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IN TR O D U C TIO N TO H EA T

TR EA TM E N T
OF W ELDED STRUCTURES
A N D TE C H N IC A L D A TA

flame. The deposition of weld metal in a molten pool and the localised melting of the joint faces of the components. a series of potential solutions arise based on the application of heat. all have metallurgical implications affecting the microstructure of these regions. electric resistance. Stress Distribution It should not be forgotten that the value of the tensile stresses can be high often exceeding yield point magnitude. 'as cast' type of structure develops. then high levels of stress will occur and may lead to failure in the form of cracking. Neighbouring elements of material try to expand and contract by differing amounts in accordancee with the sequence of the localised thermal cycle. distortion will occur as yielding takes place.1. metallurgical restructuring takes place to give the heat affected zone (HAZ). Characteristically the cooling weld metal contracts under conditions of severe restraint. Welding Process & its Effects The welding process applied to metals joins two components together by fusion. A longitudinal force on the weld is required to close the gap giving a tensile stress whilst corresponding compressive stresses in the plate material provide the equilibrium. The surfaces to be joined are raised locally to melting point by a source of heat provided by a variety of welding methods based on electric arc. longitudinal stresses parallel to the joint and transverse stresses normal to the joint. In the region of parent metat at the fusion face raised to melting point. non-uniformly and subsequently cooled. Fused Weld Metat Residual stresses will act in two principle directions. . Unfused Weld Metat (Tj Weld Metal (1Q HAZ (3} Parent Plate In steel the heat affected zones are generally harder than the parent material with corresponding loss of ductility and resistance to impact. fusing with the component surfaces and/or previously deposited weld metal. The process energy creates a localised molten pool into which the consumable is fed. A series of heat treatment operations are associated with the welding processes. gaps would occur at the plate ends if the weld metal were allowed to expand and contract without restraint. These form the basis of the subject of Heat Treatment Engineering. Unrestrained Contraction Causes Distortion In making a joint. arising from the need to control these changes. along with subsequent cooling. the components are heated. The welding processes have to be controlled so that the residual stresses are minimised to protect the integrity of the overall fabrication and the metallurgical structures of the weld metal and heat affected zones are controlled to give properties which are not inferior to those of the parent material which have been used in the design of the product. From the molten pool of weld metal an Since the basic sources of weld failure are a consequence of thermal behaviour. So far the mechanical effects of welding in the form of residual stresses have been considered. Residual Stress Directions The distribution of longitudinal residual stresses in the section will be as shown with tensile component confined to the region of the joint. leading to the introduction of thermally induced stresses. Cooling after welding can be relatively rapid. also nonuniformly. As contraction tries to take place and the stress system strives to reach its lowest level to achieve stability. If the joint is restrained and cannot distort. As the molten pool is moved along the joint axis.

