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Classical Period

William Gilbert 1544-1603

English - hypothesized that the Earth is a giant magnet

Italian - performed fundamental observations, experiments, and mathematical analyses in astronomy and physics;

discovered mountains and craters on the moon, the phases of Venus, and the four largest satellites of Jupiter: Io, Europa,

Callisto, and Ganymede

Dutch - discovered law of refraction (Snell's law)

French - discovered that pressure applied to an enclosed fluid is transmitted undiminished to every part of the fluid and to

the walls of its container (Pascal's principle)

Dutch - proposed a simple geometrical wave theory of light, now known as ``Huygen's principle''; pioneered use of the

pendulum in clocks

English - discovered Hooke's law of elasticity

English - developed theories of gravitation and mechanics, and invented differential calculus

Swiss - developed the fundamental relationship of fluid flow now known as Bernoulli's principle

American - the first American physicist; characterized two kinds of electric charge, which he named ``positive'' and

``negative''

Swiss - made fundamental contributions to fluid dynamics, lunar orbit theory (tides), and mechanics; also contributed

prolifically to all areas of classical mathematics

British - discovered and studied hydrogen; first to measure Newton's gravitational constant; calculated mass and mean

density of Earth

French - experiments on elasticity, electricity, and magnetism; established experimentally nature of the force between two

charges

French - developed new methods of analytical mechanics

Scottish - invented the modern condensing steam engine and a centrifugal governor

Italian - pioneer in study of electricity; invented the first electric battery

French - established the differential equation governing heat diffusion and solved it by devising an infinite series of sines

and cosines capable of approximating a wide variety of functions

British - studied light and color; known for his double-slit experiment that demonstrated the wave nature of light

French - studied polarization of light; co-discovered that intensity of magnetic field set up by a current flowing through a

wire varies inversely with the distance from the wire

French - father of electrodynamics

Italian - developed hypothesis that all gases at same volume, pressure, and temperature contain same number of atoms

German - formulated separate electrostatic and electrodynamical laws, including ``Gauss' law''; contributed to

development of number theory, differential geometry, potential theory, theory of terrestrial magnetism, and methods of

calculating planetary orbits

Danish discovered that a current in a wire can produce magnetic effects

English deduced ``Brewster's law'' giving the angle of incidence that produces reflected light which is completely

polarized; invented the kaleidoscope and the stereoscope, and improved the spectroscope

French studied transverse nature of light waves

German discovered that current flow is proportional to potential difference and inversely proportional to resistance

(Ohm's law)

English discovered electromagnetic induction and devised first electrical transformer

French co-discovered that intensity of magnetic field set up by a current flowing through a wire varies inversely with the

distance from the wire

French founded the science of thermodynamics

American performed extensive fundamental studies of electromagnetic phenomena; devised first practical electric

motor

Austrian experimented with sound waves; derived an expression for the apparent change in wavelength of a wave

due to relative motion between the source and observer

German developed sensitive magnetometers; worked in electrodynamics and the electrical structure of matter

Sir William Hamilton 1805-1865

Irish developed the principle of least action and the Hamiltonian form of classical mechanics

British discovered mechanical equivalent of heat

French made the first terrestrial measurement of the speed of light; invented one of the first interferometers; took the first

pictures of the Sun on daguerreotypes; argued that the Doppler effect with respect to sound should also apply to any wave

motion, particularly that of light

French accurately measured speed of light; invented the gyroscope; demonstrated the Earth's rotation

British described the motion of viscous fluids by independently discovering the Navier-Stokes equations of fluid

mechanics (or hydrodynamics); developed Stokes theorem by which certain surface integrals may be reduced to line

integrals; discovered fluorescence

German developed first law of thermodynamics, a statement of conservation of energy

German developed second law of thermodynamics, a statement that the entropy of the Universe always increases

Lord Kelvin

British proposed absolute temperature scale, of essence to development of thermodynamics

German developed three laws of spectral analysis and three rules of electric circuit analysis; also contributed to

optics

Swiss developed empirical formula to describe hydrogen spectrum

British developed a carbon-filament incandescent light; patented the carbon process for printing photographs in

permanent pigment

Scottish propounded the theory of electromagnetism; developed the kinetic theory of gases

