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I.

Tch phn suy rng loi mt


Bi ton

Tm din tch S min v hn gii hn bi ng cong:


y f ( x) 0, trc honh, ng thng x = a.

s f ( x)dx lim f ( x)dx


b

Tch phn suy rng loi mt


y f ( x) kh tch trn on

Tch phn

a, b, vi mi b a
b

f
(
x
)
dx
f ( x)dx blim

c gi l tch phn suy rng loi mt.


Cc tch phn sau cng l tch phn suy rng loi mt
a

f
(
x
)
dx
f ( x)dx blim

f ( x)dx f ( x)dx f ( x)dx

f
(
x
)
dx
f ( x)dx blim

Nu gii hn tn ti v hu hn th tch phn gi l hi t.


Ngc li, nu gii hn khng tn ti hoc bng v
cng, th tch phn gi l phn k.
Hai vn i vi tch phn suy rng
1) Tnh tch phn suy rng (thng rt phc tp)
2) Kho st s hi t.

Tnh tch phn suy rng (cng thc Newton Leibnitz)


Gi s F(x) l nguyn hm ca f(x) trn a,

lim F (b) F (a)


f
(
x
)
dx
f ( x)dx blim

Tch phn tn ti khi v ch khi tn ti lim F (b) : F ()


b

f ( x)dx F ( x)

F () F (a)
a

V d

Tnh din tch min phng gii hn bi

1
y 2 , trc honh v ng thng x = 1.
x
b

b
1
dx
dx

S 2 lim 2 lim

lim

b
b
x
1 x
1 x
x
b

Din tch ca min S


bng 1, hu hn.

V d

Tnh din tch min phng gii hn bi

1
, trc honh v ng thng x = 1.
y
x

b
b
dx
dx
blim
ln
|
x
|

lim
ln
b

lim
S

b
b
x
x
1
1

S l min c din tch


v hn, bng

Tnh din tch min phng gii hn bi

V d

1
y 2 , trc honh.
x 1

dx
dx
b
S 2
2 2
2 blim
arctan
x

x 1
0 x 1

Din tch ca min S


bng .

V d

Tnh tch phn

2 x

dx

2 x

dx

V d

2 x

e e2
1

2
2 2e
2

Tnh tch phn

dx

2
x ln x

dx
2
x ln x

d (ln x)
1
1
1

1.
2

ln x
ln x e
ln() ln e

V d

Tnh tch phn

dx
2
x 5x 6

1
1
1
1

2
x 5 x 6 ( x 2)( x 3)
x 3 x 2

1
I

dx ln | x 3 | 4 ln | x 2 | 4
x2
4 x 3
() () Dng v nh.?

Khng c php dng: lim ( f g ) lim f lim g


x

khi cha m bo hai gii hn v phi chc chn tn ti.

x 3
x 3
I ln
lim ln
x 2 4 x x 2

43
1
ln 4 2 ln1 ln 2 ln 2

V d

Tnh

1
1
5 1
10
x
x

I
1

dt
t t 1
2

ln t 1/ 2

x 1 x5 x10

1
1
i bin: t 5 dt 6 dx
x
x

dx

dx

i cn:

x 1 t 1
x t 0

dt

t 1/ 2

t 1/ 2

3/ 4
1

3/ 4
0

V d

Tnh

e2 x cos xdx

ue

t
I e

2 x

sin x

du 2e

lim e

Ta c

ue

2 x

2 x

2 e

I 2 e

dx

2 x

dv cos xdx v sin x

sin xdx

sin x 0 nn I 2 e 2 x sin xdx


0

du 2e
2 x

2 x

2 x

cos x

2 x

dx dv sin xdx v cos x

4 e
0

2 x

2
cos xdx 2 4I I
5

V d

Tnh I

arctan x

1 x

2 3/ 2

dx

dx
i bin: t arctan x dt
2
1 x
i cn: x 0 t 0 x t

1
x tan t 1 x
2
cos t
2

arctan x

1 x

2 3/ 2

dx

/2
dx

t cos tdt 1
2
2 1 x
2
1 x
0

arctan x

Kt qu (c s dng kho st s hi t)
Trng hp 1:

1
1
1
1
1 hu hn, khc 0.
1
1
dx
1 x a 1 a
a 0 x
tch phn hi t.
Trng hp 2: 1

1
x
Tch phn phn k.
dx
1 a
a 0 x
Trng hp 3:

dx ln | x | a
a 0 x

Tch phn phn k.