to reduce the temperature differential between ambient and the resultant heat input. The intensity of the electric welding arc breaks down water. Post heat treatments are not reflected in national standards or codes. Where preheat is applied. • To control the rate of cooling. RED HOT FILE aUENCHED IN WATER BECOMES HARD RED HOT FILE COOLED SLOWLY BECOMES MALLEABLE ANDDUCVLE Ma\sfi3l Hardens MB tan a! Softens • To control the diffusion rate of hydrogen in a welded joint. but are often specified by the client who has incorporated their equivalent into the weld procedure qualification test. High carbon and low alloy steels harden if they are quenched from high temperatures (above cherry red). Preheat may be required as an aid to welding for one of four basic reasons. Thicker section steels with high thermal conductivity benefit from preheat during welding with improved fusion. Post Heat This is the term given to the extension of preheat on completion of welding at the same or increased temperature. It is usually applied to the higher strength carbon managenese steels and the low alloy steels where the risk of hydrogen cracking is higher. helps to facilitate the diffusion of the hydrogen molecules out of the metallic structure. the preheat requirements of high pressure pipework codes BS2633. both uniformly over the length of the joint and for the duration of the welding process. Both of these gases are easily dissolved into the weld metal at high temperatures and hydrogen can play an important role in weld and heat affected zone cracking with a phenomenon known as hydrogen or cold cracking. which will list recommended minimum temperatures for steel types grouped by composition and also relate the minimum section thickness to which they apply. Exactly the same process can happen in a welded joint at the fusion face with the parent material. hardening may be controlled as the weld cools. ANSI B31. Heat Affected Zone iHaz) Moisture is also introduced from the welding consumables being OXYGE N present in electrode coatings and fluxes. on both sides of the joint to a value above ambient. Thermal strains are set up as the molten weld pool cools. The presence of preheat. For the purposes of illustration. especially in the heat affected zone. Reducing hardness reduces the risk of cracking. present as moisture. The need for preheat is usually determined by the pertinent fabrication code and verified by the weld procedure qualification test. The temperatures and soak times are derived from numerous technical papers published on this topic. Preheating provides slower cooling • Compensation for heat loss. Its purpose is to effect diffusion of hydrogen from the joint and reduce susceptibility to the associated form of cracking. and associated benefits on cooling rate.1rand ANSI B31. The solid curve shows the temperature in the heat affected zone as the arc passes by The dotted curve is the temperature when preheat is used. By raising the temperature of the base metal to be welded. To obtain the maximum benefits from preheat in controlling hydrogen.2. Preheat can control the level of strain by reducing temperature differentials and reducing cooling rates. Preheat & Postheat Preheating involves raising the temperature of the parent material locally. • To reduce thermal stresses. . Preheat can also help by ensuring that the weld preparartion area is dry and remains dry throughout the welding operation. into its base elements of hydrogen and oxygen. every effort should be made to ensure that the correct levels for a particular application are attained.3 are compared. it must be accompanied by careful controls over removal of moisture from the welding consumables by following manufacturers baking and storage instructions. Thin Section Thick Section Low High Guidance for the need to preheat is generally obtained from the national fabrication codes. Partially made welds can crack as the parent metal restrains the contraction of the weld metal and the cross sectional area of the joint is insufficient to with stand the resultant stress. to reduce hardness.

2633 The table is for guidance only.....5 2V CrlMo 50«C t ra re WC ISO'C 5Cr V3M0 Carbon Steel Carbon steel 7Cr VjMo root run not root run not 9Cr1Mo allowed allowed Up to 12.HIGH PRESSURE PIPEWORK An estimate of weld metal hydrogen levels can be made from a knowledge of the potential hydrogen level in the Material / Y**......5 Above 12.5mm thick A. rods required Above 12.PREHEAT REQUIREMENTS FOR BS 2633:1987 ... rectification and repair Part 2Fabrication welding 8S5135 Metal arc welding of carbon and carbon-manganese steels BS 5500 Unfired fusion welded pressure vessels Special Note re ANSI/B31-1 &ANSI/B31-3 The table below is for guidance only..5mm thick Up to 30mm 5'C j:... Carbon Steel 10 0....5 'tCrVjMD^V ." Above 30mm 4 ....5 20°C Up to 38 150°C lCr 1. Material Minimum root run All diameter and thickness preheat Material thickness I Minimum preheat Up to 30mm 5"C Above Up to 30 5°C Up to 20 5t ve-i Up to 127mm Above 127 mm diameter and diameter or 12.. these include: Hydrogen-induced cracks in HAZ of a butt weld ASME Code Section III: Nuclear power plant components Section VIII: ASME Boiler and pressure vessel code BS 1113 Water tube steam generating plant BS 4570 Fusion welding of steel castings Part 1 .40%C 5fTC lt»t loot All istre All 200°C Carbon -moly St 100T Uptoi2.5 100°C 150°C Up to 12....'j Mo 5"C !00°C 10FC Upto12. A number of other important standards give guidance on preheat..5 200'C Low H rods required All 200t Low Hj rods required MarJimti Above 12........ Reference should be made to the appropriate specification !U CH[iW£ /ncrEDSPdrasirfuarfflrflH iffCHH Ifien if Tare Base Metal Number 1 Ifoa Oirtt tff% struts tetitl is oauuwrf by prflrfiwd'ug to usvsl unvmwn rw im ™ fiwr Weld hydrogen level of preheating on residual stresses .Production. It illustrates the contents of the preheat section of BS.5 Above 12.5 Up to 20 150'C 150C 200"C Not permissable Low H..25%C Up to 0.25%C PC 12.. 2633 (Table 5) which should be consulted in its entirety..5 150°C 200"C Upto12..5 2rrc Upto12. kw SI"-Weld hydrogen levelOta Non hydgrDgen controlled weld metal IDO-C 30m mlfflTC Above 30 loot Above 20 100T Carbon steel above 0...H Minimum preheat temperature fortig Hydrogen controlled welding of rooltun weld metal IBS 1719) Carbon steel Matching root run. 50-C 10C C lore Up to 12......5 200"C 2 Special Note re BS.