Austrian studied blackbody radiation

Austrian studied conditions that occur when an object moves through a fluid at high speed (the ``Mach number''

gives the ratio of the speed of the object to the speed of sound in the fluid); proposed ``Mach's principle,'' which states that

the inertia of an object is due to the interaction between the object and the rest of the universe

American developed chemical thermodynamics; introduced concepts of free energy and chemical potential

British liquified nitrogen and invented the Dewar flask, which is critical for low-temperature work

Osborne Reynolds 1842-1912

British contributed to the fields of hydraulics and hydrodynamics; developed mathematical framework for turbulence and

introduced the ``Reynolds number,'' which provides a criterion for dynamic similarity and correct modeling in many fluid-

flow experiments

Austrian developed statistical mechanics and applied it to kinetic theory of gases

Hungarian demonstrated equivalence of gravitational and inertial mass

English contributed to the development of electromagnetism; introduced operational calculus and invented the

modern notation for vector calculus; predicted existence of the Heaviside layer (a layer of the Earth's ionosphere)

Irish hypothesized foreshortening of moving bodies (Lorentz-FitzGerald contraction) to explain the result of the

Michelson-Morley experiment

British demonstrated that the energy flow of electromagnetic waves could be calculated by an equation (now called

Poynting's vector)

French founded qualitative dynamics (the mathematical theory of dynamical systems); created topology; contributed to

solution of the three-body problem; first described many properties of deterministic chaos; contributed to the development

of special relativity

Swedish analyzed the spectra of many elements; discovered many line series were described by a formula that

depended on a universal constant (the Rydberg constant)

American discovered the ``Hall effect,'' which occurs when charge carriers moving through a material are deflected

because of an applied magnetic field - the deflection results in a potential difference across the side of the material that is

transverse to both the magnetic field and the current direction

German worked on electromagnetic phenomena; discovered radio waves and the photoelectric effect

Serbian-born American created alternating current

Nobel Laureates

Dutch worked on equations of state for gases and liquids

Lord Rayleigh

British discovered argon; explained how light scattering is responsible for red color of sunset and blue color of sky

German discovered and studied x rays

French discovered natural radioactivity

Albert A. Michelson 1852-1931

German-born American devised an interferometer and used it to try to measure Earth's absolute motion; precisely

measured speed of light

Dutch introduced Lorentz transformation equations of special relativity; advanced ideas of relativistic length contraction

and relativistic mass increase; contributed to theory of electromagnetism

Dutch liquified helium; discovered superconductivity

British demonstrated existence of the electron

German formulated the quantum theory; explained wavelength distribution of blackbody radiation

French studied radioactivity with wife, Marie Curie; discovered piezoelectricity

British worked on x-ray spectrometry

German studied cathode rays and the photoelectric effect

German discovered laws governing radiation of heat

Dutch discovered splitting of spectral lines in a strong magnetic field

Polish-born French discovered radioactivity of thorium; co-discovered radium and polonium

American measured the charge of an electron; introduced term ``cosmic rays'' for the radiation coming from outer

space; studied the photoelectric effect

British invented the cloud chamber

French experimentally proved that cathode rays were streams of negatively charged particles; experimentally confirmed

the correctness of Einstein's theory of Brownian motion, and through his measurements obtained a new determination of

Avogadro's number

New Zealander theorized existence of the atomic nucleus based on results of the alpha-scattering experiment performed

by Hans Geiger and Ernest Marsden; developed theory of Rutherford scattering (scattering of spinless, pointlike particles

from a Coulomb potential)

Italian invented the first practical system of wireless telegraphy

German discovered splitting of spectral lines in a strong electric field

British discovered that every chemical element, when irradiated by x rays, can emit an x-ray spectrum of two line-groups,

which he named the K-series and L-series, that are of fundamental importance to understanding atomic structure

German-born American explained Brownian motion and photoelectric effect; contributed to theory of atomic

spectra; formulated theories of special and general relativity

German discovered the fission of heavy nuclei

German discovered diffraction of x rays by crystals

British discovered the basic law of thermionic emission, now called the Richardson (or Richardson-Dushman) equation,

which describes the emission of electrons from a heated conductor

American co-discovered electron diffraction

German-born British contributed to creation of quantum mechanics; pioneer in the theory of crystals

