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Atomic Structure

Properties of subatomic particles
Proton

Neutron
-27

1.675 x 10

Electron
-27

9.109 x 10-31

Actual mass

1.673 x 10

Relative mass

1

1

1/1840

Charge

+1.602 x 10-19

0

-1.602 x 10-19

Relative charge

+1

0

-1

Location within atom

In nucleus

In nucleus

Around nucleus

Definitions




Angle of deflection = charge/mass
o Heavier particles have more kinetic energy, hence deflected to smaller extent
o Particles with higher charge have greater attractive force exerted on them by oppositely-charged plate, therefore
they deflect to a greater extent
Isotopes: atoms of same element with same number of protons but different number of neutrons
o Same chemical properties, different physical properties
Isoelectronic: same number of valence electrons/electronic configuration
Isotonic: same number of neutrons
Relative masses of an element (NO UNITS)
o Relative isotopic mass: mass of one atom of isotope of the element relative to 1/12 of mass of 1 atom of 12C
o Relative atomic mass: weighted average mass of one atom of element relative to 1/12 of mass of 1 atom of 12C
o Relative molecular mass: average mass of one molecule of substance relative to 1/12 of mass of 1 atom of 12C
o Relative formula mass: average mass of one formula unit of substance relative to 1/12 of mass of 1 atom of 12C
Principal Quantum Number (n)
o Average distance of orbitals from nucleus, higher = further = electrons have higher energy
o Contains subshells, which contain orbitals, which contain electrons
o As n increases, orbitals become more diffuse, have lower charge density

Electronic configuration and orbitals

Orbitals
o s orbital – spherical shape
 Only orbitals that can form a σ bond (single bond), along with sp hybridised orbitals
o p orbital – dumbbell shape, 3 degenerate orbitals, 1/3 size of s orbital
 Form a π bond (double bond consists of 1 σ and 1 π bond), seen in resonance structures
o d orbital – shaped like a 4 petal flower, 5 degenerate orbitals, 1/5 size of s orbital
 Electronic configuration
o When adding electrons, add in order of energy level
o When removing electrons, remove from highest Principal Quantum Shell first
o Hund’s Rule of Multiplicity: inter-electronic repulsion between electrons in same orbital, so by occupying
different orbitals electrons can minimize this repulsion
o Once orbital directly before another in a higher PQS is filled, electrons (e.g. in 3d) are from an orbital that is closer
to the nucleus than in 4s, hence they repel 4s electrons and cause 4s electrons to be at a higher energy level
compared to 3d. Thus, 4s electrons are removed BEFORE 3d electrons.

Hence subsequent I. of protons (nuclear charge) . Hence I. State I. However. Although the valence electrons of A experience greater nuclear charge 2. An electron from this orbital is more easily removed compared to an electron in a singly–filled orbital and hence requires less energy for ionisation.E. and hence a lower IE as less energy is required to remove the electron.Ionisation energies   First ionisation energy: energy required to remove 1 mol of electrons from 1 mol of gaseous atoms in the ground state to form 1 mole of gaseous singly-charged cations Second ionisation energy: energy required to remove 1 mol of electrons from 1 mol of gaseous singly-charged cations to form 1 mol of gaseous doubly-charged cations Factors affecting ionisation energy (model answers) Effective nuclear charge  No. 4. State I. effective nuclear charge experienced by valence electrons in A is higher than that of B resulting in stronger electrostatic forces of attraction between the nucleus and the valence electrons in A compared to B. Thus more energy is required to remove the nth electron. they experience approximately the same shielding by the inner shells as they are both found in the same Principal Quantum Shell. This results in the valence electrons of A experiencing weaker attractive force.E. They are found in a higher Principal Quantum Shell which is further away from the nucleus 3. . 2. Inter-electronic repulsion between electrons in same orbital  Only applies to elements with ns2 np4 and ns2 np3 configuration 1. 5.E. This indicates that the nth electron to be removed comes from an inner Principal Quantum Shell which has lower energy and is closer to the nucleus. 3. 2. 3. State I. Thus.E. There is a large jump/increase between the (n-1)th and nth ionisation energy. of ___ Orbital electron is removed from  Only applies to elements with ns2np1 and ns2 configuration 1. of elements 2. of B is lower than A. there is an increase in net attractive force and more energy is required to remove the next electron. An electron in a 2p subshell is at a higher energy level (further away from the nucleus) than an electron in a 2s subshell. electron to be removed is found in a 2s orbital while in B. the first ionisation energy of A is higher than that of B. The energy required to remove (n+1)th electron of A is larger than that to remove nth electron as nuclear charge remains the same but inter-electronic repulsion decreases with a decreasing number of electrons in the species. of ___ is lower than I. Distance between valence electron and nucleus 1.E.s will increase.E. Hence.number of inner core electrons  Increases across a period. of elements 2. 4. Charge of cation 1. thus I. A has a larger number of protons than B and hence higher nuclear charge. Hence X has (n-1) valence electrons and belongs to Group (n-1). of elements 2. Deducing group 1. In A. the electron to be removed is found in a 2p orbital. 3. decreases down a group 1. the 2 paired electrons in the same orbital experience inter-electronic repulsion.E. In a p4 configuration. As a result. Hence the 2p electron is easier to be removed than the 2s electron.