Kt qu (c s dng kho st s hi t)

hoi tu, neu 1


1
dx
a 0 x
phan ky, neu 1

Neu 1, th I hoi tu.

1
I dx
2 x ln x

Neu 1, th I phan ky.


Neu 1, 1, th I hoi tu.
Neu 1, 1, th I PK.

Tch phn hm khng m


Tiu chun so snh 1.

x a f ( x) 0, g ( x) 0 v kh tch trn a,
f ( x) g ( x) ln cn ca . Khi :

1) Nu

g ( x)dx

hi t, th

2) Nu

f ( x)dx hi t.

f ( x)dx

phn k, th

g ( x)dx

phn k.

khst s hi t ca I

vi

dx
bit kt qu.

f ( x)dx, thng em so snh

Ch (trong tiu chun 1):


1) f(x) v g(x) l hai hm khng m.

2) Ch cn tn ti a x , f ( x) g ( x)

3) Cn di ca tch phn

V d

dx
l
s
dng
(
)
a

0.
x

Kho st s hi t I

dx
2
2
2 x sin 3 x

1
1
Ta c f ( x) 2
2 g ( x)
2
2 x sin 3x 2 x

dx
2 x2

hi t , nn I hi t theo tchun so snh 1.

Kho st s hi t

V d

dx
2
2
x sin 3 x

1
2
Ta c f ( x) 2
2 g ( x)
2
x sin 3x x

dx
V 2 hi t , nn I hi t theo tchun so snh 1.
1 x

Kho st s hi t

V d

ln 3 xdx
x5

Ta c

dx
2x

ln x
1
1
f ( x)

g ( x) x 5
x 5 x 5 2x

phn k , nn I phn k theo tchun ssnh 1.

Tch phn hm khng m


Tiu chun so snh 2.

x a f ( x) 0, g ( x) 0 v kh tch trn a,
f ( x)
K xlim
Khi :

g ( x)

1) K 0 : nu

g ( x)dx
a

2) K hu han, 0 :

hi t, th

f ( x)dx hi t.

f ( x)dx v

g ( x)dx cng HT hoc cng PK.


a

3) K : nu

f ( x)dx hi t, th

g ( x)dx
a

hi t.

Cch s dng tiu chun so snh 2.

kho st s hi t ca

f ( x)dx

1) kim tra f(x) c l hm khng m (trong ln


cn ca )
2) Tm hm g(x) bng cch: tm hm tng
ng ca f(x) khi x tin ra dng v cng.

f ( x)
3) Tnh K lim
, kt lun.
x
g ( x)
Hai hm f(x) v g(x) khng m: nu f ( x)

f ( x)dx va

g ( x)dx
a

cng tnh cht.

g ( x) , th

Hi t tuyt i

nh l

Nu f ( x) dx hi t, th
a

f ( x)dx hi t.

nh ngha

Nu f ( x) dx hi t, th
a

f ( x)dx gi l hi t tuyt i

Nu hm f(x) c du ty , kho st s hi t ca

f ( x)dx

kst s HT ca
tch phn hm
khng m

f ( x) dx

s dng
c hai tiu
chun so snh

V d

Kho st s hi t

1
Ta c f ( x)
5 x ln x

f ( x) 1

Khi : lim
x g ( x )
5

Tch phn

1
1/ 2
5x

dx
5 x ln x

1
Chn g ( x) 1/ 2
x

hu hn, khc 0.

f ( x)dx v

g ( x)dx cng hi t hay phn k.