3 Carbon above 0.5 P-9A-250.% ma* 1"& above -175 71 KSI & below V " ■ 50 V& 2 Above71KSI-175 above-175 Chromium V>%-2% Chromium I'lfiWi group 1 P21-P52 M EC S%.PREHEAT REQUIREM ENTS FOR PETROLEU M REFINERY PIPING (ANSI B.11992) Material Mi ni mu m Re co m me nd ed Pre he at Te mp erature 'F ANSI 8.CA 50 Nickel Alloys 20C Manganese Vanadium 10F 27 Chromium Carbon Steel 11A 7t KSI & below V-50 Chromium V.30% or 1" -175 Others ■ 50 Abore60KSIORV "-175 2 Others ■ 50 Above 60 KSI or V " . P9B-300 175 m 30C .9% \ ckel ANSI B31.31.311.250 3 Others ■ 50 v Above 60 KSI or both above <{ & chromium above 6%-400 Others-300 High Alloy Martensitic 30C (00 High Alloy Ferritic Group High Alloy Auslenitic 9A9B '.1990) & POWER PIPING (ANSI B31.

The soak tempertures are held within the upper and lower limits of the soak range for the appropriate period of time.5 V Rt rule. improving ductility and reducing the risks of brittle fracture. BS 2633 offer guidence in this issue. zonal division and number of thermocouples is such that the energy input and level of control is capable of enabling these objectives to be met ensuring that the integrity of the overall structure is not jeopardised. This aspect has greater significance in the case of localised heat treatments. Benefits of Post Weld Heat Treatment ? 100% J Ejp 80% - II The heat treatment system {including insulation).L NOT ATTACK j THIS WELD J I Weld not IfYiproved Corrosion Resistance Remove A <&£&& ^ & > Welders V] 1 Without .3. The hot zone is adequate to raise the weldment to the required temperature and provide a temperature profile therein which is uniform without creating additional undue thermally induced stresses. provided it is carried out in a controlled manner. British Standards BS 5500. This is a process commonly referred to as stress relief. 40% - ■-*■ T-lTO 1 20% - Complete relief of residual stresses 2■"■■. Features of Post Weld Heat Treatment. relaxing the residual stresses even further. Post Weld Heat Treatment Post Weld Heat Treatment. In addition to a reduction and redistribution of residual stresses. These rates will indicate absolute maximum values. controls have to be implemented to provide assurance that the 80% -. Creep occurs at the elevated temperatures and strain will occur by a diffusion mechanism. so called because it is carried out at temperatures at which yield strength has fallen to a low value. the temperature gradients away from the hot zone must not be unduly severe. the yield strength of the material around the weld is unable to support the initial deformation. The stress distributions at the higher temperatures become more uniform and their magnitude reduces to a low level. With thicker and more complex structures an experienced heat treatment engineer may wish to consider lower rates than required by the code to ensure acceptable temperature profiles and gradients with a view to keeping these thermally induced stresses to an absolute minimum. n—i—i—i—r 100 200 300 400 500 600 Stress relieving temperature CC) Effect of stress relieving at various temperatures Reduced Residual Stresses With localised heat treatment. ^ 60% - tuOl bi B. If the structure is heated uniformly. These metallurgical changes are very beneficial in that they reduce the high hardness of the as-welded structures. and are calculated from simple formulae related to component thickness to offer protection against thermally induced stresses. As with preheat. as well as being required to offer acceptable component life in onerous environments. cS> 90% tOO 200 300 400 500 600 Temperature ° C Improved Metallurgical Structure v Postheated \ Weld \ \ W CAUSTIC 1 l SOLUTIONS . For local heat treatments. again the objective being the minimisation of thermally induced stresses. the improved stress distribution is retained. but nevertheless must also be considered with furnace heat treatments. There are five aspects to a post weld heat treatment that must be addressed. postweld treatments at higher temperatures permits some tempering or aging effects to take place. PWHT f With PWHT Improved Machinability . engineered system is capable of providing appropriate levels of performance. quoting the 2. On cooling. The extent to which residual stresses are relaxed will depend on temperature for any given material and on material for any given temperature. The heating and cooling rates are at least compliant with the necessary code requirements. the alloying content of the steel is related to the significance of heat treatment temperature. Post weld heat treatment has mandatory significance governed by the national standards and codes.