American invented an apparatus to produce extremely high pressures; made many discoveries in high-pressure

Physics

German experimentally confirmed that atomic energy states are quantized

Austrian discovered cosmic radiation

Dutch-born German used methods of statistical mechanics to calculate equilibrium properties of solids; contributed to

knowledge of molecular structure

Danish contributed to quantum theory and to theory of nuclear reactions and nuclear fission

Swedish made important experimental contributions to the field of x-ray spectroscopy

German experimentally confirmed that atomic energy states are quantized

Austrian contributed to creation of quantum mechanics; formulated the Schrödinger wave equation

Indian studied light scattering and discovered the Raman effect

German-born American contributed to development of the molecular beam method; discovered the magnetic

moment of the proton

Dutch invented the phase-contrast microscope, a type of microscope widely used for examining specimens such as

biological cells and tissues

British worked on crystal structure and x rays

German devised a coincidence counter for studying cosmic rays; demonstrated validity of energy-momentum

conservation at the atomic scale

British discovered the neutron

English discovered the layer of the Earth's atmosphere, called the Appleton layer, which is the part of the

ionosphere having the highest concentration of free electrons and is the most useful for radio transmission

French predicted wave properties of the electron

American discovered the increase in wavelength of x rays when scattered by an electron

British co-discovered electron diffraction

American discovered deuterium

Soviet heralded a new era of low-temperature physics by inventing a device for producing liquid helium without

previous cooling with liquid hydrogen; demonstrated that Helium II is a quantum superfluid

Soviet co-developed the theoretical interpretation of the radiation of electrons moving through matter faster than the

speed of light (the ``Cerenkov effect''), and developed the theory of showers in cosmic rays

American introduced the theoretical concept of the molecular orbital, which led to a new understanding of the

chemical bond and the electronic structure of molecules

British developed an automatic Wilson cloud chamber; discovered electron-positron pair production in cosmic rays

British co-invented the first particle accelerator

French co-discovered artificial radioactivity

Austrian-born American developed the resonance technique for measuring the magnetic properties of atomic

nuclei

French co-discovered artificial radioactivity

Hungarian invented and developed the holographic method whereby it is possible to record and display a three-

dimensional display of an object

Austrian-born American discovered the exclusion principle; suggested the existence of the neutrino

Italian-born American performed experiments leading to first self-sustaining nuclear chain reaction; developed a theory

of beta decay that introduced the weak interaction; derived the statistical properties of gases that obey the Pauli exclusion

principle

German contributed to creation of quantum mechanics; introduced the ``uncertainty principle'' and the concept of

exchange forces

American invented the cyclotron

British helped found quantum electrodynamics; predicted the existence of antimatter by combining quantum mechanics

with special relativity

French discovered and developed optical methods for studying the Hertzian resonances that are produced when atoms

interact with radio waves or microwaves

Hungarian-born American contributed to theoretical atomic and nuclear physics; introduced concept of the nuclear

cross section

British developed the photographic emulsion method of studying nuclear processes; discovered the charged pion

Irish co-invented the first particle accelerator

Soviet discovered the ``Cerenkov effect'' whereby light is emitted by a particle passing through a medium at a speed

greater than that of light in the medium

American discovered the positron and the muon

Swiss-born American contributed to development of the NMR technique; measured the magnetic moment of the

neutron; contributed to the theory of metals

British contributed to theoretical condensed-matter physics by applying quantum theory to complex phenomena in solids;

calculated cross section for relativistic Coulomb scattering

Italian-born American co-discovered the antiproton; discovered technetium

German-born American contributed to theoretical nuclear physics, especially concerning the mechanism for

energy production in stars

German-born American advanced shell model of nuclear structure

German designed the first electron microscope

Japanese co-developed quantum electrodynamics

German advanced shell model of nuclear structure

American made discoveries concerning the transuranium elements

Japanese predicted existence of the pion

American co-discovered the transistor effect; developed theory of superconductivity

Soviet co-developed the theoretical interpretation of the radiation of electrons moving through matter faster than the

speed of light (the ``Cerenkov effect''), and carried out experimental investigations of pair creation by gamma rays

Soviet contributed to condensed matter theory on phenomena of superfluidity and superconductivity

