. El receptor del original acusará recibo del mismo. Los autores retendrán en su poder una copia del original enviado. Para la elaboración del original se utilizarán los programas Microsoft Word o WordPerfect. Para la elaboración de ilustraciones se utilizará preferentemente Excel, Harvard Graphics, Surfer, Map View, Corel Draw o Power Point. Las ilustraciones se enviarán en el programa con el que hayan sido realizadas. Como soporte se podrán utilizar disquetes de 3,5 pulgadas, o discos compactos (CD), compatibles con los sistemas MS-DOS y Windows Microsoft. El trabajo de edición se facilitará notablemente si se presenta el texto seguido, sin sangrías de párrafo y sin tabuladores en el texto.

Los trabajos que no se adapten a las normas de esta publicación serán devueltos al primer autor para su corrección antes de ser evaluados. Los originales serán revisados críticamente por al menos dos evaluadores. Los trabajos ya evaluados se remitirán al primer autor, solicitando que se tomen en consideración los comentarios y críticas de los evaluadores. Cuando esto se haya llevado a cabo, los autores reenviarán el original y una copia al correspondiente coordinador. El editor decidirá entonces su aceptación o rechazo. El plazo de envío del original corregido, tomadas en consideración las evaluaciones, no será superior a dos semanas; pasado dicho plazo el editor podrá cambiar la fecha de recepción del original, figurando en la publicación la fecha de recepción del original corregido. Los autores dispondrán de un plazo máximo de dos semanas para revisar las correcciones del editor; pasado este plazo el editor se reserva el derecho de publicar el trabajo sin revisar por los autores, declinando cualquier responsabilidad por los errores que pudieran aparecer en la publicación. Fecha límite de recepción de originales Los originales recibidos con posterioridad a la primera semana del mes de septiembre no podrán ser contemplados en el programa editorial del siguiente año y, por tanto, no se asegura que sean publicados durante el mismo. Pruebas La corrección de pruebas por parte de los autores se limitará a los errores de imprenta. Las pruebas de imprenta deberán ser devueltas corregidas en un plazo de dos semanas; pasado este plazo el editor se reserva el derecho de publicar el trabajo sin corregir por los autores o anular su publicación. Ejemplares publicados Cuando la publicación conste de un solo artículo se enviarán gratuitamente al autor 10 ejemplares de su trabajo (si el artículo está firmado por varios autores los 10 ejemplares se enviarán al primer autor). Si la publicación consta de varios artículos el primer autor de cada uno recibirá gratuitamente su artículo en formato pdf. El editor podrá decidir enviar todos los artículos de la obra al coordinador del trabajo, que será quien se encargue de remitirlos a los autores.

