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# Western Philippines University

College of Engineering and Technology
Civil Engineering Department
STRUCTURAL STEEL DESIGN
By Dr. Cesario A. Bacosa , Jr.
Module 2. TENSION MEMBERS ( Rivited Connections)
Tension members are found in bridge and roof trusses, towers, bracing system, and in situations where they
are used as tie rods. The selection of a section to be used as a tension member is one of the simplest problems
encountered in design. The member size selection is usually based on an allowable tensile stress and minimum
slenderness requirement to control member vibration.

Types of Tension Members:
flat bar

round bar

Single angle

double angle

structural
tee

W or S shape

channel

built-up Sections

NSCP Specifications
504.1.1. This section applies to prismatic members subject to axial tension caused by forces acting through the
centroidal axis. For members subject to combined axial tension and flexure, see Section 508.3. For members subject
to fatigue, see Section 511.5. For tapered members, see Section 506.8. For threaded rods see Section 510.4.
a) min Ag =

T
0.60 Fy

T  0.60Fy Ag

[NSCP 504.2.1]

b) min Ae =

T
0.50 Fu

T  0.50Fu Ae

[NSCP 504.2.1]

min Ae
T

Ct
0.50 Fu Ct

[NSCP 502.4.2]

c)

Ae  Ct An ,

min An 

d) min Ag = min An + estimated area of holes
L
e) max  300 for tension members
r
Note: AISC recommends a maximum slenderness ratio of 240 for
main members and 300 for secondary and bracing members.
f) at pinholes for pin-connected members, T  0.45Fy An
g)

for eyebars, T  0.60Fy Ab

[NSCP 502.8.2]

[NSCP 504.4.1.1]
[NSCP 504.4.1.2]

or (e) b f  23 d connection is to flanges NSCP section 0. when l  2w Ct  1. the following values of Ct shall be used: 1.75An 502.8 3 (d) Structural tees cut from sections meeting requirements (c) above (e) W.4.5w  l  w Ct  0.where.4.4) Types of members (a) Full length tension members having all crosssectional elements connected to transmit the tensile force (b) Short tension member fittings. (d). Ae (Adapted from NSCP 502. when 1. the length of the welds shall not be less than the width of the plate. the effective net area shall be taken as the actual net area. or S shapes not meeting the conditions of (c). and other shapes (f) All shapes in (c).7 Unless a larger coefficient can be justified by tests or other criteria.85An 2 None 0.4. M or S shapes and structural tees cut from these shapes.87 3.75 where: l = weld length w = plate width 502. M. M.8 Bolted and riveted splice and gusset plate and other connection fittings subject to tensile force. Ae shall be taken as the area of the directly connected elements. . Fy = yield strength of steel Fu = ultimate tensile stress of steel Ag = gross area of cross-section An = net area of cross-section Ae = effective net area of cross-section Ct = reduction coefficient L = unsupported length of member r = radius of gyration of member cross-section Table 1.00 2.4.4 502. 502. or S rolled shapes Minimum number of fasteners Special requirement Effective net area Ae 1 None An 502.6 When the load is transmitted to a plate by longitudinal welds along both edges at the end of the plate. Effective Net Area. or beam-to-column fittings (c) W.5w Ct  0. when 2w  l  1.4.4.1 1 None An  0.85 Ag 502. except that.4.90An 3 Same as (c) 0.5 When load is transmitted by transverse welds to some but not all of the cross-sectional elements of W. gusset plates. such as splice plates.90An 3 None 0. The effective net area Ae shall be computed by Ae  Ct Ag 502. it shall not be taken as greater than 85% of the gross area.

50(400)(0.60(250)(1940)103  291 kN > 186 kN 6) Check tensile capacity based on effective net area [NSCP 504.75) Compute minimum radius of gyration from [NSCP 502.8 Therefore. OK! OK! .751940  25(8)  1305 mm2 T  0.50Fu Ae  0.60Fy Ag  0.2] assume ct = 0.8 mm 3) 5) Check tensile capacity based on gross area [NSCP 504.2.50 m long and is assumed to be connected with one row of 22 mm diameter bolts.1] T  0.60Fy 0.3 mm min r = 300 300 4) Select a trial angle section Try 125x125x8 mm angle: A = 1940 mm2. Fu = 400 MPa) are to be used in selecting a single angle member to resist a tensile load of 186 kN. r = 24. diameter of hole = 22 + 3 = 25 mm T min An   (estimated hole areas ) 0. use 125x125x8 mm angle.Problem 101.2] L 5500   222  300 r 24.75 and angles 10 mm thick.2.50(400)(1305)103  261 kN > 186 kN 7) OK! Verify slenderness ratio [NSCP 502.8.60(250) 2) Compute minimum gross area from [NSCP 502. T Solution: 1) Compute minimum gross area from [NSCP 504.8.1] Ae  Ct An  0. The AISC specification and A36 steel (Fy = 250 MPa.2] L 5500   18.50 Fu Ct min An  186000  25(10)  1480 mm2 0.2. The member is to be 5.4.1] T 186000 min Ag =   1240 mm2 0.

8.9 Therefore.90 and assume 16 mm thick flanges.9 mm 5) Check tensile capacity based on gross area [NSCP 504. diameter of hole = 22 + 3 = 25 mm T min An   (estimated hole areas ) 0.60(250) 2) Compute minimum gross area from [NSCP 502.4 mm .1] T  0. Use ct = 0.2] L 9000   117  300 r 76.2.2.50(400)(9684)103  1937 kN > 1740 kN 6) OK! Verify slenderness ratio [NSCP 502.2] L 9000   30 mm min r = 300 300 4) Select a trial W section Try W310x97: A = 12300 mm2. OK! OK! .4.Problem 102.50(400)(0. The member is to be 9 m long and is connected through its flange only with at least three 22 mm bolts in each line. ry = 76.90) 3) Compute minimum radius of gyration from [NSCP 502. T Solution: 1) Compute minimum gross area from [NSCP 504.2.9012300  25(15.60Fy 0. ct = 0.90.2] From Table1.50Fu Ae  0. Assume that there can be as many as four bolts on any one cross-section (two in each flange).4)(4)  9684 mm2 T  0. tf = 15.50 Fu Ct min An  1740000  25(16)(4)  11267 mm2 0.60(250)(12300)103  1845 kN > 1740 kN 8) Check tensile capacity based on effective net area [NSCP 504.1] Ae  Ct An  0.60Fy Ag  0. use W310x97 section.1] T 1740000 min Ag =   11600 mm2 0. Select a W310 section to resist a 1740 kN tensile load using A36 steel (F y = 250 MPa.8. Fu = 400 MPa) and the AISC specification.

Problem Exercises: .