Indian-born American made important theoretical contributions concerning the structure and evolution of stars,

especially white dwarfs

American co-discovered the transistor effect

American constructed huge bubble chambers and discovered many short-lived hadrons; advanced the impact theory

for the extinction of the dinosaurs

American studied nuclear reactions of astrophysical significance; developed, with others, a theory of the formation

of chemical elements in the universe

American experimentally established that the electron has an anomalous magnetic moment and made a precision

determination of its magnitude

Edward Mills Purcell 1912-1997

American developed method of nuclear resonance absorption that permitted the absolute determination of nuclear

magnetic moments; co-discovered a line in the galactic radiospectrum caused by atomic hydrogen

American co-discovered plutonium and all further transuranium elements through element 102

American made discoveries concerning fine structure of hydrogen

American measured charge distributions in atomic nuclei with high-energy electron scattering; measured the charge

and magnetic-moment distributions in the proton and neutron

American developed the separated oscillatory fields method, which is the basis of the cesium atomic clock (our

present time standard); co-invented the hydrogen maser

American developed a neutron scattering technique in which a neutron diffraction pattern is produced that may be

used to determine the atomic structure of a material

American created first maser using ammonia to produce coherent microwave radiation

English co-proposed the double-helix structure of DNA

British investigated the structure of DNA

Canadian developed the technique of neutron spectroscopy for studies of condensed matter

American co-developed quantum electrodynamics; created a new formalism for practical calculations by

introducing a graphical method called Feynman diagrams

American established, together with Clyde L. Cowan, Jr., the existence of the electron antineutrino by detecting

them using a reactor experiment

American co-developed quantum electrodynamics

Swedish contributed to the development of high-resolution electron spectroscopy

Dutch-born American contributed to the development of laser spectroscopy

American co-discovered the antiproton

Russian father of the Soviet hydrogen bomb; awarded the Nobel Peace Prize for his struggle for human rights, for

disarmament, and for cooperation between all nations

American contributed to the development of laser spectroscopy

German-born American made many important discoveries in particle physics; co-discovered the neutral pion via

photoproduction; co-discovered the muon neutrino

Soviet worked in quantum electronics; independently worked out theoretical basis of the maser

Danish contributed to theoretical understanding of collective motion in nuclei

American contributed to the discovery of the muon neutrino and the bottom quark

Chinese-born American co-proposed parity violation in weak interactions

American co-discovered that decays of neutral kaons sometime violate CP conservation

French invented the multiwire proportional chamber

American made important contributions to the theoretical understanding of quantum optics and high-energy

collisions

Dutch contributed to experiments that led to the discovery of the carriers (W± and Z°) of the weak interaction

American invented the bubble chamber

American co-discovered, through investigations of deep-inelastic electron scattering, clear signs that there exists an

inner structure (quarks and gluons) in the protons and neutrons of the atomic nucleus

American contributed to theoretical understanding of collective motion in nuclei

Chinese-born American co-proposed parity violation in weak interactions

Pakistani co-developed gauge field theory of the electroweak interaction; suggested that the proton might be

unstable

Swiss co-discovered the first ceramic superconductors

American discovered the tau lepton

American advanced an explanation of strange particles; predicted the existence of the Omega- particle; postulated

existence of quarks; founded the study of QCD

German experimented with resonance absorption of gamma radiation; discovered ``Mössbauer effect,'' the

recoilless emission of gamma rays by nuclei

Canadian co-discovered, through investigations of deep-inelastic electron scattering, clear signs that there exists an

inner structure (quarks and gluons) in the protons and neutrons of the atomic nucleus

American contributed to condensed matter theory on phenomena of superconductivity

American co-discovered, through investigations of deep-inelastic electron scattering, clear signs that there exists an

inner structure (quarks and gluons) in the protons and neutrons of the atomic nucleus

American co-discovered that decays of neutral kaons sometime violate CP conservation

American co-discovered that the isotope Helium-3 becomes a quantum superfluid near absolute zero

American carried out an experiment leading to the discovery of charmonium

American contributed to condensed matter theory on phenomena of superconductivity

French developed theories in condensed matter physics applicable to liquid crystals and polymers

American co-developed gauge field theory of the electroweak interaction

American proposed that it should be possible to produce and use a beam of neutrinos; co-discovered the muon

neutrino

French developed methods, with his colleagues, of using laser light to cool helium atoms to a temperature of about 0.18

