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LOCAL COMPLICATIONS

OF INTRAVENOUS
THERAPY

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LOCAL COMPLICATIONS OF INTRAVENOUS THERAPY .

INFILTRATION .occur when fluid infuses into the tissues surrounding the venipuncture site. Possible cause: • when the tip of the catheter slips out of the vein • improper placement of catheter • the catheter passes through the wall of the vein • the blood vessel wall allows part of the fluid to infuse into the surrounding tissue because of thin and fragile veins .

redness surrounding insertion site • edema in any direction from the insertion site • changes in skin temp – cool / warm INFILTRATION .Signs and Symptoms: • changes n skin color – blanching. bruising.

. hand or entre extremity •Numbness.INFILTRATION Signs and Symptoms: • pain. burning or stinging with injection or infusion • impaired ability to move fingers. tingling and other signs of paresthesia n the extremity •Slowed capillary refill.

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COLD COMPRESS • If infiltration is small. However.INTERVENTIONS: • Stop the infusion and remove the device • Elevate the limb to increase patient comfort. Generally speaking. Applied for 15-30 minutes on/off intervals depending on agency policy. INFILTRATION . sloughing can occur from the application of a warm compress to an area infiltrated with certain medications such as potassium chloride. if the infiltration solution was isotonic. a warm compress is used to alleviate discomfort and help absorb the infiltration by increasing circulation to the affected area. intermittent application of ice pack may relieve swelling and discomfort. a cold compress is recommended. In certain situations. • If the infiltration is severe. severe you may consider the application of a compress in addition to elevating the affected limb.

and even amputation. loss of function. resulting in delayed healing.EXTRAVASATION . tissue necrosis. infection. . disfigurement.The inadvertent administration of a vesicant solution and medication such as antineoplastics into the surrounding tissue that can cause severe local tissue damage.

• Estimate the amount of extravasated solution and notify the health care provider. unless the catheter should remain in place to administer the antidote. • Elevate the extremity. .INTERVENTONS •Stop infusion immediately and remove the I. • Administer pan relief if required. line.V.

that’s associated with acidic or alkaline solutions or those that have a high osmolarity.inflammation of a vein. .PHLEBITIS . Other factors include: •vein trauma during insertion •using a vein that’s too small •using a vascular access device that’s too large •prolonged use of the same I. site.V.

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Signs and symptoms: • pain/tenderness at site •Erythema •Warmth •Swelling •Induration •Purulent drainage •Palpable venous cord •Elevated temperature .

dilute drugs correctly. •Select a large vein when irritating drugs and fluids are given.Steps to prevent phlebitis: •Use proper venipuncture technique. •Adhere to aseptic technique with all infusion access and medication administration. .V. site frequently. •Observe the I. •Monitor administration rates. •Change the infusion site regularly every 48 to 72 hours or according to your agency’s policy. •If necessary.