1

1
g ( x)dx phn k ( 1 ), nn tch phn I phn k.
2

V d

Kho st s hi t

3xdx
3
2 x sin 3x

x 3 x
3x
3
Ta c f ( x) 3
2
3
2 x sin 3x
2x
2x

f ( x) 1
1

Chn g ( x) 2 lim
x g ( x )
x
5

Tch phn

hu hn, khc 0.

f ( x)dx v

g ( x)dx cng hi t hay phn k.


1

g ( x)dx hi t ( 2 1 ), nn tch phn I hi t.


1

V d

Kho st s hi t

Ta c

arctan x x

f ( x) 2
2
2
2 x 2ln x
2 2x
4x

1
Chn g ( x) 2
x

f ( x)
lim

x g ( x )
4

Tch phn

arctan xdx
2
2 x 2ln x

hu hn, khc 0.

f ( x)dx v

g ( x)dx cng hi t hay phn k.


1

g ( x)dx hi t ( 2 1 ), nn tch phn I hi t.


1

Kho st s hi t I

V d

dx
(3x 1) x 1

x
1
1
1
Ta c f ( x)
3/ 2 Chn g ( x ) 3/ 2
3x
(3x 1) x 1
x

f ( x) 1
lim

x g ( x )
3

Khi :

Tch phn
V J

hu hn, khc 0.

f ( x)dx v

g ( x)dx cng hi t hay phn k.


0

3
g ( x)dx hi t ( 1 ), nn tch phn I hi t.
2

Sai! v J phn k (xem phn tch phn suy rng loi hai)

V d

Kho st s hi t I

dx
(3x 1) x 1

dx

Cch gii ng! I


0 (3 x 1) x 1

dx
I1 I 2
(3x 1) x 1

I1 l tch phn xc nh nn hi t. Xt tch phn I2


x
1
1
1
Ta c f ( x)
3/ 2 Chn g ( x ) 3/ 2
3x
(3x 1) x 1
x
f ( x) 1
hu hn, khc 0.

Khi : lim
x g ( x )
3

Tch phn

f ( x)dx v

g ( x)dx
1

g ( x)dx cng hi t hay phn k.


1

3
HT ( 1), nn I1 HT, suy ra I HT.
2

Kho st s hi t

V d

x2

dx

x 1 f ( x) e

dx e

x2

g ( x)

1

e

g ( x)dx

HT

Tch phn cho hi t theo tiu chun so snh 1.

V d

1
1/ x2
Kho st s hi t I e cos dx
x
1
1/ x 2

f ( x) e

1
cos
x

1
1
3
2 2 I HT
2
x
2x
2x

V d

Kho st s hi t I

e
dx
x

1 1
Ta c: x 1 e x x
e
x
1
1
f ( x) x 2 g ( x) Tch phn cho hi t.
xe
x
x

V d

Kho st s hi t I

f ( x)

x x 1
x3 3x 1
3

3/ 2

x x 1
dx
3
x 3x 1
3

x
1
3/ 2 Tch phn hi t.
3
x
x

Kho st s hi t I

V d

arctan x
dx
x
2e

arctan x x
f ( x)
g ( x)
x
x
2e
2e

Tnh

e
0

V d

dx e

x
0

1 HT, nn tch phn cho HT.

Kho st s hi t I

2arctan x
dx
3/ x
e 1
3

2 / 2 arctan 3 x
3
3
2arctan x
2
/
x
2
x

3/ x
2
3/ x
e 1
3/ x 3 x
e 1

HT

V d

Chng minh tch phn hi t v tnh

f ( x)

1
x 1 x

1
x2

dx
x 1 x

2 1 nn tch phn I hi t.