2633 6) w hich should be consulted in its entirety.5 (minimum 60) 710-760 5 (minimum 120) 2. 241 Brinell max 1*00/14751 hour/inch A240 Grad 429.15% °C m axim um . 4" 00.".25%X Carbon-Moly 630-670 2.15% carbon 130071375 1 hour/inch Chromium'/. 225 Brinell max 10E High Chromium 1225/1300! hour min stainless steal 11A group 1 9% nickel sleel Above 2" 1025/1085 1 hour min Inole. 0.1 Boiler External Piping Carbon Steel Above V-11DC/12001 liourmin Above V IIOd'12001 hour /inch ChromiumVi% max Above V. A lso see BS .2633 The table is for guidance only.5mm thick may be 30 minutes minimum 2.4%C 630-670 2. For certain service conditions and for pipes of 0.5 (minimum 60) 5Cr V3M0 7Cr '/?Mrj 9Cr1Mo S pecial N ote re B S .31.5 (minimum 30) 2.POSTW ELD HEAT TREATMENT REQUIREMENTS FOR BS 2633:1987 . R eference should be m ade to the appropriate specification POST W ELD HEAT TREATM ENT REQUIREMENTS FOR PETRO LEUM PIPING (ANSI B.3 ANSIB3.Ni 690-620 2. i" 0D.'.M carbon.15% carbon 1100/1200 1 9A96 hour min.5m and fillet w elded attachm ents where the throat thickness does not exceed 12m m is not required subject to satisfactory w elding procedure te S pecial N ote re A N SI/B 31-1 & A N S I/B 31-3 The table below is for guidance only.above Vj". 2)1 Brinell max 1300714001 hour/inch 1350714502hoursmm.%-2% i hours min.5 (minimum 601 ICr'/jMo 630-670 5 (minimum 120) 2.5 (minimum 180) VjCrVjMoViV 680-720 2V Cr IMo 680-720 (optimum creep) 710-750 (softening where optimum creep properties not required) 160 irrespective of thickness but thin wall up to 127mm diameter & 12. cooling rate to be above 300/Hr down to 800) 1250/13001 hour/inch . 225 Brinell max Chromium 2>/ %-10% 5 ( Highalloymartensiric 6 8 Above V' ■ O. Temp range 1150/1225 7 High alloy ferritic None 1350/14251 hour/inch 8 High alloy austenitic None None Nickel a Hoy steels Above 3/.31.1-1992I Base Metal Material 1 '1 Poshveld Heat Treatment Requirement "F Soak ANSI B.0.5 (minimum 60) 2.25% 110071200 hourmin. post w eld heat treatm ent of w elds in pipes up to and including 12.1.5 (minimum 30! Carbon 0 26 up to 0.5 (minimum 60) 9Ni None Not required Not required ( 180 irrespective of thickness but thin wall up to 127mm diameter 6112.5mm thick may he 30 minutes minimum b (minimum 120) 2. 0B .HIGH PRESSURE PIPEW ORK Male rial Time at temperature: Minutes/mm thickness Soaking temperature Temperature in furnace (pipework and welds! Local heat treatment (welds onlyl 580-620 2.15%carbon 3%chromium 1300/1400 1 hour min.5 (minimum 30) 2.5 (minimum 60) 3V. 1100 -1175 10A Manganese vanadium Above V"or71 KS11100/1300 4 1 hourmin.5 (minimum 130) 2." or above71 KSI -110071325 1 Above s/" & Carbon aboveO.0.5 (minimum 301 Carbon up to 0.1990) & POW ER PIPING (ANSI B31. It illustrates the contents of the post w eld heat section (Table of BS . 3% chromium Above V2". 1113 for post w eld heat treatm ent requirem ents for w ater tube steam generating plant."-1100-11751 hour min 9A above V.5 (minimum 60i 2. 400. 225 Brinell max 1 hour/inch Above V°r above 71 KSI-130071375 2 AboveV.5 (minimum 1201 12CrMoV(W) 720-760 180 irrespective of wall thickness 2.