µK and capturing the chilled atoms in a trap

German-born American co-discovered the cosmic microwave background radiation

Swiss co-designed the scanning tunneling microscope (STM), a type of microscope in which a fine conducting probe is

held close the surface of a sample

American co-developed gauge field theory of the electroweak interaction

Carlo Rubbia 1934-

Italian contributed to experiments that led to the discovery of the carriers (W± and Z°) of the weak interaction

American co-discovered the cosmic microwave background radiation

American carried out an experiment leading to the discovery of charmonium

American invented renormalization group methods to develop a theory for critical phenomena in connection with

phase transitions; contributed to solving QCD using lattice gauge theory

American co-discovered that the isotope Helium-3 becomes a quantum superfluid near absolute zero

British contributed to theoretical predictions of the properties of a supercurrent through a tunnel barrier

American co-discovered ``asymptotic freedom'' in non-Abelian gauge theories; contributed to the development of

string theory

German discovered the quantized Hall effect

American co-discovered that the isotope Helium-3 becomes a quantum superfluid near absolute zero

Dutch contributed to theoretical understanding of gauge theories in elementary particle physics, quantum gravity and

black holes, and fundamental aspects of quantum physics

German co-designed the scanning tunneling microscope (STM), a type of microscope in which a fine conducting

probe is held close the surface of a sample

American developed the Doppler cooling method of using laser light (optical molasses) to cool gases and capturing

the chilled atoms in a magneto-optical trap (MOT)

American developed, with his colleagues, a device called a Zeeman slower, with which he could slow down and

capture atoms in a purely magnetic trap

American co-discovered ``asymptotic freedom'' in non-Abelian gauge theories; co-predicted the existence of

charmonium - the bound state of a charm quark and its antiparticle

German co-discovered the first ceramic superconductors

American developed a theory of quantum fluids that explained the fractional quantum Hall effect

Frank Wilczek 1951-

American co-discovered ``asymptotic freedom'' in non-Abelian gauge theories; contributed to the study of ``anyons''

(particle-like excitations in two-dimensional systems that obey ``fractional statistics'')

Others

Wallace Clement Sabine 1868-1919

American founded the science of architectural acoustics

German generalized the circular orbits of the atomic Bohr model to elliptical orbits; introduced the magnetic

quantum number; used statistical mechanics to explain the electronic properties of metals

Austrian-born Swedish co-discovered the element protactinium and studied the effects of neutron bombardment on

uranium; introduced term ``fission'' for splitting the atomic nucleus

Austrian applied quantum mechanics to rotating bodies; helped develop the modern statistical theory of

nonequilibrium thermodynamics

Hungarian-born American provided major contributions to our understanding of fluid mechanics, turbulence theory,

and supersonic flight

German co-discovered the ``Meissner effect'', whereby a superconductor expells a magnetic field

German helped measure charge-to-mass ratio for alpha particles; invented Geiger counter for detecting ionizing

particles

German attempted to incorporate electromagnetism into general relativity; evolved the concept of continuous

groups using matrix representations and applied group theory to quantum mechanics

Canadian-born American discovered the isotope uranium-235

British developed the modern form of the period table of elements based on their atomic numbers

Scottish developed radar

Indian worked out statistical method of handling bosons (a group of particles named in his honor)

Swedish introduced the physical notion of extra dimensions that helped develop the Kaluza-Klein theory; co-

developed the Klein-Gordon equation describing the relativistic behavior of spinless particles; co-developed the Klein-

Nishina formula describing relativistic electron-photon scattering

Russian made fundamental contributions to quantum theory; invented the Hartree-Fock approximation method

and the notion of Fock space

Leo Szilard 1898-1964

Hungarian-born American first suggested possibility of a nuclear chain reaction

French discovered the Auger effect whereby an electron is ejected from an atom without the emission of an x-ray or

gamma-ray photon as the result of the de-excitation of an excited electron within the atom; discovered cosmic-ray air

showers

German-born American developed the Ising model of ferromagnetism

German-born American co-developed the phenomenological theory of superconductivity; co-developed the first

quantum-mechanical treatment of the hydrogen molecule; determined that the electromagnetic gauge is the phase of the