t 1 x t x 1 2tdt 2 xdx
2

t 1
1
I

ln

ln1

ln

ln
3
2
2
2
1 x
2 t t 1
t 1 2
3 x
3

xdx

tdt

Chng minh tch


phn hi t v tnh

V d

f ( x)

x 1 x
4

11/ 2

80

dx
x x 1
4

3
1 nn I hi t.
2

1
x

3/ 2

t 1 x t x 1 4t dt 2 xdx
I

80

xdx
x 1 x
2

t 1
ln
t 1

t
9

2t dt

dt

2
t 1

dt
2
t 1

arctan t 9 ln arctan 9
10 2

V d Chng minh tch phn phn k v tnh gii hn

e
dx
x
x

e
1
x 1 f ( x) g ( x)
x x

e
t dt
1
lim
x
x
e
x

g ( x)dx
1

FK nn I phn k.

Gii hn c dng v nh
, dng qui tc Lpital
'
x t
x t
e
e
dt
dt

x
t
1 t
e
1

1
lim

lim

lim

lim

0
'
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
e
x

e
x
e

V d

Kho st s hi t

sin xdx
2
x ln 2 x

x 1
1
sin x
2
f ( x) 2
g ( x)
2
x ln 2 x x ln 2 x
x

Hi t.

Sai! v f(x) c du ty , khng s dng so snh c.


Xt tch phn hm khng m J

sin x
dx
2
x ln 2 x

x 1
sin x
1
f ( x) 2
2
g ( x) Hi t.
2
x ln 2 x x ln 2 x
x

Tch phn cho hi t tuyt i.

V d

Kho st s hi t

Tch phn tng phn:

1
1
u du 2 dx
x
x
dv sin xdx v cos x

sin x
cos x
dx

x
x 1

Xt tch phn J

sin xdx
x

cos x
cos1
dx
J
2
x
1

cos x
dx
2
x

J hi t, suy ra I hi t.

cos x 1
2 hi t
2
x
x

Kho st s hi t

V d

Xt tch phn hm khng m J

sin xdx
x

sin x
dx
x

sin x sin x 1 cos 2 x

x
x
2x

1 cos 2 x
dx
cos 2 x
2 x dx 2 x 2 x dx I1 I 2
1
1
1
2

I1

dx
phn k
2x

I2

cos 2 xdx
2x

hi t (tng
t v d trc)

Tch phn cho hi t, nhng khng hi t tuyt i

Ch :
1) Vi tch phn ch c mt im suy rng

f ( x)dx khi tch ra c dng v nh G( x) a H ( x) a


a
vn cha kt lun t/phn ban u phn k.

2) Vi tch phn c hai im suy rng

f ( x)dx khi tch ra thnh tch phn f ( x)dx

f ( x)dx

ch cn mt trong hai tphn PK, th tphn ban u PK.

I. Tch phn suy rng loi hai

nh ngha

im x0 c gi l im k d ca ng cong y = f(x),
nu lim f ( x)
x x0

Gi s trn on [a,b] hm y = f(x) c mt im k d duy

nht l x0 = b.
b

t b a

f ( x)dx : lim f ( x)dx

Tch phn suy rng


loi hai ca f(x)
trn on [a,b]

I. Tch phn suy rng loi hai


Gi s trn on [a,b] hm y = f(x) c mt im k d duy

nht l x0 = a.
Tch phn suy rng
loi hai ca f(x) trn
on [a,b]
b

t a t

f ( x)dx : lim f ( x)dx

I. Tch phn suy rng loi hai


Gi s trn on [a,b] hm y = f(x) c mt im k d duy

nht l c a, b
Tch phn suy rng loi
hai ca f(x) trn on [a,b]
b

f ( x)dx f ( x)dx f ( x)dx


t

t c a

t c t

lim f ( x)dx lim f ( x)dx

Tch phn v tri l hi t khi v ch khi c hai tch phn


v phi hi t.

I. Tch phn suy rng loi hai

Cc khi nim hi t, phn k ging nh trong tch phn


suy rng loi mt.
Tng t tch phn suy rng loi mt: c hai tiu chun
so snh cho tch phn hm khng m.