Note: 'Circuits 3. TYPICAL 48kVA 6 CHANNEL HEAT TREATMENT UNIT PACKAGE Item No. Stock No. 5 and 6 have not been shown for clarity. Page Description 1 1 10334 4 48kVA 6 Channel Heat Treatment Unit 2 6 35024 9 Triple Cable Sets 3 6 32001 9 2 way Splitter Cables .Heat Treatment of Pipewelds with 48kVA Heat Treatment Unit and Pad Elements II © © ■II 415V 3 PHASE 60 AMP SUPPLY ^ CIRCUIT 1 © 2 CIRCUIT 2 J. Qty. 4.

. 6. 7 and 8 are consumables and quantities required will depend on extent of work and production rate.4 6 32002 9 3 way Splitter Cabies 5 15 See Range 12-18 6 6 42011 22 2m Thermocouple with Plug 7 As Req. 43007 22 High Temperature Cement 8 3 See Range 19 Ceramic Fibre Insulating Mats 9 1 41756/7 11 Thermocouple Attachment Unit Heating Elements Items 5.

Circumferential Stress Relief of Pressure Vessel Welded Seams using Twin Bulkhead Method and Channel Elements CABLE ENTRY THROUGH VESSEL 'MAN-WAYS' ROLLER SUPPORTS FOR EXPANSION STEEL BULKHEADS TYPICAL RECOMMENDED IRON MESH WIRED TO BULKHEADS HEIGHT FOR MILD STEEL CHANNELS 6 CHANNEL 415V DISTRIBUTION UNIT AND TEMPERATURE RECORDER MILD STEEL CHANNELS TO SUPPORT ELEMENTS WEATHER PROTECTION FIXED SUPPORTS 4-12mm RODS THERMOCOUPLES ATTACHED TO WELDED SEAM AND AT GRADIENT POSITIONS MINERAL WOOL MATS 60mm THICK WITH SINGLE LAYER OVER GRADIENT ZONES AND DOUBLE LAYER OVER THE HEATED ZONE .

43007 22 High Temperature Cement 10 Bales 506-014 19 Mineral Wool Insulation 1 41756/7 11 Thermocouple Attachment Unit 9 10 . Stock No. Page 1 1 14002 9 6 Channel 415V Distribution Unit 2 12 30001 19 Feed Cable (4/3 Heating Elements) 3 32002 19 3 way Splitter Cable (1/Phase) 9 27750 18 4-Bank Channel Elements (3/Phase) 1 40006 10 6 Point Temperature Recorder 6 34000 21 30m Compensating Cable (2 Pts/Heater) 3 4 5 6 Description 7 6' 42011 22 2m Thermocouple with Plug 8 As Req. Qty.TYPICAL PACKAGE FOR PWHT OF 3M DIAMETER SEAM Item No.

