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Bacteria

Staphylococcus aureus

Gram Stain

+

biochemical test

O2
requirement

facultative
anaerobes

shape

extra features

virulence factors

clinical significance
catalase test

cocci, in
clusters(grape like)

1. Cell wall:

1.Direct tissue infection:

Protein A --> binds Fc portion of IgG (antiphagocytic
effect)

Localised skin infection,
Deep skin infection,
Systemic infection

Fibronectin binding protein --> promote binding to
mucosal surface

2. toxins-related diseases:

2. Enzymes (catalase and DNAse)

Toxic shock syndrome,
food poisoning, scalded
skin syndrome

coagulase test

Oxidase

Identification
Lactose
fermentation

DNAse

Glucose
fermentation

Maltose
fermentation

further classification

Complex/selective
differential media
media

+

+

+

Blood agar; Golden Mannitol Salt agar;
colonies
media turns yellow

+

-

-

Blood agar; White Mannitol Salt agar;
colonies
no colour change

3.Toxins (Cytolytic exotoxins and superantigen
exotoxins)
Staphylococcus
epidermidids

+

facultative
anaerobe

cocci, in clusters

Streptococcus pyogenes

+

facultative
anaerobes

cocci in chains OR
diplococci

1. Capsule(made of hyaluronic acid) --> not
immunogenic

-ve

It is a B-hemolytic
Serologic (lancefield) grouping;
strept. (yellowishIt is Group A
clear)

-ve

It is a a-hemolytic
strept. (greenish)

2. fimbriae containing M-protein --> highly variable
3.Protein F (fibronectin binding protein) -->adherence
to epithelial fibronectin (especially pharyngal
epithelium)
4. Exotoxins: [pyrogenic exotoxins;Streptolysin O &
;Streptokinase; C5a
peptidase;streptodornases;hyaluronidase]

Streptococcus
Pneumoniae

+

facultative
anaerobes

1. Polysaccharide capsule (most important) --> it is
antiphagocytic and has many different serotypes
because of the fact of being a carbohydrate antigen

cocci in chains OR
diplococci

Pneumonia,
bacteremia,meningitis,
middle ear infection

2. Surface protein adhesions
3. Pneumolysin --> They bind cholesterol in host cell
membrane,lyse ciliated epithelial cells; They facilitate
spread into tissue
4. IgA Protease --> This breaks down secretory IgA in
mucosa
Clostridium tetani

+

anaerobes

bacilli

spore-forming

Clostiridium botilium

+

anaerobes

bacilli

spore-forming

Clostridium perferingens

+

anaerobes

bacilli

spore-forming

Clostridium difficile

+

anaerobes

bacilli

spore-forming

Toxin A is enterotoxin, toxin B is cytotoxin

Neisseria gonorrhoeae

-

anaerobic

diplococci

has pilli,
uncapsulated

1. Pilli --> adherence and antiphagocytic

tetanus;blocks inhibitry
neurotransmittor at
synapse
botulinism; neurotoxin
blocks release of
gas gangrene, food
poisoning,endometritis
pseudomembranous collitis
(antibiotic associated
diarrhea)
Gonorrhoroeae (this
infection can affect the
urethra,cervix,conjuctiva,p
harynx and rectum)

-

+

+

-

+

+

+

2. Outer Membrane Proteins (OMPs) --> adherence;
They produce
variable antigenicity (they contribute to the ability of
Beta Lactamase
bacteria to evade the immune system); they function
!!!
as porins
3. IgA protease
Neisseria meningitidis

Haemophilus infulenzae

-

-

anaerobic

anaerobic

diplococci

coccobacilli

pilli,capsulated 1. Polysaccharide capsule

for growth :
Requires
Hemin (factor
X) & NAD+
(factor V)

1. Meningitis

2. Pilli

2.Sepsis and Septic shock
due to endotoxin

1. Capsule

by Contagious Spread:
otitis media, epiglotitis,
sinusitis,
bronchopneumonia

2. IgA protease

by hematogenous
dessemination: meningitis,
septic arthritis

Thayer Martin
Agar;

meat) --> localised GI conditions (nausea. most common in urinary tract infections (both cystitis and pyelonephritis) facultate anaerobes It produces green blue pigments called pyocyanin [greenish colonies] + + - Genitically diverse. Systemic infections: CNS. Exotoxin A --> targets elongation factor 2 3. Nosocomial infections (sepsis. bone&joint infections . Pilli --> adherence and antiphagocytic 1. Localised infections : urinary tract.Pseudomonas aeruginosa Escherichia coli - - obligate anaerobe bacilli 1. wound. this contains lactose and pH indicator --> colocur change cause of lower pH .vomiting.diarrhea bacilli bacilli uncapsulated 2. Salmonellosis (transmission via poultry. endocarditis 1. Neonatal meningitis 1) O antigen --> lipopolysaccharide 3. pneumonia) 2) H antigen --> in flagella 3) K antigen (in capsule Salmonella Shigella - - facultative anaerobes 1. Capsule 2. nosocomial infections 2. It has minimal nutritional requirements 1. Typhoid fever (spread via the blood to other organs) 1. respiratory infections 3. Bacilliary dysenetry (bloody stool and abdominal cramps) this is by invasion or exotoxin (shiga toxin) which inhibits protein synthesis via lysing 28s rRNA + - - - MacConkey agar.egg. serotype based on 3 structural antigens: + 2.