Khi nim hi t tuyt i cng tng t trong tch phn


suy rng loi mt: Hi t tuyt i th hi t.

Tnh tch phn suy rng (cng thc Newton Leibnitz)


Cho x0 = b l im k d duy nht ca f(x) trn [a,b]
Gi s F(x) l nguyn hm ca f(x) trn
b

f ( x)dx
f ( x)dx lim

t b

a, b

lim F (t ) F (a)
t b

Tch phn tn ti khi v ch khi tn ti lim F (t ) : F (b )


t b

f ( x)dx F ( x)
a

F (b ) F (a)
a

Tng t cho trng hp x0 = a l im k d.

V d

Tnh tch phn

I
2

dx
x2

Theo nh ngha
4

I
2

4 d ( x 2)
dx
lim
1/ 2
t

2
x2
t x 2

lim 2 x 2 2 2 lim 2 t 2 2 2
t 2

t 2

Theo cng thc Newton Leibnitz (gn hn)


4

I
2

dx
4
2 x2 2
2
x2

42 22 2 2

V d

dx
I
0 x 1

Tch phn
3

dx
3
ln | x 1| 0 ln 2 ln1 ln 2
I
0 x 1

Sai! v c im k d x = 1 trong on [0,3].


1

dx
dx
I1 I 2
I

0 x 1
1 x 1
1

dx
Xt tch phn I1 lim
lim ln | t 1|
t 1
t 1 0 x 1
Vy tch phn I1 phn k.

Suy ra tch phn cho phn k

dx
Tnh tch phn I
0 (2 x ) 1 x

V d

1 x t 1 x t dx 2tdt

i cn: x 0 t 1 x 1 t 0
0 2tdt
1 2dt
dx
I

2
2
1 1 t
t
01 t
0 (2 x ) 1 x
1

I 2arctan t 0 2 arctan1 arctan 0


1

Tch phn hm khng m


Tiu chun so snh 1.
Trng hp x0 = b l im k d duy nht.

x a f ( x) 0, g ( x) 0 v kh tch trn a, b
f ( x) g ( x) ln cn ca tri ca b. Khi :
b

1) Nu

g ( x)dx
a

2) Nu

hi t, th

f ( x)dx
a

f ( x)dx
a

hi t.

phn k, th

g ( x)dx

phn k.

Tng t cho trng hp x0 = a l im k d duy nht.

Tch phn hm khng m


Tiu chun so snh 2. (x0 = b l im k d duy nht)

x a f ( x) 0, g ( x) 0 v kh tch trn a, b
f ( x)
K lim
Khi :
x b g ( x )
b

1) K 0 : nu

g ( x)dx

hi t, th

2) K hu han, 0 :

f ( x)dx hi t.

f ( x)dx v

g ( x)dx

cng HT hoc cng PK.

a
b

3) K : nu

f ( x)dx
a

hi t, th

g ( x)dx
a

hi t.

Kt qu (c s dng kho st s hi t)

phan ky, neu 1


1

dx
a x a
hoi tu, neu 1
b

phan ky, neu 1


1

dx
a b x
hoi tu, neu 1
b

Ch : Kt lun ngc li so vi tch phn loi mt!

V d

Kho st s hi t

1
Ta c f ( x)
( x 1)( x 1)

Chn g ( x)

x 1

1/ 2

Tch phn

f ( x)dx
1

x 1

dx
x2 1
1

2 x 1

1/ 2

f ( x)
1
lim

x g ( x )
2

hu hn,
khc 0.

g ( x)dx

cng hi t hay phn k.