Schrödinger wave function

American established the Richter scale for the measurement of earthquake intensity

Dutch co-discovered that the electron has an intrinsic spin

American invented the Van de Graaf electrostatic generator

Dutch co-discovered that the electron has an intrinsic spin

Soviet headed the Soviet atomic and hydrogen bomb programs

Hungarian-born American formulated a fully quantum mechanical generalization of statistical mechanics

Russian-born American first suggested hydrogen fusion as source of solar energy; introduced the term ``Big Bang''

American headed Manhattan Project to develop the nuclear fission bomb

German-born British many contributions in theoretical physics, including an improved calculation of the critical mass

needed to make a fission bomb

Hungarian-born American helped develop atomic and hydrogen bombs

Austrian-born American made theoretical contributions to quantum electrodynamics, nuclear structure, and

elementary particle physics

Indian initiated nuclear research programs in India; carried out experiments in cosmic rays; calculated cross section for

elastic electron-positron scattering

Russian theoretical physicist and mathematician who contributed to the microscopic theory of superfluidity; also

contributed to theory of elementary particles, including the S-matrix and dispersion relations, and to nonlinear mechanics

and the general theory of dynamical systems

Austrian-born American first measured (with James Chadwick) an accurate mass for the neutron; participated in

experiments proving that beta rays are identical to atomic electrons; developed (with Edward Teller) the concept of

coherent oscillations of protons and neutrons in nuclei leading to the giant dipole resonance; performed an experiment

showing that neutrinos are created with negative helicity, which provided conclusive evidence for the V-A theory of weak

interactions; participated in experiments that obtained an upper limit on the rate of proton decay and that provided

evidence for neutrino oscillations

Chien-Shiung Wu 1912-1997

Chinese-born American experimentally proved that parity is not conserved in nuclear beta decay

Russian-born American co-developed the theory of spin waves; first described the process that became known as the

``Primakoff effect'' (the coherent photoproduction of neutral mesons in the electric field of an atomic nucleus); contributed

to understanding of various manifestations of the weak interaction, including muon capture, double-beta decay, and the

interaction of neutrinos with nuclei

American driving force behind creation of Fermilab and Cornell University's Laboratory of Nuclear Studies; a

leader in the formation of the Federation of Atomic Scientists; did extensive measurements of kaon and pion

photoproduction in which he made the first observation of a new state of the nucleon, N(1440)

Russian contributed to theory of superconductivity and theory of high-energy processes in astrophysics; co-

discovered transition radiation, emitted when charged particles traverse interface between two different media

American contributed to theoretical particle physics; independently proposed (with George Sudarshan) the V-A

theory of weak interactions; developed explanation of how shock waves behave under conditions of extremely high

temperatures

German-born American co-discovered the neutral pion via photoproduction; studied gamma rays from pi-

captured in hydrogen and first measured the ``Panofsky ratio''

Canadian-born American used the Mössbauer effect to measure (with Glen A. Rebka, Jr.) the gravitational redshift

predicted by Einstein's theory of general relativity

American participated in experiments to test the fundamental QED interaction using the muonium atom

Japanese-born American contributed to elementary particle theory; recognized the role played by spontaneous

symmetry-breaking in analogy with superconductivity theory; formulated the gauge theorgy of color, quantum

chromodynamics

British-born American made many important contribututions to quantum field theory, including the demonstration that

the Feynman rules are direct and rigorous consequences of quantum field theory; advocated exploration of the solar

system by humans; speculated on the possibility of extraterrestrial civilizations

Calvin F. Quate 1923-

American made pioneering contributions to nanoscale measurement science through the development and

application of scanning probe microscropes

American contributed to theory of weak interactions, especially concerning neutrino masses, the origin of CP

violation, lepton number violation, the solar neutrino problem, and Higgs boson properties

American co-invented the radio-frequency superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID), a practical

magnetometer/amplifier with extreme sensitivity limited only by the uncertainty principle