0 316 600 1112 621 1150 2102 927 1700 3092 110. Then cc to th read Centigrade uconversion e and heit to right 204 400 752 therefore 40CTC = 752T 400T = 204°C 98.6 415.2 349 354 360 366 660 670 680 690 1220 1238 1256 1274 654 660 666 671 1210 1220 1230 1240 2210 2228 2246 2264 960 966 971 977 1760 1770 1780 1790 3200 3218 3236 3254 115.1 211 212 213 214 411.4 226 227 228 229 438.6 246 247 248 249 474.4 453.2 377 382 388 393 710 720 730 740 1310 1328 1346 1364 682 688 693 699 1260 1270 1280 1290 2300 2318 2336 2354 988 993 999 1004 1810 1820 1830 1840 3290 3308 3326 3344 118.4 462.2 321 327 332 338 610 620 630 640 1130 1148 1166 1184 627 632 638 643 1160 1170 1180 1190 2120 2138 2156 2174 932 938 943 949 1710 1720 1730 1740 3110 3128 3146 3164 112.7 496.4 120.8 476.4 435.8 431.4 100.4 471.0 343 650 1202 649 1200 2192 954 1750 3182 113.0 204 400 752 510 950 1742 816 1500 2732 99.Temperature Conversion Tables Example Find the knowntemperat re to be nverted in the Red column.8 235 455.0 120.0 260 500 932 566 1050 1922 871 1600 2912 105.6 424.4 444.8 458.9 119.6 433.7 112.3 245 473.0 700 1292 677 1250 2282 982 1800 3272 116.0 232 450 842 538 1000 1832 843 1550 2822 102.2 210 216 221 227 410 420 430 440 770 788 806 824 516 521 527 532 960 980 990 1760 1778 1795 1814 821 827 832 838 1510 1520 1530 Tj40 2750 2768 2786 2804 101.2 404 410 416 421 760 770 780 790 1400 1418 1436 1454 710 716 712 727 1310 1320 1330 1340 2390 2408 2426 2444 1016 1021 1027 1032 1860 1870 1880 1890 3380 3398 3416 3434 121 250 482 427 800 1472 732 1350 2462 1038 1900 3452 127 132 138 143 260 270 280 290 500 518 536 554 432 438 443 449 810 820 830 840 1490 1508 1526 1544 738 743 749 754 1360 1370 1380 1390 2480 2498 2516 2534 1043 1049 1054 1060 1910 1920 1930 1940 3470 3488 3506 3524 149 300 572 454 850 1562 760 1400 2552 1066 1950 3542 154 160 166 171 310 320 330 340 590 608 626 644 460 466 471 477 860 870 880 890 1580 1598 1616 1634 766 771 777 782 1410 1420 1430 1440 2570 2588 2606 2624 1071 1077 1082 1088 1960 1970 1980 1990 3560 3578 3596 1614 177 350 662 482 900 1652 788 1450 2642 1093 2000 3632 182 188 193 360 370 380 680 698 716 488 493 499 910 920 930 1670 1688 1706 793 799 804 1460 1470 1480 2660 2678 2696 1099 1104 1110 2010 2020 2030 3650 3668 3686 371 9 70 .3 103.9 210 410.2 231 232 233 234 447.8 241 242 243 244 465.6 106.2 293 299 304 310 560 570 580 590 1040 1058 1076 1094 599 604 610 616 1110 1120 1130 1140 2030 2048 2066 2084 904 910 916 921 1660 1670 1680 1690 3020 3038 3056 3074 110.4 480.6 442.8 422.1 288 550 1022 593 1100 2012 899 1650 3002 107.8 449.7 117.6 460.0 236 237 238 239 456.9 109.0 399 750 1382 704 1 300 2372 1010 1850 3362 118.1 111.8 413.0 100.8 440.0 105.8 467.2 225 437.2 117.6 240 464.2 102.4 220 428.3 113.1 116.6 111.4 426.7 221 222 223 224 429.6 451.6 478.4 115.2 266 271 277 282 510 520 530 540 950 968 986 1004 571 577 582 588 1060 1070 1080 1090 1940 1958 1976 1994 877 882 888 893 1610 1620 1630 1640 2930 2948 2966 2984 107.9 216 217 218 219 420.0 230 446.2 238 243 249 254 460 470 480 490 860 878 896 914 543 549 554 560 1010 1020 1030 1040 1850 1868 1886 1904 849 854 860 866 1660 1570 1580 1590 2840 2858 2876 2894 104.6 101.8 108.7 215 419.9 114.1 106.3 108.4 417.8 103.