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BOLETÍN. INSTITUTO ESPAÑOL DE OCEANOGRAFÍA
An scientific publication dedicated to the marine sciences and oceanography in their different branches: biology, ecology, geology, physics, chemistry, fishing, aquaculture and pollution. Research papers, thematic reviews, notes, monographs, symposia and congresses may be published in BOLETÍN. GUIDE FOR AUTHORS Languages Papers are accepted in Spanish or English. Preparation of Originals Text should be typed, double-spaced throughout, on DIN A-4 paper. In general, individual papers sent to BOLETÍN should have a maximum length of 15 printed pages (one printed page equals approximately two typed pages with 39 lines each, 62 characters/line). Present the text as follows: Title of the paper, names of authors and institution, mailing address (street, city, country), and the first author’s e-mail address and telephone and fax numbers. Include an abbreviated version of the title. An abstract, in Spanish and English versions, should follow the title heading, along with a Spanish (or English) translation of the title. Whenever possible, divide the paper into: Introduction, Material and Methods, Results, Discussion, Acknowledgements and References. Chemical, physical or mathematical signs and symbols should follow standard international usage: SI (Système International d’Unités), ISO (International Standard Organization) and UNE (Una Norma Española). Therefore, these symbols should always be written without periods, and will remain unmodified when plural. Always refer to the ISO and UNE norms when preparing texts for publication. In Spanish, accent capital letters, following correct spelling norms. To simplify the reading of long numbers, they may be separated into appropriate groups, preferably with three places, counting from the decimal point in one or the other direction; these groups should be separated by a space, but never by a comma or other sign. The decimal sign is a comma on the line. Texts in English may also use a point, on the line. Numbers indicating years should follow this format: 1999 (for nineteen ninety-nine). The first citation of the vernacular name of a species (in the Spanish and English titles, the abstract, the resumen, and the body of the text) should be followed by its scientific name, and then, whenever possible, by the name of the author who described it, and the year. Omit the author and the year in subsequent citations. Italicize genus and species names, as well as the titles of journals, symposia, and books. Footnotes will not be accepted. Abstract and Resumen Include English and Spanish versions of the abstract (resumen, in Spanish), no more than 125 words each, setting out the paper’s objectives, as well as the procedures followed and the most relevant findings and data obtained. Include the title of the paper in Spanish at the beginning of the Spanish abstract. At the end of this section, list a maximum of eight key words, not included in the title and in order of importance, indicative of the paper’s contents. Introduction The introduction should not exceed 500 words, briefly indicating the study’s objectives and providing sufficient information to clarify the paper’s basic focus and the hypothesis being tested. Materials and Methods Make this section as concise as possible, while giving all the information necessary to enable any specialist to evaluate the methodology used.

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Results This section should be as clear as possible, and limited to findings essential for establishing the paper’s main points. Discussion Include a brief discussion regarding the validity of the results observed in relation to those of other published papers on the same topic, as well as a report on the paper’s significance. Extensive discussion of the literature is discouraged. References Limit bibliographies to those works cited in the text which have been published or are “in press”. If a paper is in press, this phrase should replace the year at the end of the bibliographic reference, in parentheses. For references in the text, cite the author’s surname (capitalizing the first letter only), followed by the year of publication in parentheses; when the entire reference is enclosed in parentheses, the surname(s) of the author(s) should be followed by a comma and the year. Cite unpublished observations, personal communiqués or works in preparation or under evaluation in the text only; rather than the year of publication, they should be followed by: “unpublished observation”, “manuscript” (“MS”) or “unpublished”, “personal communiqué” (“pers. comm.”), “in preparation” or “under evaluation” or “submitted”. When the publication has more than three authors, cite only the first, followed by et al. In the bibliography, however, all authors’ names should appear, separated by commas. Alphabetize bibliographic references; references by the same author should be put in chronological order. The names of journals should, preferably, not be abbreviated. Journal abbreviations should follow those indicated in Periodical Title Abbreviations. Eighth Edition. Gale Research Inc. Detroit; London. 1992. If this is not possible, they should be written without abbreviation. Examples of bibliographic references: – Of a journal: Guirg, M. D. 1974. A preliminary consideration of the taxonomic position of Palmaria palmata (Linnaeus) Stackhouse = Rhodymenia palmata (Linnaeus) Greville. J. Mar. Biol. Ass. (UK) 54: 509-529. – Of a book: Sinderman, C. J. 1970. Principal diseases of marine fish and shellfish. Academic Press. London; New York: 870 pp.