1
V g ( x)dx hi t ( 1), nn tch phn I hi t.
2
1

V d

f ( x)

ln 1 5 x3 dx

ex 1

Kho st s hi t I

ln 1 x
5

x 0

e 1
x

1
x3/ 5
1
hi t v 1

2/5
2
x
( x 0)
3

V d

Kho st s hi t

I
0

f ( x)

2x

3 x (3 x)

x 3

18
( x 3)1/ 2

2 x dx
9 x

1
hi t v 1
2

5 x3 x
I
dx
0 tan x x
1

V d

Kho st s hi t

3
x3
x
3
tan x x x ( x ) x ( x3 )
3
3

5x x
tan x x
3

x 0

x1/ 2
3

3
5/ 2
x / 3 ( x 0)

5
phn k v 1
2
4

V d

Kho st s hi t

I
0

f ( x)

1
x 2

x4
x 2

x 4

4
1
( x 4)

dx
x 2

phn k v 1

Kho st s hi t

V d

sin xdx
I

2
x
0
2

sin x
lim 2 1
x 0
x

sin xdx
2
x

sin xdx
I1 I 2
2
x

I1 khng l tch phn suy rng


m l tch phn xc nh nn HT

Ta c

sin x 1
2 g ( x)
2
x
x

g ( x)dx
1

HT , nn I1 HT, suy ra I HT.

I. Tnh cc tch phn sau

1
1)
dx
3 ( x 1)( x 2)

1
2)
dx
2 ( x 1)( x 2)( x 3)

2
ln 2
3
1
2
ln 5 ln 2
4
3

(5 x 3)
3)
dx
2
3 ( x 2)(3 x 2 x 1)

11
1
ln 2 ln 3
5
5

( x 1)
4)
dx
3
2 x ( x 1)

1 ln 2

5)

dx

x 1

( x 1)

3
17
ln 2
16
128

1
6) 2
dx
0 x x2

x3
7)
dx
2
1 x ( x x 1)

8)

x 1
6

dx

dx
9)
2
0 4x 4x 5

dx
10) x x
0 e e

2 7
arctan 7
7
3
3
ln 3
2
18

6
arctan 2
4

11)

1
e e
x

dx

1
12)
dx
2
1 x (ln x 1)

2 2ln 2

1
13)
dx
2
0 cosh ( x )

14) xe

2 x

dx

dx
15)
6
1 x ( x 3)

1
1
4
ln 2
9

dx
16) 4 x
1
0 e

2
17) x
dx
0 4 1

18)

dx

ex 1

dx

19)

x2 x2 1

dx
20)
1 sinh x

ln 2
4

4ln 2

1
e 1
ln

e 1

dx

1
2
3e

dx
22)
2
e x ln x

21) e

3 x

xdx
23) x
0 2

dx
24)
1 (1 x ) x

xdx
25) 3
2 x 1

1
2
ln 2

2
ln 7 1
5

arctan

6
3 2
3

26)

dx

27) e

x 1 x
2

2 x

cos3 xdx

dx
28) 2
3
( x x 1)

dx

(4 x 1) x 1

29)

30)

x 12
2

x2 1

dx

2
3
3
13

4
3 3

3
9
13
4

31)

dx

2 x 3

dx
32)
3/ 2
(
x

3)
2

2 x3

33) x e

dx

ln xdx
34)
3
x
1

35)

x 1

dx

1
10
2 5
5

1
3
1
4
1
64

36)

2 3 x x3 dx
5

37)

1 (4

x) 1 x

2 (1

x ) 4 x
2

dx
39)
1 x x 1
2

dx

x x 1

40)

15

x 4 dx

38)

x
dx

625
187

5
5

I. Tm tt c cc gi tr chui hi t
e3/ x 1
1) ln 1
dx, 0

1

arctan 3x
2)
dx

0 (2 x)

1
3) 2
dx

1 x 2x

x
4) x dx
1 e x

1
5)
dx

1 x 2x

khng tn ti

ln 1 x

6)

7)

dx
dx

x 4 ln(1 x 2 ) x5

( x3 1)

8)

x 7 x5 1

9)

dx

dx

x3 sin x x
x

e 1 x
10)
dx
0 cosh x cos x
1

3
1

5
5

2
1