199 390 734 504 940 1724 810 1490 2714 1116 2040 3704 .

' 1 Btu fr 3 0 F .625 0.0149 Btufr3°F-1 Area 1 cm2 1 m2 1 km* 1 ha = 0.140 0.406 0.205 lb = 2205 lb = 0.471 acre 1 Btu lb'°F-' =4.500 0.083 0.835 lb (US gal)"' 1W 1 kW 1 kW =0.563 0.239 Btu Ib^F"1 =0. V/z 2 2K 3 3K 45 G 8 10 12 14 16 Outside Dia.000 16.154 0.145 2.187 k J k g . Sch.750 0.293 W 1 kcal h-' =1. 40 0.276 0.120 10.500 0.300 0.179 0. heatflow rate 1 cm 1m 1 km = 0.29 barrel = 0.250 Sch. 140 Sch.218 0.147 0 154 0. 100 0.406 1. 20 0.750 0843 Sch.226 0.375 0.109 0.48 US gal = 42 US gal = 159 litre 1 therm 1 therm 1 ft Ibf = 105.365 0.656 Sch.187 J =1.436 0.8 kgnrr3 Specific heat capacity 1 kJkg-^C-' 1 kJm-^C"1 =0.02kg nv3 1 Btu h"' =0.840 1.438 0.31 ft3 = 220 Imp gal -264 US gal = 6.250 0.674 0.239 cal = 0.93 Btu in fr2rr'°F-' 1 Btu ft"' h-10F-' = 1.216 0.843 1.590 km + 0.307 0.900 0.500 0. 160 Extra Strong Sch.87 Btu min"1 1 in = 25.0095 therm = 0.375 Sch.875 3.113 0.405 ha Thermal conductivity 1 Wm-^C"' 1 Wm-^C"1 =0.065 0.140 0.145 0.065 0.163 W 1 ft 1 yd 1 mile 3 = 30. 1 ft2 1 mile2 1 acre = 6.144Wrrr1oC-1 Energy Volume 1 m3 1 m3 1 m3 1 m3 1 litre 1 litre = 35.113 0.343 0.337 0.948 Btu = 0.083 0.218 0.600 0.312 0312 Sch.432 0.621 mile 1 kg m~3 1 kg m-3 1 kg m'3 = 0.375 0.179 0.3725 hp hour = 3.438 0.281 ft = 0.163 Wm-2°C-' Temperature intervals 1 deg C = 1.137 0. 80 0.86 kcal m-2h'°C-1 1 Btu ft-ioF-' = 5.394 in = 3.330 0.055 kJ = 1 ft:* 1 barrel 1 barrel = 7.154 0.0283 m3 = 28.237 0.864 0.250 0.562 0.050 1.120 0.358 0.250 0.718 0.231 0.250 0.500 0.102 US ton 1 ounce 1 lb 1 Imp ton 1 Imp ton 1 US ton = 28.259 1.093 '.578 Btu ft"1 Ir^F"1 =6.500 0.200 0.86kcalh-1 =3412 Btu lr' =56.48 cm = 0.147 0.35 g = 0.60MJ 1 ft3 1 ft3 1 = 0.315 1.678 Wm^C"1 1 kcal m-2lr10C-1 = 1.718 0.1 =67.000 1.4 mm 1 lb ft"3 = 16. Wt.8 deg F = K 1 deg F =0.609 km 1 kg 1kg 1 tonne 1 tonne 1 tonne Mass = 35.0C-' 1 Btu in ft"2 rr10F-' = 0.218 0.203 0.000 "1.065 0.5 MJ = 29.318 0.27 ounce = 2.660 1.750 14.218 0.531 0.237 0 258 0.636 0.452cm2 = 0.133 0.406 0.083 0.200 0.593 0.12-3 1.Conversion Factors Length Density Power.432 0..556 deg C Nominal Wall Thickness for Standard Imperial (Non-Metric) Pipe (inches) Nominal Pipe Size %1 1 V.226 0.083 0.250 0.109 0.000 0.155 in2 = 10.180 0.083 0.322 0. Sch. 5S Sch.500 0.750 12.382 0.031 Sch.12 US ton = 907 kg 1 lb (Impgal)" 1 =99.= 119.093 m2 = 2.375 0.400 0.3GO 0.937 1.73Wm-.984 Imp ton = 1.065 0.250 0. 120 0.500 0.154 0.109 0.318 0.280 0.438 0.3/5 0.1 lb (Imp gal)"1 = 0.065 0.083 0.165 0.120 0.593 .687 0.191 0.258 0.22 Imp gal = 0.356J Heat transfer coefficient 1 Wm-2°C-' =0.365 0.500 0.875 0.812 1.32 litre = 1 cal 1 Btu 1 = 4.438 1.109 0.337 0.9144 m = 1.294 0.065 0.125 1.375 2.109 0.552 0.76 ft2 = 0.276 0.593 0.203 0.4536 kg = 1016 kg = 1.500 4.264 US gal 1J 1J 1J 1 kJ 1 MJ 1 MJ 1 kWh = 0.216 0.718 0.593 0.8 kg rrr 1 lb IUS gall.176 Btu ft^h"1 QF-1 1 Wm-^C"1 =0.312 1. 60 Double Double Strong 0.000 1.134 11156 0.109 0.0624 lb f t" 3 = 0.31 kWh = 1. 10S Std.500 0.308 0.07 kJm-3°C-' 1 in.280 0322 0.738 ft Ibf = 107 ergs = 0.500 0.133 0.843 0. 0 C .375 0 375 0.191 0.375 0.386 mile2 = 2.277 0.120 0.906 0. 30 0.