– Of an article from a book which forms part of a series: Fraga, F. and R. Prego. 1989. Condiciones hidrográficas previas a la purga de mar. In: Las purgas de mar como fenómeno natural. Las mareas rojas (Cuadernos da Área de Ciencias Mariñas). F. Fraga and F. G. Figueiras (eds.) 4: 21-44. Ediciós do Castro. Seminario de Estudos Galegos. Sada (A Coruña), Spain. – Of an article from a symposium: Figueiras, F. G. and F. Fraga. 1990. Vertical nutrient transport during proliferation of Gymnodinium catenatum (Graham) in Ría de Vigo, Northwest Spain. In: Toxic Marine Phytoplankton Proceedings of the Fourth International Conference on Toxic Marine Phytoplankton (June 26-30, 1989. Lund, Sweden). E. Graneli et al. (eds.): 144-148. Elsevier. New York. Authors will be responsible for the completeness and accuracy of their bibliographic references. Tables, figures, plates, maps and photographs or slides All illustrations (figures, plates, maps and photographs or slides) should be originals, presented apart from the type-written text. Line illustrations may be submitted as high-quality photographic prints or as computer software files (along with laser-printed copies). Include them only if they show special data; do not present data twice in the text, tables or illustrations. The thickness of the lines and the size of letters and other symbols should enable them to be clearly visible when reduced (if necessary) for publication, to the size or one or two columns on the page. Originals will not be reduced more than 60 %, and reduced symbols will not be smaller than 1.5 mm. In preparing tables and figure captions, use the Times font, or, if that is not possible, some other Roman font (such as Prestige or Dutch). Figure captions should use lowercase letters, without boldface type. Do not present originals made with transfers. Illustrations should not be in colour or formatted lengthways. Figures should be drawn with a boxed-in format, closing the abscissas and ordinates with parallel lines. The names of variables should always be placed along the axes, flush with the ends. Tables, however, should never have vertical lines. Indicate the definitive published position of tables and illustrations in the margins of the original.

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Tables should bear roman numerals: table I., etc. Use arabic numerals for illustrations (figures, plates, maps and photographs or slides), and title all of them figures: figure 1., etc. List all captions on a separate page.

Submissions Originals sent to BOLETÍN must be unpublished. Simultaneous submissions or papers which have been accepted by or presented to another publication shall not be accepted. A printed copy and a computer file of the work should be sent to the Editor, care of the Subdirector General de Investigación (Deputy Director of Research) of the IEO, Avda. de Brasil 31, 28020 Madrid, Spain. We recommend that originals be sent by certified mail. The e-mail (publicaciones@md.ieo.es) could be used. In case of the publication of a symposium or congress, the final versions of conferences should be sent to the event’s co-ordinator. Reception of these originals will be confirmed. Authors should save their own back-up copy of the manuscript. Computer files should be sent in Microsoft Word or WordPerfect format. Illustrations should, preferably, be programmed in Excel, Harvard Graphics, Surfer, Map View, Corel Draw, or Power Point. Illustrations should be submitted in the same program that was used to create them. Software copies should be submitted on 3.5 inch discs, or compact discs (CD), compatible with MSDOS or Windows Microsoft operative system. Please present the text without paragraph indentations or any tabulations. Papers not meeting the norms of this publication will be returned to their authors for correction before they are reviewed.

Papers will be critically reviewed by at least two referees. After evaluation, papers will be returned to the first author so that they may be revised in keeping with the referees’ comments and criticism. Authors should return the revised original and one copy to the corresponding coordinator. The Editor will then accept or reject the paper. Return the corrected original within two weeks; if not, the Editor will be able to change the reception date of the original to be included in the published version, substituting the reception date of the corrected original. If authors fail to meet the aforesaid two-week deadline, the Editor reserves the right to publish the paper without the authors’ revisions, declining any responsibility for errors which could appear in the published version. Deadline for reception of originals Submissions received after the first week of September cannot be included in the following year’s editorial programming. Therefore, their publication during that year cannot be guaranteed. Proofs Authors must limit their proof corrections to printing errors. Corrected proofs should be returned within two weeks; after this period, the Editor reserves the right to publish the paper uncorrected by the authors or cancel its publication. Offprints In the case of issues comprising a single paper, 10 courtesy copies will be sent to the author (if the issue is by several authors, courtesy copies will be sent to the first author). If the issue has several papers, a pdf courtesy copy will be sent to the first author of each paper. The Editor may decide to send all of these pdf files to the co-ordinator, who would then be responsible for distributing them to the authors.

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