Swiss-born American pioneered the use of nuclear-physics techniques for exploring fundamental questions concerning

the weak interactions and the nature of neutrinos

German-born American contributed to the theoretical understanding of how symmetries place restrictions on

theories and models; the connection of quarks and gluons to nucleon-meson degrees of freedom; the changes that occur

when hadrons are placed in a nuclear medium

Canadian served as Science Advisor to the President of the United States; carried out pioneering studies of nuclear

structure and dynamics; considered the father of modern heavy-ion science

American made important theoretical contributions to particle physics and quantum electrodynamics; specialist in

arms control and national security

British-born American developed the first practical scanning electron microscope

Irish proved the inherent nonlocality of quantum mechanics

South African contributed to the modern understanding of relativistic particle scattering through his representation of the

analytic properties of scattering amplitudes in the form of double dispersion relations (Mandelstam representation);

applied path-integral quantization methods to string theory

British proposed with others the Higgs mechanism by which particles are endowed with mass by interacting with the

Higgs field, which is carried by Higgs bosons

American contributed to the advance of solid-state physics, especially involving carbon-based materials, including

fullerenes and nanotubes (a.k.a., buckyballs and buckytubes)

Swiss-born American contributed to condensed matter theory, especially involving statistical mechanics: phase

transitions; derivation of hydrodynamical equations from microscopic kinetics; statistical mechanics of plasmas

American studied nuclear structure, pion absorption in nuclei, ion traps and crystalline beams, heavy-ion physics,

and the Mössbauer effect

Japanese co-developed the Interacting Boson Model of the atomic nucleus

American contributed to the theory of plasma physics and magnetic fusion

Italian developed the theory of Regge trajectories by investigating the asymptotic behavior of potential-scattering

processes through the analytic continuation of the angular momentum to the complex plane

American introduced color as a quantum number to resolve the quark statistics paradox

American contributed to the theoretical understanding of the atomic nucleus as a relativistic quantum many-body

system; provided theoretical guidance in exploiting electromagnetic and weak probes of the nucleus

American co-invented the hydrogen maser; explores quantum chaos by optical spectroscopy of Rydberg atoms

American contributed to understanding the role of massless particles in spontaneous symmetry breaking (Goldstone

bosons)

American made important theoretical contributions to understanding solar neutrinos and quasars

American formulated the scaling law for deep inelastic processes and made other outstanding contributions to

particle physics and quantum field theory

Russian made many theoretical contributions in quantum field theory and mathematical physics; developed the

Faddeev equation in connection with the three-body system; co-developed the Faddeev-Popov covariant prescription for

quantizing non-Abelian gauge theories; contributed to the quantum inverse scattering method and the quantum theory of

solitons

American contributed to condensed matter theory, especially vortices in superfluids, the quantum Hall effect, and

topological quantum numbers

American contributed to several areas of theoretical physics, including condensed matter, quantum optics,

elementary particle physics, and field theory; statistics and dynamics of galaxy distributions

American contributed to several areas of theoretical physics, including condensed matter, low-temperature physics

including superfluidity, statistical physics, nuclear physics, and astrophysics; made advances in quantum statistical

mechanics and the study of neutron stars

American contributed to theoretical understanding of high-energy physics, especially the quark-gluon structure of

hadrons in quantum chromodynamics

Haim Harari 1940-

Israeli predicted the existence of the top quark, which he named; also named the bottom quark

American contributed to theoretical understanding of black holes and gravitational radiation; co-founded the Laser

Interferometer Gravitational Wave Observatory Project (LIGO)

Italian-born American co-developed the Interacting Boson Model of the atomic nucleus; introduced supersymmetry in

nuclei (1980); developed the Vibron Model of molecules (1981)

Italian first introduced string theory to describe the strong force without using quantum fields

American contributed to theoretical understanding of high-energy collisions and the fundamental interactions of

elementary particles

American contributed to theory of soft condensed matter; structured fluids

American co-developed the SU(5) and SO(10) grand unified theories of all elementary particle forces; developed

the modern QCD-inspired quark model; helped develop the modern theory of perturbative QCD

American contributed to understanding the quark structure of baryon resonances; discovered a new symmetry of

nature that describes the behavior of heavy quarks

American made fundamental contributions to manifold theory, string theory, and the theory of supersymmetric

quantum mechanics

American leading theorist of molecular nanotechnology; invented the encryption technology that allows secure

translations over the internet

American father of nanotechnology

American contributed to the development of supersymmetric field theories and string theories in various dimensions

British created Mathematica, the first modern computer algebra system; contributed to development of complexity theory

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