500 3.250 0.562 0.000 20.812 0.438 0.68/ 0 750 0.062 1.750 2.500 0.000 24.500 0.000 0.281 1 531 1.8-2 1.18 20 24 18.375 0.781 1.343 .312 0.375 0.375 0.375 1.968 1.250 0.937 1.250 0.031 1.968 0.500 0.156 1.218 1.562 0.375 0.593 0.375 0.562 0.500 1.

100 125 122 170 .mm-2 Yield Strength N .K-1 Wm-i.mm-2 0.7 19.Kg-i.7 18.0 18.K-i Tensile Properties Of Typical Pressure Part Steels Tensile Strength N .nr3 Carbon Steel 20 200 400 600 7850 7850 7850 7850 12.7 13.6 511 561 611 54 49 43 36 Ferritic alloys 20 200 400 600 7850 7850 7850 7850 12.2% Proof Stress 0% for Austenitic Steels) at various temperatures °C N.Engineering Data Physical Properties Of Typical Pressure Part Steels Temperature Density Coefficient of Thermal Expansion 20°C to Temp Specific Heat 20°C to Temp °C Kg .mm-2 200 250 300 350 400 450 500 550 Plates 430 230 190 180 160 155 150 140 135 130 Carbon Steel ICr 420 285 210 185 160 150 145 175 160 145 V2 Mo 2V4CMM0 480 280 205 200 195 190 185 115 110 105 18Cr 12Ni 2Mo 510 215 140 130 127 122 120 Pipes & Sections 490 340 260 240 220 200 185 170 165 160 Carbon Steel 1CrV2Mo 440 290 245 235 190 180 175 170 190 165 2V4Cr 1Mo 490 275 245 235 230 225 220 205 135 130 18Cr12Ni2Mo 510 245 170 165 160 150 145 140 Tubes 440 245 170 160 150 140 170 165 Carbon Steel 1Cr 460 180 195 150 190 145 190 180 175 190 165 187 225 220 205 128 125 135 130 178 175 182 179 V2M0 2V4Cr IMo 490 18Cr 12Ni2Mo 510 245 140 Esshete 540 270 184 275 600 .2 520 541 555 562 14 17 20 23 25 Austenitic steels K-U0-6 Thermal Conductivity J.8 14.7 13.8 14.6 503 545 602 45 42 38 33 20 200 400 600 700 7970 7970 7970 7970 7970 16.